245 results match your criteria reinforcers delivered


Use of an Online Training with Virtual Role Play to Teach Preference Assessment Implementation.

J Dev Phys Disabil 2021 Feb 10:1-15. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Psychology Department, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY USA.

Identification of reinforcers is critical to the effectiveness of behavioral interventions. Stimulus preference assessments (SPA) are a frequently used method to identify putative reinforcers. Given the fluctuating nature of individual preferences, there is need for efficient training of providers that may regularly implement SPAs. Read More

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February 2021

Preference for and reinforcing efficacy of different types of attention in preschool children.

J Appl Behav Anal 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Applied Behavioral Science, University of Kansas.

It is unknown whether and to what extent common types of attention delivered in early childhood environments are preferred by and function as reinforcers for young children. We assessed children's preference for commonly delivered types of attention across 31 preschool-aged participants (Experiment 1). Next, we conducted a reinforcer assessment (Experiment 2) and a progressive-ratio assessment (Experiment 3) to (a) validate the results of the preference assessment and (b) determine the relative reinforcing efficacy of each type of attention. Read More

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February 2021

Choice between different concentrations of sucrose in an adjusting-magnitude schedule: Evidence for reinforcer-specific value maxima.

Authors:
C M Bradshaw

Behav Processes 2020 Dec 16;181:104275. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, UK. Electronic address:

According to the Multiplicative Hyperbolic Model (MHM), an extension of Mazur's (1987) model of delay discounting, the value of a reinforcer is an increasing hyperbolic function of its size (q). This experiment tested a prediction based on a revised version of MHM (MHM-R), according to which the maximum value may differ between different reinforcers, a possibility not envisaged in MHM. Rats were trained under a discrete-trials adjusting-magnitude schedule in which a response on lever B delivered a dilute sucrose reinforcer (0. Read More

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December 2020

Does DRO type matter?: Cycle versus resetting contingencies in eliminating responding.

Behav Processes 2020 Dec 28;181:104257. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

West Virginia University, United States.

Following lever-press training on variable-interval 30-s schedules, rats were exposed to three types of schedules designed to eliminate lever pressing. The first two were variations on what is called a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO, "zero rate", or [target response] omission schedule) schedule. Under both variations, reinforcers were scheduled to occur in different conditions after either fixed or variable inter-reinforcer intervals (IRIs). Read More

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December 2020

The pharmacological stressor yohimbine, but not U50,488, increases responding for conditioned reinforcers paired with ethanol or sucrose.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2020 Dec 25;237(12):3689-3702. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Section of Biopsychology, Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Rationale: Environmental stimuli paired with alcohol can function as conditioned reinforcers (CRfs) and trigger relapse to alcohol-seeking. In animal models, pharmacological stressors can enhance alcohol consumption and reinstate alcohol-seeking, but it is unknown whether stress can potentiate the conditioned reinforcing properties of alcohol-paired stimuli.

Objectives: We examined whether the pharmacological stressors, the α-2 adrenoreceptor antagonist yohimbine (vehicle, 1. Read More

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December 2020

A Model of Support for Families of Children With Autism Living in the COVID-19 Lockdown: Lessons From Italy.

Behav Anal Pract 2020 Jun 2:1-9. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Private Practice, Naples, Italy.

Italy has been the European country most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic to date and has been in social lockdown for the longest period of time compared to other countries outside China. Almost overnight, Italian behavior analysts were faced with the challenge of setting up remotely whole-family systems aimed at maintaining adaptive skills and low levels of challenging behavior to be carried out solely by caregivers. Given these extraordinary circumstances, the protocols available from the applied behavior-analytic, parent training, and autism literature did not appear to fully meet the needs of parents having to be with their children under extreme levels of stress in a confined space with limited reinforcers for 24 hr a day, 7 days a week. Read More

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Effort-related decision making in humanized COMT mice: Effects of ValMet polymorphisms and possible implications for negative symptoms in humans.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2020 09 25;196:172975. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Behavioral Neuroscience Division, Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA. Electronic address:

Catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme that metabolizes catecholamines, and is crucial for clearance of dopamine (DA) in prefrontal cortex. ValMet polymorphism, which causes a valine (Val) to methionine (Met) substitution at codon 158, is reported to be associated with human psychopathologies in some studies. The Val/Val variant of the enzyme results in higher dopamine metabolism, which results in reduced dopamine transmission. Read More

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September 2020

Response-reinforcer contiguity versus response-rate-reinforcer-rate covariance in rats' lever pressing: Support for a multiscale view.

J Exp Anal Behav 2020 05 25;113(3):530-548. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

University of California, Davis and Salem State University, USA.

The multiscale molar view sees behavior as a flow, like a river, extended in time. Matching theory expresses the way activities compete for time. Relative time taken by any activity depends on relative induction. Read More

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Effects of the mGluR2/3 receptor agonist LY379268 on the reinforcing strength of cocaine in rhesus monkeys.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2020 Feb 9;237(2):409-417. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, 27157, USA.

Rationale: Because chronic cocaine exposure produces profound effects on brain glutamate function, this system has been investigated as a target for novel medications for cocaine use disorder. Studies in animal models have provided encouraging results for drugs that target metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR), particularly group II mGluRs which includes mGluR2 and mGluR3 receptors.

Objective: The present study examined the effects of the mGluR2/3 receptor-selective agonist, (-)-2-oxa-4-aminobicylco hexane-4,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY379268), in male rhesus monkeys self-administering cocaine under two procedures that assess the strength of cocaine as a reinforcer. Read More

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February 2020

Effects of schedule type and terminal-link duration on choice in concurrent chains.

J Exp Anal Behav 2019 09 12;112(2):192-209. Epub 2019 Aug 12.

University of Canterbury.

Four pigeons responded in a three-component concurrent chains procedure in which the terminal-link schedules were either both fixed-interval (FI FI), both variable-interval (VI VI), both mixed-interval (MI MI) or variable-interval fixed-interval (VI FI). Across components within sessions, overall terminal-link duration was varied while schedule types were varied across conditions. For the conditions with homogeneous schedules, the strongest preference was obtained with FI FI, intermediate with MI MI, and weakest with VI VI. Read More

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September 2019

Nicotine Self-Administration With Tobacco Flavor Additives in Male Rats.

Nicotine Tob Res 2020 02;22(2):224-231

Department of Psychology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN.

Introduction: Nicotine can robustly increase responding for conditioned reinforcers (CRs), stimuli that acquire reinforcing properties based on association with primary reinforcers. Menthol and licorice are tobacco flavoring agents also found in sweet foods (eg, candy and ice cream), making them putative CRs before they are consumed in tobacco. We sought to determine if intravenous self-administration (IVSA) of nicotine was enhanced by the inclusion of oral tobacco flavor CRs. Read More

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February 2020

Reward-Related Expectations Trigger Dendritic Spine Plasticity in the Mouse Ventrolateral Orbitofrontal Cortex.

J Neurosci 2019 06 2;39(23):4595-4605. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Pediatrics, Emory School of Medicine,

An essential aspect of goal-directed decision-making is selecting actions based on anticipated consequences, a process that involves the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and potentially, the plasticity of dendritic spines in this region. To investigate this possibility, we trained male and female mice to nose poke for food reinforcers, or we delivered the same number of food reinforcers non-contingently to separate mice. We then decreased the likelihood of reinforcement for trained mice, requiring them to modify action-outcome expectations. Read More

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Response duration is sensitive to both immediate and delayed reinforcement.

J Exp Anal Behav 2019 01 18;111(1):94-115. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts.

We investigated the duration of lever pressing by rats when the delivery of appetitive reinforcers was contingent upon response duration. In the first experiment, response durations increased when duration requirements were imposed, and they decreased when duration requirements were removed. This effect occurred whether reinforcers were immediate or delayed by 8 s. Read More

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January 2019

Short abstinence from online social networking sites reduces perceived stress, especially in excessive users.

Psychiatry Res 2018 12 9;270:947-953. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Michigan State University, 293 Farm Lane, East Lansing, MI 48824, United States.

Online social networking sites (SNSs), such as Facebook, provide frequent and copious social reinforcers (e.g., "likes") delivered at variable time intervals. Read More

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December 2018

Nature and scope of synthesis in functional analysis and treatment of problem behavior.

J Appl Behav Anal 2018 10 11;51(4):943-973. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Western New England University.

Functional analysis (FA) of problem behavior typically includes the contingent delivery of a single reinforcer following problem behavior. However, the FA literature also includes examples of analyses that have delivered multiple reinforcers, arranged multiple establishing operations in one or more test conditions, or both. These analyses have been successfully applied under heterogeneous conditions over several decades and with various synthesized establishing operations and reinforcers, but their qualitative details, outcomes, and contributions to the literature have never been described in a comprehensive manner. Read More

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October 2018

Pigeons play the percentages: computation of probability in a bird.

Anim Cogn 2018 Jul 24;21(4):575-581. Epub 2018 May 24.

Department of Psychology, Western University, London, ON, N6A 5C2, Canada.

