7,069 results match your criteria relate current

Re-invent Yourself! How Demands for Innovativeness Reshape Epistemic Practices.

Minerva 2021 Jun 8:1-22. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Science and Technology Studies, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

In the current research landscape, there are increasing demands for research to be innovative and cutting-edge. At the same time, concerns are voiced that as a consequence of neoliberal regimes of research governance, innovative research becomes impeded. In this paper, I suggest that to gain a better understanding of these dynamics, it is indispensable to scrutinise current demands for innovativeness as a distinct way of ascribing worth to research. Read More

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Population matched (pm) germline allelic variants of immunoglobulin (IG) loci: Relevance in infectious diseases and vaccination studies in human populations.

Genes Immun 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department Immunology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Immunoglobulin (IG) loci harbor inter-individual allelic variants in many different germline IG variable, diversity and joining genes of the IG heavy (IGH), kappa (IGK) and lambda (IGL) loci, which together form the genetic basis of the highly diverse antigen-specific B-cell receptors. These allelic variants can be shared between or be specific to human populations. The current immunogenetics resources gather the germline alleles, however, lack the population specificity of the alleles which poses limitations for disease-association studies related to immune responses in different human populations. Read More

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The role of radiation therapy in the management of cutaneous malignancies. Part I: Diagnostic modalities and applications.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Departments of Dermatology and Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer, Houston, Texas, USA.

Radiation therapy offers distinct advantages over other currently available treatments for cutaneous malignancies in certain circumstances. Dermatologists and dermatologic surgeons should be familiar with the radiation therapy techniques available in addition to their value and potential limitations in a variety of clinical scenarios. The first article in this 2-part continuing medical education series highlights the mechanisms, modalities, and applications of the most commonly used radiotherapy treatments as they relate to cutaneous oncology. Read More

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Practice-guided public health philosophy.

Health Promot Int 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Culture and Society, University of Aarhus, Denmark.

Although highly relevant, philosophical theory and philosophical competences are rarely integrated in empirical public health research. We suggest a variant of applied philosophy that is valuable for the development and improvement of public health research. We call it practice-guided public health philosophy because: (i) research questions derive from public health challenges, i. Read More

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Three-Dimensional Modeling and Measurement of the Human Cochlear Hook Region: Considerations for Tonotopic Mapping.

Otol Neurotol 2021 Jul;42(6):e658-e665

School of Biomedical Engineering, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Hypothesis: Measuring the length of the basilar membrane (BM) in the cochlear hook region will result in improved accuracy of cochlear duct length (CDL) measurements.

Background: Cochlear implant pitch mapping is generally performed in a patient independent approach, which has been shown to result in place-pitch mismatches. In order to customize cochlear implant pitch maps, accurate CDL measurements must be obtained. Read More

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Assessing Mothers' Automatic Affective and Discipline Reactions to Child Behavior in Relation to Child Abuse Risk: A Dual-Processing Investigation.

Assessment 2021 Jun 10:10731911211020114. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Given the scope and adverse clinical consequences of child abuse, assessment of salient etiological factors can lend critical insights needed for abuse prevention. Increasingly, dual-processing models have been applied to aggression, which postulate that parallel automatic and conscious processes can evoke aggressive behavior, implicating both affective and cognitive elements in both routes. Using two samples of mothers ( = 110 and = 195), the current investigation considered evidence of the reliability and convergent, concurrent, and construct validity of the new Automatic Parent Emotion Analog Response task relevant to parent-child aggression, contrasted with a self-reported conscious processing measure. Read More

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Increased myofibroblasts in the small airways, and relationship to remodelling and functional changes in smokers and COPD patients: potential role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

ERJ Open Res 2021 Apr 7;7(2). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Respiratory Translational Research Group, Dept of Laboratory Medicine, School of Health Sciences, College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Australia.

Introduction: Previous reports have shown epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as an active process that contributes to small airway fibrotic pathology. Myofibroblasts are highly active pro-fibrotic cells that secrete excessive and altered extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we relate small airway myofibroblast presence with airway remodelling, physiology and EMT activity in smokers and COPD patients. Read More

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Anger, Fear, and Sadness: How Emotions Could Help Us End a Pandemic of Racism.

