942,789 results match your criteria regulation cellular

Structure and cytotoxicity of trichothecenes produced by the potato-associated fungus Trichothecium crotocinigenum.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Apr 5;111:104874. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, People's Republic of China; The Modernization Engineering Technology Research Center of Ethnic Minority Medicine of Hubei Province, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Seven previously undescribed trichothecenes, named trichothecrotocins M-S (1-7), along with five known compounds, were isolated from rice cultures of the potato-associated fungus Trichothecium crotocinigenum. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined through spectroscopic methods, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and quantum chemistry calculations on ECD. Compound 1 possesses a rare 6,11-epoxy moiety in the trichothecene family. Read More

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Commodity plastic burning as a source of inhaled toxic aerosols.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Apr 8;416:125820. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

Commodity plastic is ubiquitous in daily life and commonly disposed of via unregulated burning, particularly in developing regions. We report here the much higher emission factors (13.1 ± 7. Read More

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Investigating the phosphinic acid tripeptide mimetic DG013A as tool compound inhibitor of the M1-aminopeptidase ERAP1.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 Apr 19:128050. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Cancer Research UK Cancer Therapeutics Unit, The Institute of Cancer Research, London SW7 3RP, U.K. Electronic address:

ERAP1 is a zinc-dependent M1-aminopeptidase that trims lipophilic amino acids from the N-terminus of peptides. Owing to its importance in the processing of antigens and regulation of the adaptive immune response, dysregulation of the highly polymorphic ERAP1 has been implicated in autoimmune disease and cancer. To test this hypothesis and establish the role of ERAP1 in these disease areas, high affinity, cell permeable and selective chemical probes are essential. Read More

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Regulation of in vivo delivery of nanomedicines by herbal medicines.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences & Center of Medical Research and Innovation, Shanghai Pudong Hospital & State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, P.R. China; MOE Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Nanomedicines are of increasing scrutiny due to their improved efficacy and/or mitigated side effects. They can be integrated with many other therapeutics to further boost the clinical benefits. Among those, herbal medicines are arousing great interest to be combined with nanomedicines to exert synergistic effects in multifaceted mechanisms. Read More

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Interleukin 33 mediates hepatocyte autophagy and innate immune response in the early phase of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury.

Toxicology 2021 Apr 19:152788. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery and Fujian Institute of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Cancer Center of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, China; Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Gastrointestinal Cancer, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China. Electronic address:

Despite interleukin 33 (IL-33) functions as an "alarmin" released from hepatic dead cells in response to tissue damages, the interrelationship between IL-33-mediated hepatocyte autophagy and innate immune response in the acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury (AILI) process remains obscure. This study aimed to explore the regulation of IL-33 on hepatocyte autophagy and macrophage polarization after APAP challenge in vivo and vitro. We found IL-33 released from hepatic necrosis was elevated in the AILI mouse model. Read More

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Inferring molecular mechanisms of dexamethasone therapy in severe COVID-19 from existing transcriptomic data.

Abhay Sharma

Gene 2021 Apr 19:145665. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Sukhdev Vihar, Mathura Road, New Delhi 110025, India. Electronic address:

Dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, has previously shown mortality benefit in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a randomized controlled trial. As the illness is considered to reflect a hyperinflammatory state, this therapeutic effectiveness is presumably ascribed to broad anti-inflammatory activities of glucocorticoids. Here, an unbiased analysis of available transcriptomic data on lung and blood immune cells from severe COVID-19 patients, and matching cellular models of dexamethasone treatment is presented that supports this presumption. Read More

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FOSL1 promotes cholangiocarcinoma via transcriptional effectors that could be therapeutically targeted.

J Hepatol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

University of Navarra, Centre for Applied Medical Research, Program in Solid Tumours, Pamplona, Spain; IdiSNA, Navarra Institute for Health Research, Pamplona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer (CIBERONC, Instituto de Salud Carlos III), Madrid, Spain; University of Navarra, Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Physiology, Pamplona, Spain. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a neoplasia of the biliary tract driven by genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional mechanisms. Here, we investigated the role of the transcription factor FOSL1, as well as its downstream transcriptional effectors, in the development and progression of CCA.

