43 results match your criteria regulating at2r

Estrogen normalizes maternal HFD-induced cardiac hypertrophy in offspring by regulating AT2R.

J Endocrinol 2021 06 16;250(1):1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Pharmacology, Key Laboratory of Molecular Target & