274,509 results match your criteria regulatory cells

Differential lncRNA expression profiling of cognitive function in middle and old aged monozygotic twins using generalized association analysis.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Jun 2;140:197-204. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Unit of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Biodemography, Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark; Unit of Human Genetics, Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark. Electronic address:

Cognitive impairment is the most prominent symptom in neurodegenerative disorders affecting quality of life and mortality. However, despite years of research, the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of cognitive function and its impairment is poorly understood. This study aims to elucidate the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) expression and lncRNA-mRNA interaction networks, by analyzing lncRNA expression in whole blood samples of 400 middle and old aged monozygotic twins in association with cognitive function using both linear models and a generalized correlation coefficient (GCC) to capture the diverse patterns of correlation. Read More

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Acute experimental barrier injury triggers ulcerative colitis specific innate hyper-responsiveness and ulcerative colitis-type microbiome changes in humans.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Gastroenterology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background And Aims: The trigger hypothesis opens the possibility of anti-flare-initiation therapies by stating that ulcerative colitis (UC) flares originates from inadequate responses to acute mucosal injuries. However, experimental evidence is restricted by a limited use of suitable human models. We thus aimed to investigate the acute mucosal barrier injury responses in humans with and without UC using an experimental injury model. Read More

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Multiscale modeling of bone tissue Mechanobiology.

Bone 2021 Jun 9:116032. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Multiscale in Mechanical and Biological Engineering, Instituto de Investigación en Ingeniería de Aragón (I3A), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón), University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.

Mechanical environment has a crucial role in our organism at the different levels, ranging from cells to tissues and our own organs. This regulatory role is especially relevant for bones, given their importance as load-transmitting elements that allow the movement of our body as well as the protection of vital organs from load impacts. Therefore bone, as living tissue, is continuously adapting its properties, shape and repairing itself, being the mechanical loads one of the main regulatory stimuli that modulate this adaptive behavior. Read More

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Arsenic disrupts neuronal insulin signaling through increasing free PI3K-p85 and decreasing PI3K activity.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Laboratory of Pharmacology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, 54 Kamphaeng Phet 6 Rd, Bangkok, 10210, Thailand; Environmental Toxicology Program, Chulabhorn Graduate Institute, 54 Kamphaeng Phet 6 Rd, Bangkok, 10210, Thailand; Center of Excellence on Environmental Health and Toxicology (EHT), Ministry of Higher Education, Science, Research and Innovation, Thailand.

Previously, we reported that prolonged arsenic exposure impaired neuronal insulin signaling. Here we have further identified novel molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal insulin signaling impairment by arsenic. Arsenic treatment altered insulin dose-response curve and reduced maximum insulin response in differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, suggesting that arsenic hindered neuronal insulin signaling in a non-competitive like manner. Read More

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Expression profiling, immune functions, and molecular characteristics of the tetraspanin molecule CD63 from Amphiprion clarkii.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Jun 9:104168. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Marine Life Sciences & Fish Vaccine Research Center, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Republic of Korea; Marine Science Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju 63333, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

CD63, a member of the tetraspanin family, is involved in the activation of immune cells, antiviral immunity, and signal transduction. The economically important anemonefishes Amphiprion sp. often face disease outbreaks, and the present study aimed to characterize CD63 in Amphiprion clarkii (denoted AcCD63) to enable better disease management. Read More

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Gender-Specific Regulation of Interferon-γ Cytotoxicity in Mouse Liver by Autophagy.

Hepatology 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background & Aims: Interferon-γ (IFNγ) is a central activator of immune responses in the liver and other organs. IFNγ triggers tissue injury and inflammation in immune diseases which occur predominantly in females for unknown reasons. Recent findings that autophagy regulates hepatotoxicity from proinflammatory cytokines led to an examination of whether defective hepatocyte autophagy underlies gender-specific liver injury and inflammation induced by IFNγ. Read More

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Treg cells in atherosclerosis.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Translational Research, Western University of Health Sciences, 309 E. Second Street, Pomona, CA, 91766-1854, USA.

Atherosclerosis involves both innate and adaptive immunity. Here, we provide an overview of the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells in atherosclerotic diseases. Treg cells and their inhibitory cytokines, IL-10 and TGF-β, have been identified in atherosclerotic lesions and to inhibit progression through lipoprotein metabolism modulation. Read More

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Nodal status in luminal A invasive breast cancer: relationships with cytotoxic CD8 + and regulatory FOXP3 + cells tumor-associated infiltrate and other prognostic factors.

Virchows Arch 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Pathomorphology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow, Poland.

Luminal A breast cancers are generally associated with low metastatic potential and good prognosis. However, there is a proportion of patients, who present with metastases in lymph nodes. The aim of our study was to determine the association between the number of positive lymph nodes and infiltrates of tumor-associated cytotoxic CD8 + (CTLs), regulatory FOXP3 + T cells (Tregs), as well as other prognostic factors. Read More

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Research advances on epigenetics and cancer metabolism.

Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Feb;50(1):1-16

School of Medicine,Tsinghua University,Beijing 100084,China.

Epigenetics concerns gene regulatory mechanisms beyond DNA sequence,such as DNA methylation,histone modification,chromatin remodeling,and non-coding RNA. Epigenetic mechanisms play a key role in development,cell fate decision and tumorigenesis. Chromatin modifications and its high order structure across our genome are major forms of epigenetic information,and its establishment and maintenance are closely related to cell metabolism. Read More

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February 2021

Single-cell analysis of the pan-cancer immune microenvironment and scTIME portal.

Cancer Immunol Res 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Blood Diseases, Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College

Single-cell sequencing opens a new era for the investigation of tumor immune microenvironments (TIMEs). However, at single-cell resolution, a pan-cancer analysis that addresses the identity and diversity of TIMEs is lacking. Here, we first built a pan-cancer single-cell reference of TIMEs with refined sub-cell types and recognized new cell type-specific transcription factors. Read More

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Acylglycerol kinase promotes paclitaxel resistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by regulating FOXM1 via the JAK2/STAT3 pathway.

Cytokine 2021 Jun 8:155595. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 530021, PR China. Electronic address:

Objective: Drug resistance is an important factor that impedes the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Acylglycerol kinase (AGK) has been found to be overexpressed in NPC and correlates with poor prognosis. Our objective was to demonstrate the effect of AGK on paclitaxel resistance in NPC and determine the underlying mechanisms. Read More

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Monitoring the mechanism of anti-cancer agents to inhibit colorectal cancer cell proliferation: Enzymatic biosensing of glucose combined with molecular docking.

Enzyme Microb Technol 2021 Aug 21;148:109804. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran.

Glucose, a major energy source in cellular metabolism, has a significant role in cell growth. The increase in glucose uptake is a distinguishing hallmark in cancer cells. A key step in glucose utilization is the transport of glucose to the cancer cells for supplying their additional energy. Read More

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Therapeutic potential of targeting Tfr/Tfh cell balance by low-dose-IL-2 in active SLE: a post hoc analysis from a double-blind RCT study.

Arthritis Res Ther 2021 Jun 11;23(1):167. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Rheumatology & Immunology, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, 100044, China.

Objective: To investigate the regulation of T follicular regulatory (Tfr) and T follicular (Tfh) cell subtypes by low-dose IL-2 in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Methods: A post hoc analysis was performed in a randomized cohort of SLE patients (n=60) receiving low-dose IL-2 therapy (n=30) or placebo (n=30), along with the standard of care treatment. The primary endpoint was the attainment of SLE responder index-4 (SRI-4) at week 12 in the trial. Read More

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Methionine enkephalin (MENK) suppresses lung cancer by regulating the Bcl-2/Bax/caspase-3 signaling pathway and enhancing natural killer cell-driven tumor immunity.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jun 8;98:107837. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110122, China. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to investigate how methionine enkephalin (MENK) regulates the biological behavior of lung cancer cells and to further explore its anti-lung cancer mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that MENK enhanced the expression of opioid receptor (OGFr) and induced apoptosis of lung cancer cells by activating the Bcl-1/Bax/caspase-3 signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo. However, the regulatory effects of MENK disappeared after blockade of the OGFr. Read More

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Integrative Analysis of Genome, 3D Genome, and Transcriptome Alterations of Clinical Lung Cancer Samples.

Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Center for Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Center for Statistical Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Electronic address:

Genomic studies of cancer cell alterations, such as mutations, copy number variations (CNVs), and translocations, greatly promote our understanding of the genesis and development of cancer. However, the 3D genome architecture of cancers remains less studied due to the complexity of cancer genomes and technical difficulties. To explore the 3D genome structure in clinical lung cancer, we performed Hi-C experiments using paired normal and tumor cells harvested from patients with lung cancer, combining with RNA-seq analysis. Read More

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Diverse functions and mechanisms of regulatory T cell in ischemic stroke.

Exp Neurol 2021 Jun 8:113782. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China. Electronic address:

The inflammatory and immune processes are key pathophysiological processes in the ischemic stroke, including leukocyte infiltration and destruction of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB), which further lead to increased post-ischemic inflammation. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a specific subset of T lymphocytes that play a pivotal role in suppressing the activation of immune system, maintaining immune homeostasis, and regulating inflammation induced by pathogens and environmental toxins. We would like to discuss the paradox function of Tregs in ischemic stroke. Read More

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The novel AKT inhibitor Afuresertib suppresses human Merkel cell carcinoma MKL-1 cell growth.

Clin Exp Dermatol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Dermatology, McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive neuroendocrine neoplasm of the skin that is associated with exceedingly poor prognosis. The AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, which plays a pivotal role in the modulation of protein synthesis and cell survival, has been shown to be highly important for Merkel cell carcinogenesis. In the current study, our data indicate that AKT has important regulatory functions in MCC cells and that inhibition of AKT with the novel ATP-competitive AKT inhibitor, Afuresertib, has widespread effects on proliferative pathways. Read More

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Efficient representations of tumor diversity with paired DNA-RNA aberrations.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jun 11;17(6):e1008944. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Cancer cells display massive dysregulation of key regulatory pathways due to now well-catalogued mutations and other DNA-related aberrations. Moreover, enormous heterogeneity has been commonly observed in the identity, frequency and location of these aberrations across individuals with the same cancer type or subtype, and this variation naturally propagates to the transcriptome, resulting in myriad types of dysregulated gene expression programs. Many have argued that a more integrative and quantitative analysis of heterogeneity of DNA and RNA molecular profiles may be necessary for designing more systematic explorations of alternative therapies and improving predictive accuracy. Read More

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The Role of N-myc Downstream-Regulated Gene Family in Glioma Based on Bioinformatics Analysis.

DNA Cell Biol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, P.R. China.

Glioma is the most common type of primary tumor in the central nervous system, and the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. N-myc downstream-regulated gene () family is reported to take part in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including some preliminary exploration in glioma. However, there has been no bioinformatics analysis of family in glioma yet. Read More

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The Regulatory Function of Tandem Repeat VNTR2-1 in hTERT Gene Involves Basic Helix-loop-helix Family Transcription Factors.

Environ Mol Mutagen 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

College of Pharmacy of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Washington State University Spokane, Washington, United State of America.

Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that synthesizes telomere end sequence. The expression of hTERT gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of human telomerase, is restricted to highly proliferative tissues and is undetectable in most somatic cells. Abnormal activation of hTERT gene is found in 90% of human tumors. Read More

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Therapeutic Effect of IL1β Priming Tonsil Derived-Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Osteoporosis.

Tissue Eng Regen Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Cell Therapy Research Center, Green Cross LabCell, 107, Ihyeon-ro 30 beon-gil, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 16924, South Korea.

Background: Stem cell therapies can be a new therapeutic strategy that may rebalance anabolic and anti-resorptive effects in osteoporosis patients. Tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) can be an alternative therapeutic source for chronic degenerative diseases including osteoporosis. MSCs acquire immune regulatory function under the inflammatory cytokines. Read More

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Long non-coding RNA A1BG-AS1 promotes tumorigenesis in breast cancer by sponging microRNA-485-5p and consequently increasing expression of FLOT1 expression.

Hum Cell 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Breast Surgery, Lishui Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 289 Kuocang Road, Lishui, 323000, Zhejiang, China.

The dysregulated long non-coding RNA A1BG antisense RNA 1 (A1BG-AS1) has been implicated in the oncogenicity of hepatocellular carcinoma. Using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction in this study, we detected A1BG-AS1 expression in breast cancer and elucidated the regulatory functions and exact mechanisms of A1BG-AS1 in breast cancer cells. The regulatory functions of A1BG-AS1 were examined in vitro using the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, flow cytometric, and Transwell migration and invasion assays and in vivo through tumor xenograft experiments. Read More

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Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS) in Neutrophils: An Insight.

Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Biotechnology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India.

NO (nitric oxide) is an important regulator of neutrophil functions and has a key role in diverse pathophysiological conditions. NO production by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) is under tight control at transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels including interactions with heterologous proteins owing to its potent chemical reactivity and high diffusibility; this limits toxicity to other cellular components and promotes signaling specificity. The protein-protein interactions govern the activity and spatial distribution of NOS isoform to regulatory proteins and to their intended targets. Read More

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Characterization of APX and APX-R gene family in Brassica juncea and B. rapa for tolerance against abiotic stresses.

Plant Cell Rep 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biotechnology, BMS Block I, Panjab University, Sector 25, Chandigarh, 160014, India.

Key Message: APX and APX-R gene families were identified and characterized in two important oilseed species of Brassica. Gene expression under abiotic stress conditions, recombinant protein expression, and analysis further divulged their drought, heat, and salt-responsive behavior. Ascorbate peroxidases (APX) are heme-dependent enzymes that rid the cells of HO and regulate diverse biological processes. Read More

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Caldesmon ablation in mice causes umbilical herniation and alters contractility of fetal urinary bladder smooth muscle.

J Gen Physiol 2021 Jul 11;153(7). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Institute of Vegetative Physiology, Center of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

The actin-, myosin-, and calmodulin-binding protein caldesmon (CaD) is expressed in two splice isoforms: h-CaD, which is an integral part of the actomyosin domain of smooth muscle cells, and l-CaD, which is widely expressed and is involved in many cellular functions. Despite extensive research for many years, CaD's in vivo function has remained elusive. To explore the role of CaD in smooth muscle contraction in vivo, we generated a mutant allele that ablates both isoforms. Read More

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Wavelike propagation of quorum activation through a spatially distributed bacterial population under natural regulation.

Phys Biol 2021 Jun 11;18(4). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Physics Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-8440, United States of America.

Many bacteria communicate using diffusible pheromone signals known as autoinducers. When the autoinducer concentration reaches a threshold, which requires a minimum population density or 'quorum', the bacteria activate specific gene regulatory pathways. Simple diffusion of autoinducer can activate quorum-dependent pathways in cells that are located at substantial distances from the secreting source. Read More

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Chronic Demodicosis in Patients with Immune Dysregulation: An Unexpected Infectious Manifestation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)1 Gain-of-Function.

Clin Exp Immunol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Allergy and Clinical Immunology Unit, Department of Medicine, Hadassah Medical Organization, Faculty of Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.

Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 heterozygous gain-of-function (GOF) mutations are known to induce immune dysregulation and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMCC). Previous reports suggest an association between demodicosis and STAT1 GOF. However, immune characterization of these patients is lacking. Read More

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Sequences in the stalk domain regulate autoinhibition and ciliary tip localization of the immotile kinesin-4 KIF7.

J Cell Sci 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

The kinesin-4 member KIF7 plays critical roles in Hedgehog signaling in vertebrate cells. KIF7 is an atypical kinesin as it binds to microtubules but is immotile. We demonstrate that, like conventional kinesins, KIF7 is regulated by autoinhibition as the full-length protein is inactive for microtubule binding in cells. Read More

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Overexpression of DAZL, STRA8, and BOULE Genes and Treatment With BMP4 or Retinoic Acid Modulate the Expression of MSC Overexpressing Germ Cell Genes.

Front Vet Sci 2021 25;8:667547. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Animal Production Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

gamete derivation from stem cells has potential applications in animal reproduction as an alternative method for the dissemination of elite animal genetics, production of transgenic animals, and conservation of endangered species. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be suitable candidates for gamete derivation considering their differentiative capacity and their potential for cell therapy. Due to its relevance in gametogenesis, it has been reported that retinoic acid (RA) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 are able to upregulate the expression of specific markers associated to the early stages of germ cell (GCs) differentiation in bovine fetal MSCs (bfMSCs). Read More

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Integrating miRNA and mRNA Profiling to Assess the Potential miRNA-mRNA Modules Linked With Testicular Immune Homeostasis in Sheep.

Front Vet Sci 2021 25;8:647153. Epub 2021 May 25.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China.

Beyond its well-known role in spermatogenesis and androgen production, mammalian testes are increasingly recognized as an immune-privileged organ for protecting autoantigenic germ cells, especially meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells, from systemic immune responses. Despite its importance, the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation in mammals, including sheep, are far from known. In this study, we searched for the genes associated with testicular immune privilege and assessed their possible modulating mechanisms by analyzing systematic profiling of mRNAs and miRNAs on testicular tissues derived from prepubertal and postpubertal Tibetan sheep acquired by RNA sequencing. Read More

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