The ability to compute probability, previously shown in nonverbal infants, apes, and monkeys, was examined in three experiments with pigeons. After responding to individually presented keys in an operant chamber that delivered reinforcement with varying probabilities, pigeons chose between these keys on probe trials. Pigeons strongly preferred a 75% reinforced key over a 25% reinforced key, even when the total number of reinforcers obtained on each key was equated. Read More

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Additional free reinforcers increase persistence of problem behavior in a clinical context: A partial replication of laboratory findings.

J Exp Anal Behav 2018 01;109(1):253-264

The Kennedy Krieger Institute.

Behavioral momentum theory is a quantitative framework used to characterize the persistence of behavior during response disruptors as a function of baseline stimulus-reinforcer relations. Results of several investigations have shown that alternative reinforcement can increase the resistance to change of a target response during extinction. In the present study, concomitant variable-interval fixed-time schedules of reinforcement for problem behavior were employed to simulate naturalistic situations involving the superimposition of response-independent reinforcers on a baseline schedule of reinforcement for problem behavior, as in the common use of noncontingent reinforcement treatments. Read More

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January 2018

Effects of morphine/CP55940 mixtures on an impulsive choice task in rhesus monkeys.

Behav Pharmacol 2018 02;29(1):60-70

Departments of Pharmacology.

µ-Opioid receptor agonists are commonly used to treat pain despite their adverse effects. In preclinical studies, cannabinoid receptor agonists increase the potency of opioids for producing antinociceptive but not reinforcing effects. It is unknown whether other adverse effects of these drugs, such as impairment of complex behavior, are enhanced by their co-administration. Read More

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February 2018

Effects of response-contingent stimulus pairing on vocalizations of nonverbal children with autism.

J Appl Behav Anal 2017 Oct 13;50(4):756-774. Epub 2017 Sep 13.

Texas Christian University.

Research on stimulus-stimulus pairing to induce novel vocalizations in nonverbal children has typically employed response-independent pairing (RIP) procedures to condition speech sounds as reinforcers. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a response-contingent pairing (RCP) procedure on the vocalizations of three nonverbal boys diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. During RCP, adult-delivered sounds that were either paired with a preferred item (target sounds) or not (nontarget sounds) were presented contingent on a button-press response. Read More

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October 2017

Tuberculosis detection by pouched rats: Opportunities for reinforcement under low-prevalence conditions.

Behav Processes 2018 Oct 26;155:2-7. Epub 2017 May 26.

Western Michigan University, Department of Psychology, 1903 W Michigan Ave, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA; Anti-Persoonsmijnen Ontmijnende Product Ontwikkeling (APOPO), PO Box 3078, Morogoro, Tanzania.

Giant African pouched rats (Cricetomys ansorgei) have been employed successfully in two operational tuberculosis-detection projects in which they sniff sputum samples from symptomatic individuals who have visited tuberculosis clinics. The prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in this population is high, approximately 20% in the regions where the rats have been used. If the rats are to be used to screen individuals from lower-prevalence populations, their performance under such conditions must first be evaluated. Read More

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October 2018

Female Sprague-Dawley rats display greater appetitive and consummatory responses to alcohol.

Behav Brain Res 2017 06 30;327:155-161. Epub 2017 Mar 30.

University of Houston, Department of Psychology & Texas Institute for Measurement, Evaluation and Statistics (TIMES), Houston, TX 77204-6022, United States. Electronic address:

The narrowing of the gender gap in alcohol drinking patterns is a concern because women are more susceptible to adverse health consequences of alcohol use. Animal models of alcohol-seeking and -consuming are useful to delineate sex differences to test for effective sex-specific pharmacological treatments. We investigated potential sex differences in appetitive and consummatory responses to alcohol. Read More

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Adolescent methylmercury exposure affects choice and delay discounting in mice.

Neurotoxicology 2016 12 24;57:136-144. Epub 2016 Sep 24.

Auburn University, AL, United States.

The developing fetus is vulnerable to low-level exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), an environmental neurotoxicant, but the consequences of exposure during the adolescent period remain virtually unknown. The current experiments were designed to assess the effects of low-level MeHg exposure during adolescence on delay discounting, preference for small, immediate reinforcers over large, delayed ones, using a mouse model. Thirty-six male C57BL/6n mice were exposed to 0, 0. Read More

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December 2016

Nicotine enhancement and reinforcer devaluation: Interaction with opioid receptors.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2016 Nov - Dec;150-151:1-7. Epub 2016 Aug 19.

Saint Michael's College, Colchester, VT 05443, United States.

