2,260 results match your criteria regulation endurance


Physiological homeostasis for ecological success of ( Pers.) populations in saline soils.

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2021 Apr 24;27(4):687-701. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Botany, Government College University, Faisalabad, 38000 Pakistan.

The natural capacity of plants to endure salt stress is largely regulated by multifaceted structural and physio-biochemical modulations. Salt toxicity endurance mechanism of six ecotypes of sis Pers. was evaluated by analyzing photosynthesis, ionic homeostasis, and stomatal physiology under different levels of salinity (0, 100, 200 and 300 mM NaCl). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Dual role of miR-1 in the development and function of sinoatrial cells.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Biosciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

miR-1, the most abundant miRNA in the heart, modulates expression of several transcription factors and ion channels. Conditions affecting the heart rate, such as endurance training and cardiac diseases, show a concomitant miR-1 up- or down-regulation. Here, we investigated the role of miR-1 overexpression in the development and function of sinoatrial (SAN) cells using murine embryonic stem cells (mESC). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Dynamic cerebral autoregulation and cerebrovascular carbon dioxide reactivity in middle and posterior cerebral arteries in young endurance-trained women.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Université Lavalgrid.23856.3a.

The integrated responses regulating cerebral blood flow are understudied in women, particularly in relation to potential regional differences. In this study, we compared dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) and cerebrovascular reactivity to carbon dioxide (CVR) in the middle (MCA) and posterior cerebral arteries (PCA) in 11 young endurance-trainedwomen (age: 25 ± 4 y; maximal oxygen uptake: 48.1 ± 4. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Nutrition for Older Athletes: Focus on Sex-Differences.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 22;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

Regular physical exercise and a healthy diet are major determinants of a healthy lifespan. Although aging is associated with declining endurance performance and muscle function, these components can favorably be modified by regular physical activity and especially by exercise training at all ages in both sexes. In addition, age-related changes in body composition and metabolism, which affect even highly trained masters athletes, can in part be compensated for by higher exercise metabolic efficiency in active individuals. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Genetic and epigenetic regulation of skeletal muscle ribosome biogenesis with exercise.

J Physiol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

The Center for Muscle Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Key Points: Ribosome biogenesis and MYC transcription are associated with acute resistance exercise (RE) and are distinct from endurance exercise (EE) in human skeletal muscle throughout a 24-hour time-course of recovery. A PCR-based method for relative ribosomal DNA (rDNA) copy number estimation was validated by whole genome sequencing and revealed that rDNA dosage is positively correlated with ribosome biogenesis in response to RE. Acute RE modifies rDNA methylation patterns in enhancer, intergenic spacer, and non-canonical MYC-associated regions, but not the promoter. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Importance of 'Durability' in the Physiological Profiling of Endurance Athletes.

Sports Med 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.

Profiling physiological attributes is an important role for applied exercise physiologists working with endurance athletes. These attributes are typically assessed in well-rested athletes. However, as has been demonstrated in the literature and supported by field data presented here, the attributes measured during routine physiological-profiling assessments are not static, but change over time during prolonged exercise. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The effect of combined exercises on the plasma levels of retinol-binding protein 4 and its relationship with insulin resistance and hepatic fat content in postmenopausal women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Internal Medicine Specialist, Mahshahr, Iran.

Background: Evidence suggests increased serum levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) in postmenopausal women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study investigated the effect of combined exercises on the plasma levels of RBP4 and its relationship with insulin resistance and hepatic fat content in these women.

Methods: This quasi-experimental study randomly assigned 24 women with fatty liver and a mean age of 56. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Skeletal muscle-specific Keap1 disruption modulates fatty acid utilization and enhances exercise capacity in female mice.

Redox Biol 2021 Apr 5;43:101966. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Gene Expression Regulation, IDAC, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8575, Japan. Electronic address:

Skeletal muscle health is important for the prevention of various age-related diseases. The loss of skeletal muscle mass, which is known as sarcopenia, underlies physical disability, poor quality of life and chronic diseases in elderly people. The transcription factor NRF2 plays important roles in the regulation of the cellular defense against oxidative stress, as well as the metabolism and mitochondrial activity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The impact of Tai Chi and mind-body breathing in COPD: Insights from a qualitative sub-study of a randomized controlled trial.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249263. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Brookline, MA, United States of America.

Purpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with multiple psychosocial and behavioral factors. Prior research suggests that mind-body interventions may support the development and maintenance of healthy behaviors and improve health-related quality-of-life in such patients. We sought to qualitatively explore cognitive, psychosocial, and behavioral changes in patients with COPD who participated in two different mind-body interventions compared to an education control. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Antidiabetic effects of betulinic acid mediated by the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(4):e0249109. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ajou University Hospital, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, South Korea.

Betulinic acid (BA) is a naturally arising pentacyclic triterpenoid that has anti-malarial, anti-retroviral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer biological effects. More recently, it has been reported to possess anti-obesity activity mediated by the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We further investigated antidiabetic activity of BA in mouse tissues at the cellular and systemic levels. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Heat Acclimatization, Cooling Strategies, and Hydration during an Ultra-Trail in Warm and Humid Conditions.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 26;13(4). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Research and Scientific Support Department, Aspetar Orthopedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha 29222, Qatar.

The aim of this study was to assess the history of exertional heat illness (EHI), heat preparation, cooling strategies, heat related symptoms, and hydration during an ultra-endurance running event in a warm and humid environment. This survey-based study was open to all people who participated in one of the three ultra-endurance races of the Grand Raid de la Réunion. Ambient temperature and relative humidity were 18. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Impact of Different Physical Exercises on the Expression of Autophagy Markers in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 5;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation and Functional Performance, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo (USP), Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900, Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto 14040-907, Brazil.

Although physical exercise-induced autophagy activation has been considered a therapeutic target to enhance tissue health and extend lifespan, the effects of different exercise models on autophagy in specific metabolic tissues are not completely understood. This descriptive investigation compared the acute effects of endurance (END), exhaustive (ET), strength (ST), and concurrent (CC) physical exercise protocols on markers of autophagy, genes, and proteins in the gastrocnemius muscle, heart, and liver of mice. The animals were euthanized immediately (0 h) and six hours (6 h) after the acute exercise for the measurement of glycogen levels, mRNA expression of , , , , , , , , and protein levels of Beclin 1 and ATG5. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Molecular Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Growth and Organelle Biosynthesis: Practical Recommendations for Exercise Training.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 8;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Performance Santé Environnement de Montagne (LIPSEM), Faculty of Sports Sciences, University of Perpignan Via Domitia, UR 4640, 7 Avenue Pierre de Coubertin, 66120 Font-Romeu, France.

The regulation of skeletal muscle mass and organelle homeostasis is dependent on the capacity of cells to produce proteins and to recycle cytosolic portions. In this investigation, the mechanisms involved in skeletal muscle mass regulation-especially those associated with proteosynthesis and with the production of new organelles-are presented. Thus, the critical roles of mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway and its regulators are reviewed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Examining the benefits of cold exposure as a therapeutic strategy for obesity and type 2 diabetes.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 May 25;130(5):1448-1459. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada.

The pathogenesis of metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes are characterized by a progressive dysregulation in energy partitioning, often leading to end-organ complications. One emerging approach proposed to target this metabolic dysregulation is the application of mild cold exposure. In healthy individuals, cold exposure can increase energy expenditure and whole body glucose and fatty acid utilization. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comparative proteome analyses highlight several exercise-like responses of mouse sciatic nerve after IP injection of irisin.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Basic Health Sciences Institute, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

Many beneficial effects of exercise on the nervous system are mediated by hormone (growth factor)/receptor signaling. Considering the accumulating evidence on the similarity of some beneficial effects, irisin can be a proposed effector of exercise; however, the mechanism underlying these effects remains largely unknown. More evidence on the mechanism of action might reveal its potential as a treatment strategy to substitute exercise recovery protocols for nerve injuries in physically disabled patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Na/K-ATPase α1/Src interaction regulates metabolic reserve and Western diet intolerance.

Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2021 Mar 22:e13652. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Marshall Institute for Interdisciplinary Research, Marshall University, Huntington, WV, USA.

Aim: Highly prevalent diseases such as insulin resistance and heart failure are characterized by reduced metabolic flexibility and reserve. We tested whether Na/K-ATPase (NKA)-mediated regulation of Src kinase, which requires two NKA sequences specific to the α1 isoform, is a regulator of metabolic capacity that can be targeted pharmacologically.

