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Caregiver experiences of paediatric inpatient cardiac services: A qualitative systematic review.

Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs 2021 Apr;20(2):147-159

Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, UK.

Background: Advances in paediatric care have contributed to an increasing survival of children with complex heart disease. Yet, life-saving management demands prolonged inpatient admissions, which contribute to emotional and psychological distress for parents and other caregivers in a role of main custody.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to identify, appraise and synthesise qualitative studies exploring caregivers' experiences of paediatric inpatient cardiac services, generating an understanding of their needs in hospital and informing priorities for change in healthcare delivery. Read More

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Elastic and viscoelastic flexural wave motion in woodpecker-beak-inspired structures.

Bioinspir Biomim 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560 012, Bangalore, 560012, INDIA.

This paper comprehensively investigates elastic and viscoelastic flexural wave propagation in structures that are inspired from the unique suture configurations present in woodpecker beak in order to understand their ability to attenuate velocity amplitudes and wave speeds. Waveguides characterised by sinusoidal depth variations, both plain and variously graded along the length, mimicking the suture geometry are considered in this work. Elastic and viscoelastic wave propagation analyses, along with the prior static and free vibration studies, are carried out using novel superconvergent finite element formulation. Read More

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Analysis of Populus glycosyl hydrolase family I members and their potential role in the ABA treatment and drought stress response.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr 5;163:178-188. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510520, China. Electronic address:

Glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) β-glucosidases (BGLUs) are encoded by a large number of genes and are involved in many developmental processes and stress responses in plants. Due to their importance in plant growth and development, genome-wide analyses have been conducted in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana, rice and maize but not in woody plant species, which have important economic and ecological value. In this study, we systematically analyzed Populus BGLUs (PtBGLUs) and demonstrated the involvement of several genes under stress conditions. Read More

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Role of NLRP3 inflammasome in COVID-19 and periodontitis: Possible protective effect of melatonin.

Med Hypotheses 2021 Mar 30;151:110588. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Near East University, Nicosia 99138, Cyprus; Animal Hospital, Diagnostic Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Near East University, Nicosia 99138, Cyprus.

Daily new information emerges regarding the COVID-19, infection of SARS-CoV-2, which is considered a global pandemic. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) are required to complete the viral invasion pathway and are present in the oral mucosa, gingiva and periodontal pocket. Thus, increasing the likelihood of periodontitis and gingivitis caused by COVID-19. Read More

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Effectiveness of patient-targeted interventions to inform decision making and improve uptake of colorectal cancer genetic evaluation for at-risk individuals: A systematic review.

Int J Nurs Stud 2021 Mar 20;118:103928. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Basic Nursing Department, School of Nursing, Jilin University, 965 Xinjiang Street, Changchun, Jilin 130021, China. Electronic address:

Background: Inherited colorectal cancer syndromes increase the risk of contracting colorectal and other cancers. International guidelines recommend the identification of individuals with hereditary colorectal cancer and the supervision of asymptomatic individuals with a family history. However, detection of hereditary colorectal cancer is suboptimal. Read More

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Will curcumin nanosystems be the next promising antiviral alternatives in COVID-19 treatment trials?

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Apr 6;139:111578. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Graduate Program in Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, Brazil; Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, Brazil; Dispersed Systems Laboratory (LaSiD), Pharmacy Department, UFRN, Natal, Brazil. Electronic address:

The COVID-19 has become of striking interest since the number of deaths is constantly rising all over the globe, and the search for an efficient treatment is more urgent. In light of this worrisome scenario, this opinion review aimed to discuss the current knowledge about the potential role of curcumin and its nanostructured systems on the SARS-CoV-2 targets. From this perspective, this work demonstrated that curcumin urges as a potential antiviral key for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 based on its relation to the infection pathways. Read More

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Protective effect of adult children's education on parental survival in China: Gender differences and underlying mechanisms.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Apr 3;277:113908. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

School of Labor and Human Resources, Renmin University of China, China. Electronic address:

This study investigates whether adult children's education has a protective effect on parental survival, using data from all waves (2010-2018) of the China Family Panel Studies. We exploited the exogenous temporal and geographical variations in the enforcement of the 1986 compulsory schooling laws in China to construct an instrumental variable (IV) for adult children's education. The IV estimates indicated that the law-induced higher education of adult children led to sizeable improvements in the likelihood of paternal survival, although it had no significant effect on maternal survival. Read More

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Give yourself a hand: The role of gesture and working memory in preschoolers' numerical knowledge.

J Exp Child Psychol 2021 Apr 10;208:105145. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Human Development and Quantitative Methodology, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

Hand gestures can be beneficial in math contexts to reduce the user's cognitive load by supporting domain-general abilities such as working memory. Although prior work has shown a strong relation between young children's early math performance and their general cognitive abilities, it is important to consider how children's working memory ability may relate to their use of spontaneous gesture as well as their math-specific abilities. The current study examined how preschool-aged children's gesture use and working memory relate to their performance on an age-appropriate math task. Read More

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LncRNA ZFAS1 plays a role in regulating the inflammatory responses in sepsis-induced acute lung injury via mediating miR-193a-3p.

Authors:
Yan Jiang Wei Zhang

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Apr 10:104860. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Yantaishan Hospital, Yantai 264001, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To explore the role of lncRNA ZFAS1-mediated miR-193a-3p in the regulation of inflammatory responses in rats with sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI).

Methods: Sepsis-induced ALI models were constructed by LPS induction and then injected with ZFAS1 overexpression plasmid. Thereafter, lung injury score and the W/D weight ratio were calculated. Read More

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Repression of the AURKA-CXCL5 axis induces autophagic cell death and promotes radiosensitivity in non-small-cell lung cancer.

Cancer Lett 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China. Electronic address:

Aurora inase A (AURKA) regulates apoptosis and autophagy in various diseases and has shown promising clinical effects. Nevertheless, the complex regulatory mechanism of AURKA and autophagy in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) radiosensitivity remains to be elucidated. Here, we showed that AURKA was upregulated in NSCLC cell lines and tissues and that AURKA overexpression was significantly related to a poor prognosis, tumor stage and lymph node metastasis in NSCLC. Read More

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Calmodulin-Binding Protein 60b is a central transcriptional activator of immunity.

Plant Physiol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Life Sciences, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, 271018, China.

Plants use a dual defense system to cope with microbial pathogens. The first involves pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) which is conferred by membrane receptors, and the second involves effector-triggered immunity (ETI), which is conferred by disease-resistance proteins (nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat containing proteins; NLRs). Calmodulin-Binding Protein 60 (CBP60) family transcription factors are crucial for pathogen defense: CBP60g and Systemic Acquired Resistance Deficient 1 (SARD1) positively regulate immunity, whereas CBP60a negatively regulates immunity. Read More

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Coordinated changes in the expression of Wnt pathway genes following human and rat peripheral nerve injury.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(4):e0249748. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Laboratory for Neuroregeneration, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, An Institute of the Royal Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

A human neuroma-in continuity (NIC), formed following a peripheral nerve lesion, impedes functional recovery. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the formation of a NIC are poorly understood. Here we show that the expression of multiple genes of the Wnt family, including Wnt5a, is changed in NIC tissue from patients that underwent reconstructive surgery. Read More

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Bcl-xL Dynamics under the Lens of Protein Structure Networks.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Computational Biology Laboratory, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Understanding the finely orchestrated interactions leading to or preventing programmed cell death (apoptosis) is of utmost importance in cancer research because the failure of these systems could eventually lead to the onset of the disease. In this regard, the maintenance of a delicate balance between the promoters and inhibitors of mitochondrial apoptosis is crucial, as demonstrated by the interplay among the Bcl-2 family members. In particular, B-cell lymphoma extra-large (Bcl-x) is a target of interest due to the forefront role of its dysfunctions in cancer development. Read More

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Enhancement degree of brain metastases: correlation analysis between enhanced T2 FLAIR and vascular permeability parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Objectives: To investigate the correlation between enhancement degrees of brain metastases on contrast-enhanced T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (CE-T2 FLAIR) and vascular permeability parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI).

Methods: Thirty-nine patients with brain metastases were prospectively collected. They underwent non-enhanced T2 FLAIR, DCE-MRI, CE-T2 FLAIR, and contrast-enhanced three-dimensional brain volume imaging (CE-BRAVO). Read More

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In vitro interactions of Alternaria mycotoxins, an emerging class of food contaminants, with the gut microbiota: a bidirectional relationship.

Arch Toxicol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, University of Vienna, Währinger Str. 38, 1090, Wien, Austria.

The human gut microbiota plays an important role in the maintenance of human health. Factors able to modify its composition might predispose the host to the development of pathologies. Among the various xenobiotics introduced through the diet, Alternaria mycotoxins are speculated to represent a threat for human health. Read More

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Screening for Vitamin D Deficiency in Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

JAMA 2021 Apr;325(14):1436-1442

Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that performs an important role in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism and also affects many other cellular regulatory functions outside the skeletal system. Vitamin D requirements may vary by individual; thus, no one serum vitamin D level cutpoint defines deficiency, and no consensus exists regarding the precise serum levels of vitamin D that represent optimal health or sufficiency.

Objective: To update its 2014 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review on screening for vitamin D deficiency, including the benefits and harms of screening and early treatment. Read More

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Cryptic Diversity in the Terminal Portion of the Chromosomes of the Dogtooth Characins, Family Cynodontidae (Ostariophysi: Characiformes).

Zebrafish 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institute for Natural and Life Sciences, Federal University of Latin American Integration, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil.

The chromosomes of the dogtooth characins, fish species of the family Cynodontidae, have only a relatively small amount of heterochromatin, including the terminal portion. Curiously, in the cynodontid , the terminal portion is rich in repetitive DNAs, including transposable retroelements and microsatellite sequences. Given this, this study investigated the composition of the terminal portion of the chromosomes of two cynodontid species ( and ), to compile a database for the evaluation of all three cynodontid genera, and in particular, verify the possible tendency for the accumulation of repetitive DNAs in the terminal portion of the chromosomes of , , and The 1, 3, and 6 transposable retroelements and the (CA) (GA), (GATA), (GACA), (CAT), and (CAC) microsatellite motifs are found primarily in the terminal portion of the chromosomes of the species analyzed in this study, except , which has no evidence of the presence of or through the fluorescent hybridization technique. Read More

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Hspa8 and ICAM-1 as damage-induced mediators of γδ T cell activation.

J Leukoc Biol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA.

Tissue-resident γδ T cells form the first line of defense at barrier surfaces where they survey host tissue for signs of stress or damage. Following recognition of injury, γδ T cells play a crucial role in the wound-healing response through the production of growth factors and cytokines that promote proliferation in surrounding epithelial cells. To initiate this response, γδ T cells require interactions with a variety of epithelial-expressed costimulatory molecules in addition to primary signaling through their TCR. Read More

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TRB sequences targeting ORF1a/b are associated with disease severity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

J Leukoc Biol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Immunology, Laboratory Medical Immunology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

The potential protective or pathogenic role of the adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection has been vigorously debated. While COVID-19 patients consistently generate a T lymphocyte response to SARS-CoV-2 antigens, evidence of significant immune dysregulation in these patients continues to accumulate. In this study, next generation sequencing of the T cell receptor beta chain (TRB) repertoire was conducted in hospitalized COVID-19 patients to determine if immunogenetic differences of the TRB repertoire contribute to disease course severity. Read More

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High-Frequency Oscillations in the Pallidum: A Pathophysiological Biomarker in Parkinson's Disease?

Mov Disord 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Abnormal oscillatory neural activity in the beta-frequency band (13-35 Hz) is thought to play a role in Parkinson's disease (PD); however, increasing evidence points to alterations in high-frequency ranges (>100 Hz) also having pathophysiological relevance.

Objectives: Studies have found that power in subthalamic nucleus (STN) high-frequency oscillations is increased with dopaminergic medication and during voluntary movements, implicating these brain rhythms in normal basal ganglia function. The objective of this study was to investigate whether similar signaling occurs in the internal globus pallidus (GPi), a nucleus increasingly used as a target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for PD. Read More

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The role of host cell Rab GTPases in influenza A virus infections.

Future Microbiol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Affiliated People's Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

Influenza A virus (IAV) is a crucial cause of respiratory infections in humans worldwide. Therefore, studies should clarify adaptation mechanisms of IAV and critical factors of the viral pathogenesis in human hosts. GTPases of the Rab family are the largest branch of the Ras-like small GTPase superfamily, and they regulate almost every step during vesicle-mediated trafficking. Read More

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Binge eating attitudes in community adolescent sample and relationships with interview-assessed attachment representations in girls: a multi-center study from North Italy.

Eat Weight Disord 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza dell'Ateneo Nuovo, 1, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: To compare community girls at risk and not at risk for binge eating (BE) in attachment representations through a narrative interview and to test the predictive role of attachment pattern(s) on the risk of binge eating among community girls.

Methods: From 772 community adolescents of both sexes (33% boys) screened through the Binge Eating Scale (BES), 112 girls between 14 and 18 years, 56 placed in a group at risk for binge eating (BEG), and 56 matched peers, not at risk (NBEG), were assessed in attachment representations through the Friends and Family Interview (FFI).

Results: (1) Compared to NBEG, girls in the BEG showed more insecure-preoccupied classifications and scores, together with lower narrative coherence, mother's representation as a secure base/safe haven, reflective functioning, adaptive response, and more anger toward mother. Read More

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KIF4A promotes the development of bladder cancer by transcriptionally activating the expression of CDCA3.

Int J Mol Med 2021 Jun 13;47(6). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital, and College of Clinical Medicine of Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan 471003, P.R. China.

Bladder cancer (BC) is among the most common urinary system tumors with a high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite advancements being made in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer, targeted therapy remains the most promising treatment, and novel therapeutic targets are urgently required in to improve the outcomes of patients with BC. Kinesin family member 4A (KIF4A) is a plus‑end directed motor protein involved in the regulation of multiple cellular processes, such as mitosis and axon growth. Read More

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Schlafen 5 as a novel therapeutic target in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Oncogene 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

We provide evidence that a member of the human Schlafen (SLFN) family of proteins, SLFN5, is overexpressed in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Targeted deletion of SLFN5 results in decreased PDAC cell proliferation and suppresses PDAC tumorigenesis in in vivo PDAC models. Importantly, high expression levels of SLFN5 correlate with worse outcomes in PDAC patients, implicating SLFN5 in the pathophysiology of PDAC that leads to poor outcomes. Read More

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Identification and functional characterization of two bamboo FD gene homologs having contrasting effects on shoot growth and flowering.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7849. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Life Sciences, Presidency University, Kolkata, India.

Bamboos, member of the family Poaceae, represent many interesting features with respect to their fast and extended vegetative growth, unusual, yet divergent flowering time across species, and impact of sudden, large scale flowering on forest ecology. However, not many studies have been conducted at the molecular level to characterize important genes that regulate vegetative and flowering habit in bamboo. In this study, two bamboo FD genes, BtFD1 and BtFD2, which are members of the florigen activation complex (FAC) have been identified by sequence and phylogenetic analyses. Read More

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Fusion and fission events regulate endosome maturation and viral escape.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7845. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Endosomes are intracellular vesicles that mediate the communication of the cell with its extracellular environment. They are an essential part of the cell's machinery regulating intracellular trafficking via the endocytic pathway. Many viruses, which in order to replicate require a host cell, attach themselves to the cellular membrane; an event which usually initiates uptake of a viral particle through the endocytic pathway. Read More

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Coeval primary and diagenetic carbonates in lacustrine sediments challenge palaeoclimate interpretations.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7935. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Geography and Environmental Science, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, UK.

Lakes are sensitive to climate change and their sediments play a pivotal role as environmental recorders. The oxygen and carbon isotope composition (δO and δC) of carbonates from alkaline lakes is featured in numerous studies attempting a quantitative reconstruction of rainfall, temperature and precipitation-evaporation changes. An often-overlooked challenge consists in the mineralogically mixed nature of carbonates themselves. Read More

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Reduced IQGAP2 expression promotes EMT and inhibits apoptosis by modulating the MEK-ERK and p38 signaling in breast cancer irrespective of ER status.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Apr 12;12(4):389. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Biological Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research Bhubaneswar, HBNI, P.O. Jatni, Khurda, Odisha, 752050, India.

IQGAP2, a member of the IQGAP family, functions as a tumor suppressor in most of the cancers. Unlike IQGAP1 and IQGAP3, which function as oncogenes in breast cancer, the role of IQGAP2 is still unexplored. Here we report a reduced expression of IQGAP2, which was associated with lymph node positivity, lymphovascular invasion, and higher age in breast cancer patients. Read More

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Estimating private sector out-of-pocket expenditures on family planning commodities in low-and-middle-income countries.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 Apr;6(4)

Avenir Health, Glastonbury, Connecticut, USA.

Introduction: The role of the private sector in family planning (FP) is well studied; however, few efforts have been made to quantify the role of private out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditures on FP commodities across low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs). Calculating OOP expenditures is important to illuminate the magnitude of these contributions and to inform discussions on how financial burdens can be reduced.

Methods: Estimates of FP users and commodities consumed by women getting their FP methods from the private sector were made for 132 LMICs. Read More

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