Methods: FOSL1 was investigated in human CCA clinical samples. Read More

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A comprehensive review on time-tested anticancer drug doxorubicin.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 19:119527. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Biotechnology, School of Bioengineering, College of Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur, 603 203 Chengalpattu District, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Doxorubicin or Adriamycin, is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic drug for treating a myriad of cancers. It induces cell death through multiple intracellular targets: reactive oxygen species generation, DNA-adduct formation, topoisomerase II inhibition, histone eviction, Ca and iron hemostasis regulation, and ceramide overproduction. Moreover, doxorubicin-treated dying cells undergo cellular modifications that enable neighboring dendritic cell activation and enhanced presentation of tumor antigen. Read More

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Chemerin causes lipid metabolic imbalance and induces passive lipid accumulation in human hepatoma cell line via the receptor GPR1.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 19:119530. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology & College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, PR China. Electronic address:

Aims: Chemerin is abundant in patients with high body mass index and metabolic syndrome possibly due to its activation in adipogenesis and glucose intolerance. It has reported that sera chemerin is positively associated with fatty liver with little known underlying mechanisms. Our aim is to study the role of chemerin in hepatic lipid metabolism. Read More

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Structural insights into the mechanisms and pharmacology of K potassium channels.

J Mol Biol 2021 Apr 19:166995. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Cardiovascular Research Institute; Departments of Biochemistry and Biophysics, and Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology; California Institute for Quantitative Biomedical Research; Kavli Institute for Fundamental Neuroscience University of California, San Francisco, California 93858-2330 USA; Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bio-imaging Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA. Electronic address:

Leak currents, defined as voltage and time independent flows of ions across cell membranes, are central to cellular electrical excitability control. The K (KCNK) potassium channel class comprises an ion channel family that produces potassium leak currents that oppose excitation and stabilize the resting membrane potential in cells in the brain, cardiovascular system, immune system, and sensory organs. Due to their widespread tissue distribution, Ks contribute to many physiological and pathophysiological processes including anesthesia, pain, arrythmias, ischemia, hypertension, migraine, intraocular pressure regulation, and lung injury responses. Read More

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Roles of ATM and ATR in DNA double strand breaks and replication stress.

Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Section of Structural and Synthetic Biology, Department of Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK. Electronic address:

The maintenance of genome integrity is critical for the faithful replication of the genome during cell division and for protecting cells from accumulation of DNA damage, which if left unrepaired leads to a loss of genetic information, a breakdown in cell function and ultimately cell death and cancer. ATM and ATR are master kinases that are integral to homologous recombination-mediated repair of double strand breaks and preventing accumulation of dangerous DNA structures and genome instability during replication stress. While the roles of ATM and ATR are heavily intertwined in response to double strand breaks, their roles diverge in the response to replication stress. Read More

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Divergent regulation of ATII cell and fibroblast apoptosis by PAI-1 in lung fibrosis.

Am J Pathol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL. Electronic address:

Increased apoptosis sensitivity of alveolar type 2 (ATII) cells and increased apoptosis resistance of (myo)fibroblasts, the apoptosis paradox, is believed to contribute importantly to the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The mechanism underlying the apoptosis paradox in IPF lungs, however, is unclear. Aging is the greatest risk factor for IPF. Read More

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A tale of two rhythms: Locked clocks and chaos in biology.

Cell Syst 2021 Apr;12(4):291-303

Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark; The James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Electronic address:

The fundamental mechanisms that control and regulate biological organisms exhibit a surprising level of complexity. Oscillators are perhaps the simplest motifs that produce time-varying dynamics and are ubiquitous in biological systems. It is also known that such biological oscillators interact with each other-for instance, circadian oscillators affect the cell cycle, and somitogenesis clock proteins in adjacent cells affect each other in developing embryos. Read More

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Distinct PRC2 subunits regulate maintenance and establishment of Polycomb repression during differentiation.

Mol Cell 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Epigenetics Institute, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

The Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is an essential epigenetic regulator that deposits repressive H3K27me3. PRC2 subunits form two holocomplexes-PRC2.1 and PRC2. Read More

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Occurrence and Functions of m6A and Other Covalent Modifications in Plant mRNA1[OPEN].

Plant Physiol 2020 Jan;182(1):79-96

University of Copenhagen, Department of Biology, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.

Posttranscriptional control of gene expression is indispensable for the execution of developmental programs and environmental adaptation. Among the many cellular mechanisms that regulate mRNA fate, covalent nucleotide modification has emerged as a major way of controlling the processing, localization, stability, and translatability of mRNAs. This powerful mechanism is conserved across eukaryotes and controls the cellular events that lead to development and growth. Read More

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January 2020

SDG8-Mediated Histone Methylation and RNA Processing Function in the Response to Nitrate Signaling1[OPEN].