In rats, nicotine enhances responding maintained by non-pharmacological reinforcers, and discontinuation of nicotine devalues those same reinforcers. The goal of this study was to assess the interaction of nicotine and opioid receptors and to evaluate the degree to which nicotine enhancement and nicotine-induced devaluation are related to opioid activation. Nicotine (0. Read More

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Oxytocin receptors are expressed on dopamine and glutamate neurons in the mouse ventral tegmental area that project to nucleus accumbens and other mesolimbic targets.

J Comp Neurol 2017 Apr 27;525(5):1094-1108. Epub 2016 Sep 27.

Department of Pharmacodynamics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) circuitry determines which behaviors are positively reinforcing and therefore should be encoded in the memory to become a part of the behavioral repertoire. Natural reinforcers, like food and sex, activate this pathway, thereby increasing the likelihood of further consummatory, social, and sexual behaviors. Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in mediating natural reward and OT-synthesizing neurons project to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc); however, direct neuroanatomical evidence of OT regulation of DA neurons within the VTA is sparse. Read More

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Concurrent nonindependent fixed-ratio schedules of alcohol self-administration: Effects of schedule size on choice.

J Exp Anal Behav 2016 07 12;106(1):75-92. Epub 2016 Jul 12.

The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston.

Choice behavior was studied under concurrent nonindependent fixed-ratio fixed-ratio (nFR) schedules of reinforcement, as these schedules result in frequent changeover responses. With these schedules, responses on either operandum count toward the completion of the ratio requirements of both schedules. Five monkeys were subjects, and two pairs of liquid reinforcers were concurrently available: 16% (w/v) and 0% ethanol or 16% and 8% ethanol. Read More

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Comparisons of synthesized and individual reinforcement contingencies during functional analysis.

J Appl Behav Anal 2016 09 13;49(3):596-616. Epub 2016 May 13.

University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute.

Researchers typically modify individual functional analysis (FA) conditions after results are inconclusive (Hanley, Iwata, & McCord, 2003). Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, and Hanratty (2014) introduced a marked departure from this practice, using an interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA). In the test condition, they delivered multiple contingencies simultaneously (e. Read More

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September 2016

BEAT-IT: Comparing a behavioural activation treatment for depression in adults with intellectual disabilities with an attention control: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2015 Dec 30;16:595. Epub 2015 Dec 30.

School of Psychology, Bangor University, Brigantia Building, Bangor, Gwynedd, North Wales, LL57 2DG, UK.

Background: Depression appears to be more enduring amongst people with intellectual disabilities, suggesting that it is a more chronic problem or more poorly managed in this population. This is not helped by a lack of evidence about the effectiveness of psychological therapies for people who have intellectual disabilities and depression. Behavioural activation, which aims to counteract depression by increasing individuals' level of meaningful activity and their exposure to positive reinforcers, has proven to be as effective as cognitive behavioural therapy in the general population. Read More

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December 2015

On the time course of rapid and repeatable response induction.

Behav Processes 2015 Nov 25;120:116-9. Epub 2015 Sep 25.

Department of Applied Behavioral Science, University of Kansas, 4041 Dole Developmental Center, 1000 Sunnyside Ave., Lawrence, KS 66045, USA. Electronic address:

As reinforcers are delivered for a particular response, that response increases. Other similar responses also increase, with the extent to which this increase is seen being positively related to the similarity between the responses. This process, called induction, is pronounced during initial response acquisition, and dissipates as the target response is established. Read More

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November 2015

Effect of daily morphine administration and its discontinuation on delay discounting of food in rhesus monkeys.

Behav Pharmacol 2016 Apr;27(2-3 Spec Issue):155-64

Departments of aPharmacology bPsychiatry, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA.

Opioid abusers discount delayed reinforcers more rapidly than nonusers; however, it is unclear whether chronic drug administration or its discontinuation impacts discounting. This study examined the impact of daily morphine administration and its discontinuation on delay discounting of food in rhesus monkeys. Responding on one lever delivered one food pellet immediately; responding on another lever delivered two food pellets either immediately or after a delay (30-120 s) that increased within the session. Read More

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Reinforcer devaluation as a consequence of acute nicotine exposure and withdrawal.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2015 May 18;232(9):1583-94. Epub 2014 Nov 18.

Department of Psychology, Saint Michael's College, 1 Winooski Park Avenue, Colchester, VT, 05439-0001, USA,

Rationale: Nicotine discontinuation produces behaviors in rats that are congruent with anhedonia, and these symptoms may be related to the devaluation of non-nicotine reinforcers.

Objective: Four separate experiments were performed to explore the parameters surrounding nicotine-induced reinforcer devaluation.

Methods: In Experiments 1 and 2, nicotine (0. Read More

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