Methods: Metabolic capacity was challenged functionally by Seahorse metabolic flux analyses and glucose deprivation in LLC-PK1-derived cells expressing Src binding rat NKA α1, non-Src-binding rat NKA α2 (the most abundant NKA isoform in the skeletal muscle), and Src binding gain-of-function mutant rat NKA α2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Phytohormone signaling and crosstalk in regulating drought stress response in plants.

Plant Cell Rep 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Plant Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Phytohormones are ubiquitously involved in plant biological processes and regulate cellular signaling pertaining to unheralded environmental cues, such as salinity, drought, extreme temperature and nutrient deprivation. The association of phytohormones to nearly all the fundamental biological processes epitomizes the phytohormone syndicate as a candidate target for consideration during engineering stress endurance in agronomically important crops. The drought stress response is essentially driven by phytohormones and their intricate network of crosstalk, which leads to transcriptional reprogramming. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Excessive exercise training causes mitochondrial functional impairment and decreases glucose tolerance in healthy volunteers.

Cell Metab 2021 May 18;33(5):957-970.e6. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Åstrand Laboratory, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics, Stockholm 114 33, Sweden. Electronic address:

Exercise training positively affects metabolic health through increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and improved glucose regulation and is the first line of treatment in several metabolic diseases. However, the upper limit of the amount of exercise associated with beneficial therapeutic effects has not been clearly identified. Here, we used a training model with a progressively increasing exercise load during an intervention over 4 weeks. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Anti-fatigue effect of Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Maca) on preventing mitochondria-mediated muscle damage and oxidative stress in vivo and vitro.

Food Funct 2021 Apr 17;12(7):3132-3141. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China.

Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) has emerged as a popular functional plant food due to its various pharmacological properties, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation and anti-fatigue activity. In this study, we investigated the role of Maca aqueous extract (ME) on muscle during exercise-induced fatigue both in vivo and in vitro. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

CREG1 improves the capacity of the skeletal muscle response to exercise endurance via modulation of mitophagy.

Autophagy 2021 Apr 18:1-17. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Research Institute, General Hospital of Northern Theater Command, Shenyang, China.

CREG1 (cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes 1) is involved in tissue homeostasis and influences macroautophagy/autophagy to protect cardiovascular function. However, the physiological and pathological role of CREG1 in the skeletal muscle is not clear. Here, we established a skeletal muscle-specific knockout mouse model () by crossing the -floxed mice () with a transgenic line expressing recombinase under the muscle-specific (creatine kinase, muscle) promoter. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Systemic cross-talk between brain, gut, and peripheral tissues in glucose homeostasis: effects of exercise training (CROSSYS). Exercise training intervention in monozygotic twins discordant for body weight.

BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 2021 Feb 24;13(1):16. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, P.O. Box 52, FIN-20521, Turku, Finland.

Background: Obesity and physical inactivity are major global public health concerns, both of which increase the risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Regulation of glucose homeostasis involves cross-talk between the central nervous system, peripheral tissues, and gut microbiota, and is affected by genetics. Systemic cross-talk between brain, gut, and peripheral tissues in glucose homeostasis: effects of exercise training (CROSSYS) aims to gain new systems-level understanding of the central metabolism in human body, and how exercise training affects this cross-talk. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Valence, form, and content of self-talk predict sport type and level of performance.

Conscious Cogn 2021 Mar 19;89:103102. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Linguistics, Cognitive Science and Semiotics, Jens Chr. Skous Vej 2, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

In this paper, we aimed to test whether we could predict sport type (badminton or running) and marathon proficiency from the valence, form, and content of the athletes' self-reported inner speech. Additionally, we wanted to assess the difference between self-talk during high intensity and low intensity exercise. The present study corroborated existing research - we were able to predict both sport type in Study 1 and intensity level as well as marathon proficiency in Study 2 from questionnaire data using machine learning models. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Opium Effect in Pregnancy on the Dynamics of Maternal Behavior: Testing a Neurochemical Model.