Plant Physiol 2020 Jan;182(1):215-227

Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, Department of Biology, New York University, New York, New York 10003.

Chromatin modification has gained increased attention for its role in the regulation of plant responses to environmental changes, but the specific mechanisms and molecular players remain elusive. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) histone methyltransferase SET DOMAIN GROUP8 (SDG8) mediates genome-wide changes in H3K36 methylation at specific genomic loci functionally relevant to nitrate treatments. Moreover, we show that the specific H3K36 methyltransferase encoded by SDG8 is required for canonical RNA processing, and that RNA isoform switching is more prominent in the sdg8-5 deletion mutant than in the wild type. Read More

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January 2020

Visualization of Protein Coding, Long Noncoding, and Nuclear RNAs by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization in Sections of Shoot Apical Meristems and Developing Flowers1[OPEN].

Plant Physiol 2020 Jan;182(1):147-158

Sainsbury Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1LR, United Kingdom.

In addition to transcriptional regulation, gene expression is further modulated through mRNA spatiotemporal distribution, by RNA movement between cells, and by RNA localization within cells. Here, we have adapted RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to explore RNA localization in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We show that RNA FISH on sectioned material can be applied to investigate the tissue and subcellular localization of meristem and flower development genes, cell cycle transcripts, and plant long noncoding RNAs. Read More

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January 2020

A mouse model of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome has impaired fear memory, which is rescued by lithium treatment.

PLoS Genet 2021 Apr 22;17(4):e1009484. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Neuroscience Program, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America.

Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles present on most cells that regulate many physiological processes, ranging from maintaining energy homeostasis to renal function. However, the role of these structures in the regulation of behavior remains unknown. To study the role of cilia in behavior, we employ mouse models of the human ciliopathy, Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS). Read More

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Growth differentiation factor 11: a "rejuvenation factor" involved in regulation of age-related diseases?

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 22;13. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang, China.

Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), a member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily of cytokines, is a critical rejuvenation factor in aging cells. GDF11 improves neurodegenerative and neurovascular disease outcomes, increases skeletal muscle volume, and enhances muscle strength. Its wide-ranging biological effects may include the reversal of senescence in clinical applications, as well as the ability to reverse age-related pathological changes and regulate organ regeneration after injury. Read More

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Scorpion venom peptide SVHRSP ameliorates 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation: potential role of Na 1.6 inhibition in microglia.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

National-Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Drug Research and Development (R&D) of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Dalian Medical University, No 9 Western Section, Lvshun South Road, Dalian City, P.R. China, 116044.

Background And Purpose: Microglia-related inflammation is associated with the pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Functional voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCS) are involved in regulating microglial function. Here, we aim to investigate the effects of SVHRSP (scorpion venom heat-resistant synthesized peptide) on 6-OHDA-induced PD-like mouse model and reveal its underlying mechanism. Read More

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Nuclear mA reader YTHDC1 regulates the scaffold function of LINE1 RNA in mouse ESCs and early embryos.

Protein Cell 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Shanghai East Hospital, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Signaling and Disease Research, Frontier Science Center for Stem Cell Research, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200120, China.

N-methyladenosine (mA) on chromosome-associated regulatory RNAs (carRNAs), including repeat RNAs, plays important roles in tuning the chromatin state and transcription, but the intrinsic mechanism remains unclear. Here, we report that YTHDC1 plays indispensable roles in the self-renewal and differentiation potency of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which highly depends on the mA-binding ability. Ythdc1 is required for sufficient rRNA synthesis and repression of the 2-cell (2C) transcriptional program in ESCs, which recapitulates the transcriptome regulation by the LINE1 scaffold. Read More

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Oxiracetam Mediates Neuroprotection Through the Regulation of Microglia Under Hypoxia-Ischemia Neonatal Brain Injury in Mice.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Science, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, 44# Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan, 250012, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

In neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD), in addition to damage caused by hypoxia and ischemia, over-activation of inflammation leads to further deterioration of the condition, thus greatly shortening the optimal treatment time window. Ischemic penumbra, the edematous area encompassing the infarct core, is characterized by typical activation of microglia and overt inflammation, and prone to incorporate into the infarct core gradually after ischemia onset. If treated in time, the cells located in the penumbra can survive, thereby impeding the expansion of the infarction. Read More

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miR-145-5p targets paxillin to attenuate angiotensin II-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy via downregulation of Rac 1, pJNK, p-c-Jun, NFATc3, ANP and by Sirt-1 upregulation.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan.

Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is associated with many diseases including hypertension. Recent studies have identified important roles for microRNAs (miRNAs) in many cardiac pathophysiological processes, including the regulation of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. However, the role of miR-145-5p in the cardiac setting is still unclear. Read More

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MicroRNA-25 Exerts an Oncogenic Function by Regulating the Ubiquitin Ligase Fbxw7 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto, Japan.

Background: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression abnormalities are implicated in tumor progression. Previous reports have indicated that microRNA-25 (miR-25) acts as a tumor suppressor or oncogene in diverse cancers. However, its molecular mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still unclear. Read More

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Pellino1 deficiency reprograms cardiomyocytes energy metabolism in lipopolysaccharide-induced myocardial dysfunction.

Amino Acids 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Emergency, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing, 210029, China.

Pellino1 has been shown to regulate proinflammatory genes by activating the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways, which are important in the pathological development of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced myocarditis. However, it is still unknown whether silencing Pellino1 (si-Pellino1) has a therapeutic effect on this disease. Here, we showed that silencing Pellino1 can be a potential protective strategy for abnormal myocardial energy metabolism in LPS-induced myocarditis. Read More

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Abscisic Acid Coordinates Dose-Dependent Developmental and Hydraulic Responses of Roots to Water Deficit.

Plant Physiol 2019 Jul;180(4):2198-2211

BPMP, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, INRA, SupAgro, 2 place P. Viala F34060 Montpellier, France.

Root water uptake is influenced by root system architecture, which is determined by root growth and branching and the hydraulics of root cells and tissues. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a major role in the adaptation of plants to water deficit (WD). Here we addressed at the whole-root level in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) the regulatory role of ABA in mechanisms that determine root hydraulic architecture. Read More

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Extensive Posttranscriptional Regulation of Nuclear Gene Expression by Plastid Retrograde Signals.

Plant Physiol 2019 Jul;180(4):2034-2048

Max-Planck-Institut für Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany.

Retrograde signals emanate from the DNA-containing cell organelles (plastids and mitochondria) and control the expression of a large number of nuclear genes in response to environmental and developmental cues. Previous studies on retrograde signaling have mainly analyzed the regulation of nuclear gene expression at the transcript level. To determine the contribution of translational and posttranslational regulation to plastid retrograde signaling, we combined label-free proteomics with transcriptomic analysis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings and studied their response to interference with the plastid gene expression pathway of retrograde signaling. Read More

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Transcriptional Corepressor ASP1 and CLV-Like Signaling Regulate Meristem Maintenance in Rice.

Plant Physiol 2019 Jun;180(3):1520-1534

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654, Japan.

Stem cell homeostasis is maintained by the WUSCHEL-CLAVATA (WUS-CLV) negative feedback loop in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In rice (Oryza sativa), FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 (FON2) functions in the negative regulation of stem cell proliferation, similar to Arabidopsis CLV3. In this study, through genetic enhancer analysis, we found that loss of function of ABERRANT SPIKELET AND PANICLE1 (ASP1), encoding an Arabidopsis TOPLESS (TPL)-like transcriptional corepressor, enhances the fon2 flower phenotype, which displayed an increase in floral organ number. Read More

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GATA and Phytochrome Interacting Factor Transcription Factors Regulate Light-Induced Vindoline Biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus.

Plant Physiol 2019 Jun;180(3):1336-1350

Key Laboratory of South China Agricultural Plant Molecular Analysis and Genetic Improvement, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China 510650.

Catharanthus roseus is the exclusive source of an array of terpenoid indole alkaloids including the anticancer drugs vincristine and vinblastine, derived from the coupling of catharanthine and vindoline. Leaf-synthesized vindoline is regulated by light. A seven-step enzymatic process is involved in the sequential conversion of tabersonine to vindoline; however, the regulatory mechanism controlling the expression of genes encoding these enzymes has not been elucidated. Read More

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CENTRORADIALIS Interacts with FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Genes to Control Floret Development and Grain Number.

Plant Physiol 2019 Jun;180(2):1013-1030

Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, D-50829 Cologne, Germany.

CENTRORADIALIS (CEN) is a key regulator of flowering time and inflorescence architecture in plants. Natural variation in the barley (Hordeum vulgare) homolog HvCEN is important for agricultural range expansion of barley cultivation, but its effects on shoot and spike architecture and consequently yield have not yet been characterized. Here, we evaluated 23 independent hvcen, also termed mat-c, mutants to determine the pleiotropic effects of HvCEN on developmental timing and shoot and spike morphologies of barley under outdoor and controlled conditions. Read More

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