Behav Anal Pract 2021 Jun 3:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Applied Behavior Analysis Online Department, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Chicago, IL USA.

Racism, recently referred to as another kind of pandemic, affects the health and safety of diverse individuals within the United States and around the world. Emotions are a powerful and integral aspect of the experience of racism; however, within the field of behavior analysis, we have been hesitant to acknowledge emotion or explore how it relates to behavior and behavioral contingencies. As a result, the scope of our understanding of emotion is limited. Read More

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Integrating Somatic and Germline Next-Generation Sequencing Into Routine Clinical Oncology Practice.

JCO Precis Oncol 2021 20;5. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Oncologic Sciences, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is rapidly expanding into routine oncology practice. Genetic variations in both the cancer and inherited genomes are informative for hereditary cancer risk, prognosis, and treatment strategies. Herein, we focus on the clinical perspective of integrating NGS results into patient care to assist with therapeutic decision making. Read More

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Effectiveness of attentional bias modification training as add-on to regular treatment in alcohol and cannabis use disorder: A multicenter randomized control trial.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(6):e0252494. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Attentional bias for substance-relevant cues has been found to contribute to the persistence of addiction. Attentional bias modification (ABM) interventions might, therefore, increase positive treatment outcome and reduce relapse rates. The current study investigated the effectiveness of a newly developed home-delivered, multi-session, internet-based ABM intervention, the Bouncing Image Training Task (BITT), as an add-on to treatment as usual (TAU). Read More

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Emergency department-based efforts to offer medication treatment for opioid use disorder: What can we learn from current approaches?

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 May 15;129:108479. Epub 2021 May 15.

Schneider Institutes for Health Policy, The Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, 415 South St., Waltham, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The opioid epidemic remains a public health crisis and most people with opioid use disorder (OUD) do not receive effective treatment. The emergency department (ED) can be a critical entry point for treatment. EDs are developing and implementing ED-based efforts to address OUD to improve access to OUD treatment. Read More

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Exploring a core psychopathology in disordered eating: the feelings of fat scale.

J Eat Disord 2021 Jun 2;9(1):64. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

School of Psychology, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

Background: Feelings of fat are common for people with eating disorders, but ways of measuring its intensity are needed. Therefore, our goal was to develop a self-report feelings of fat scale that asked participants to indicate how intensely they currently felt statements such as "I feel fat". With such a scale we can determine how strongly feelings of fat relate to evidence of disordered eating. Read More

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African indigenous contraception: A review.

Afr J Reprod Health 2020 Dec;24(4):173-184

Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) Centre, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University, Private Mail Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2790, North West Province, South Africa.

In Africa, indigenous methods of contraception continue to play a significant role in preventing unwanted pregnancies despite the introduction and popularity of modern contraceptives. The current review identified the common techniques and practices of African indigenous contraception, and examined their mechanisms and reasons for use. We searched data bases such as Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Science, EBSCohost, African Journals, Science Direct, textbooks, thesis and dissertations for research articles on African indigenous contraception. Read More

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December 2020

Influence of Geometrical Shape on the Characteristics of the Multiple InN/InGaN Quantum Dot Solar Cells.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 May 17;11(5). Epub 2021 May 17.

Group of Optoelectronic of Semiconductors and Nanomaterials, ENSAM, Mohammed V University in Rabat, Rabat 10100, Morocco.

Solar cells that are based on the implementation of quantum dots in the intrinsic region, so-called intermediate band solar cells (IBSCs), are among the most widely used concepts nowadays for achieving high solar conversion efficiency. The principal characteristics of such solar cells relate to their ability to absorb low energy photons to excite electrons through the intermediate band, allowing for conversion efficiency exceeding the limit of Shockley-Queisser. IBSCs are generating considerable interest in terms of performance and environmental friendliness. Read More

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Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Metformin in Cervical Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 22;13(11). Epub 2021 May 22.

Women's Health Research Laboratory, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan.

Cervical cancer is one of the major gynecologic malignancies worldwide. Treatment options include chemotherapy, surgical resection, radiotherapy, or a combination of these treatments; however, relapse and recurrence may occur, and the outcome may not be favorable. Metformin is an established, safe, well-tolerated drug used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes; it can be safely combined with other antidiabetic agents. Read More

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Radiological Cardiothoracic Ratio in Evidence-Based Medicine.

J Clin Med 2021 May 8;10(9). Epub 2021 May 8.

Centre for Diagnostic Imaging, 4th Military Hospital, Weigla 5, PL 50-981 Wroclaw, Poland.

The cardiothoracic ratio (CTR), expressing the relationship between the size of the heart and the transverse dimension of the chest measured on a chest PA radiograph, is a commonly used parameter in the assessment of cardiomegaly with a cut-off value of 0.5. A value of >0. Read More

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Lessons from Disability Counting in Ecuador, with a Contribution from Primary Health Care.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 12;18(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

Disability Studies, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Family Medicine & Population Health, University of Antwerp, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium.

Disability data are essential for policy. Yet, the predominant use of disability prevalence for service planning reflects dichotomous counting, increasingly less compatible with current disability thinking. Difficulties relate to variations in rates, the lack of matching with needs, and the use of prevalence to compare disability situations. Read More

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Self-Reported Nutritional Factors Are Associated with Weight Loss at 18 Months in a Self-Managed Commercial Program with Food Categorization System: Observational Study.

Nutrients 2021 May 20;13(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Academic Research, Noom, 229 W 28th St., New York, NY 10001, USA.

Little is known about nutritional factors during weight loss on digital commercial weight loss programs. We examined how nutritional factors relate to weight loss for individuals after 4 and 18 months on a mobile commercial program with a food categorization system based on energy density (Noom). This is a two-part (retrospective and cross-sectional) cohort study. Read More

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Stress responses across the scales of life: Towards a universal theory of biological stress.

Integr Comp Biol 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Texas Tech University, Biological Sciences.

Although biological systems are more complex and can actively respond to their environment, an effective entry point to the development of a universal theory of biological stress are the physical concepts of stress and strain. If you apply stress to the end of a beam of steel, strain will accumulate within that steel beam. If the stress is weak, that strain will disappear when the force is removed and the beam will return to its original state of form and functionality. Read More

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Timing of glioblastoma surgery and patient outcomes: a multicenter cohort study.

Neurooncol Adv 2021 Jan-Dec;3(1):vdab053. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location VU University Medical Center, Neurosurgical Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Background: The impact of time-to-surgery on clinical outcome for patients with glioblastoma has not been determined. Any delay in treatment is perceived as detrimental, but guidelines do not specify acceptable timings. In this study, we relate the time to glioblastoma surgery with the extent of resection and residual tumor volume, performance change, and survival, and we explore the identification of patients for urgent surgery. Read More

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Comparison of a Point-of-Care Analyzer With a Chemiluminescent Immunoassay for Serum Progesterone Measurement in Breeding Management of the Bitch.

Front Vet Sci 2021 13;8:660923. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA, United States.

Accurate serum progesterone measurements for timing bitches during breeding management is critical for reproductive practice, especially as artificial insemination has become routine to facilitate breeding of animals that are geographically or temporally separated. To measure serum progesterone, chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) has replaced radioimmunoassay as the current standard in the bitch due to its high correlation and increased practicality. In January 2019, a colorimetric point-of-care (POC) immunoassay for quantitative in-clinic canine serum progesterone measurements in <30 min was released. Read More

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Longitudinal Assessment of Working Memory Performance in the APPswe/PSEN1dE9 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease Using an Automated Figure-8-Maze.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 13;15:655449. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, with a long preclinical and prodromal phase. To enable the study of disease mechanisms, AD has been modeled in many transgenic animal lines and cognitive functioning has been tested using several widely used behavioral tasks. These tasks, however, are not always suited for repeated longitudinal testing and are often associated with acute stress such as animal transfer, handling, novelty, or stress related to the task itself. Read More

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Predictors of eating-related psychopathology in transgender and gender nonbinary individuals.

Eat Behav 2021 May 8;42:101527. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, United States of America; Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, United States of America.

Objective: Research examining the prevalence and severity of eating-related psychopathology in transgender and gender nonbinary individuals is limited. This study examined how identity development and minority stress relate to the presence of disordered eating behaviors and cognitions in transgender and gender nonbinary individuals, and improvement at one-year follow-up.

Methods: Data come from a multi-site, longitudinal study of transgender and gender nonbinary individuals (n = 287) and includes assessment of transgender congruence, receipt of gender-affirming care, minority stress, and disordered eating symptoms. Read More

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The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the treatment of fulminant myocarditis: Current progress and clinical outcomes.

Microvasc Res 2021 Sep 26;137:104190. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Jingmen Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital, Jingmen 448000, Hubei province, China. Electronic address:

Myocarditis is an inflammatory condition of the myocardium and is usually categorised as acute nonfulminant and acute fulminant myocarditis. Myocardial injury can result via viral infections, direct injury or immune responses. Fulminant myocarditis can be characterised by severe and sudden cardiac inflammation that may result from cardiogenic shock, ventricular arrhythmias or multi-organ system failure. Read More

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September 2021

Is there any incremental benefit to conducting neuroimaging and neurocognitive assessments in the diagnosis of ADHD in young children? A machine learning investigation.

Dev Cogn Neurosci 2021 Jun 21;49:100966. Epub 2021 May 21.

Florida International University, United States.

Given the negative trajectories of early behavior problems associated with ADHD, early diagnosis is considered critical to enable intervention and treatment. To this end, the current investigation employed machine learning to evaluate the relative predictive value of parent/teacher ratings, behavioral and neural measures of executive function (EF) in predicting ADHD in a sample consisting of 162 young children (ages 4-7, mean age 5.55, 82. Read More

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Chronological Metabolic Response to Intensive Phase TB Therapy in Patients with Cured and Failed Treatment Outcomes.

ACS Infect Dis 2021 Jun 27;7(6):1859-1869. Epub 2021 May 27.

Human Metabolomics, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag x6001, Box 269, Potchefstroom, 2531, South Africa.

Despite the arguable success of the standardized tuberculosis (TB) treatment regime, a significant number of patients still present with treatment failure. To improve on current TB treatment strategies, we sought to gain a better understanding of the hosts' response to TB therapy. A targeted metabolomics approach was used to compare the urinary acylcarnitine and amino acid profiles of eventually cured TB patients with those of patients presenting with a failed treatment outcome, comparing these patient groups at the time of diagnosis and at weeks 1, 2, and 4 of treatment. Read More

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Recommendations for a Dutch Sustainable Biobanking Environment.

Biopreserv Biobank 2021 Jun 27;19(3):228-240. Epub 2021 May 27.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Biobanks and their collections are considered essential for contemporary biomedical research and a critical resource toward personalized medicine. However, they need to operate in a sustainable manner to prevent research waste and maximize impact. Sustainability is the capacity of a biobank to remain operative, effective, and competitive over its expected lifetime. Read More

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The relationship between psychological distress and impairment of disease-specific quality-of-life compared between liquid sclerocompression therapy and invasive treatments in patients with superficial venous disease during a one-year follow-up.

Phlebology 2021 May 27:2683555211011795. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Venous Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Introduction: Superficial venous disease (SVD) is a very common disease and much research has been done towards finding the ideal treatment and discovering the pathophysiology of SVD. Not much is known about the psychological burden of SVD. Current guidelines and scientific publications tend to focus on clinical and physiological aspects of SVD. Read More

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Individual differences in white matter of the uncinate fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus: possible early biomarkers for callous-unemotional behaviors in young children with disruptive behavior problems.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Psychology, Center for Children and Families, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.

Background: Callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors are important for identifying severe patterns of conduct problems (CP). One major fiber tract implicated in the development of CP is the uncinate fasciculus (UF), which connects amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The goals of the current study were to (a) explore differences in the white matter microstructure in the UF and other major fiber tracks between young typically developing (TD) children and those with a disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and (b) explore, within the DBD group, whether individual differences in these white matter tracts relate to co-occurring CP and CU behaviors. Read More

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