Neuropsychobiology 2021 19;80(2):147-157. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Investigations into neurochemical mechanisms of opioid addiction are difficult due to the complexity of behavior and multiplicity of involved neurotransmitter and hormonal systems. The aim of this study was to examine the benefits of structured analysis of these mechanisms using the framework of the neurochemical model Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET) and the example of maternal behavior under the condition of opium consumption in pregnancy. The FET differentiates between (a) endurance, (b) speed of integration, and (c) emotionality aspects of behavior suggesting that these systems are differentially regulated by (a) serotonin-neuropeptides-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), (b) dopamine-GABA, and (c) opioid receptor systems, correspondingly. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Pharmacological but not physiological GDF15 suppresses feeding and the motivation to exercise.

Nat Commun 2021 02 15;12(1):1041. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Growing evidence supports that pharmacological application of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) suppresses appetite but also promotes sickness-like behaviors in rodents via GDNF family receptor α-like (GFRAL)-dependent mechanisms. Conversely, the endogenous regulation of GDF15 and its physiological effects on energy homeostasis and behavior remain elusive. Here we show, in four independent human studies that prolonged endurance exercise increases circulating GDF15 to levels otherwise only observed in pathophysiological conditions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Pacing and Hazard Score of Elite Open Water Swimmers During a 5-km Indoor Pool Race.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2021 Feb 12:1-6. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Purpose: The sensation of fatigue experienced at a certain point of the race is an important factor in the regulation of pacing. The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is considered one of the main mediators utilized by athletes to modify pacing. The aim was to analyze the relationship between pacing and RPE of elite open water swimmers during national indoor pool championships. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Stable and Multilevel Data Storage Resistive Switching of Organic Bulk Heterojunction.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Feb 1;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05006, Korea.

Organic nonvolatile memory devices have a vital role for the next generation of electrical memory units, due to their large scalability and low-cost fabrication techniques. Here, we show bipolar resistive switching based on an Ag/ZnO/P3HT-PCBM/ITO device in which P3HT-PCBM acts as an organic heterojunction with inorganic ZnO protective layer. The prepared memory device has consistent DC endurance (500 cycles), retention properties (10 s), high ON/OFF ratio (10), and environmental stability. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Formative Evaluation of a Home-Based Physical Activity Intervention for Adolescent Girls-The HERizon Project: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

Children (Basel) 2021 Jan 22;8(2). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Room 1.22 Tom Reilly Building, Byrom Street Campus, Liverpool L3 5AF, UK.

Background: This is a formative evaluation study of the HERizon Project, a home-based multi-component physical activity (PA) intervention for adolescent girls in the UK and Ireland. Although not intended, this study coincided with the initial COVID-19 lockdown restrictions.

Methods: A total of 42 female participants, aged 13 to 16 years old (mean = 14. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Flexible Five-in-One Microsensor for Real-Time Wireless Microscopic Diagnosis inside Electric Motorcycle Fuel Cell Stack Range Extender.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Jan 21;12(2). Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Yuan Ze Fuel Cell Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 32003, Taiwan.

The focus of research and development on electric motorcycle range extender are system integration and energy regulation and management but the present fuel cell stack range extender still has defects, such as large volume, heavy weight and high cost. Its volume and weight will have a strong impact on the endurance of electric motorcycle. The bipolar plate takes most volume and weight of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack and it is the key component influencing the overall power density and cost. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Resilience in the Endurance Runner: The Role of Self-Regulatory Modes and Basic Psychological Needs.

Front Psychol 2020 6;11:558287. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Human, Social and Health Sciences, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino, Italy.

Endurance sports certainly require an important and delicate task of mental and physical reintegration from the impact of the fatigue induced by the exertion of the sport performance. The topic of the resilience of athletes has been the theme of numerous studies, however, there are few specific works on the psychological resilience of runners. Our study aimed to investigate Resilience in Endurance Runner related to the role of Self-Regulation Modes and Basic Psychological Needs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Low responders to endurance training exhibit impaired hypertrophy and divergent biological process responses in rat skeletal muscle.

Exp Physiol 2021 Mar 5;106(3):714-725. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, Robina, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? The extent to which genetics determines adaptation to endurance versus resistance exercise is unclear. Previously, a divergent selective breeding rat model showed that genetic factors play a major role in the response to aerobic training. Here, we asked: do genetic factors that underpin poor adaptation to endurance training affect adaptation to functional overload? What is the main finding and its importance? Our data show that heritable factors in low responders to endurance training generated differential gene expression that was associated with impaired skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF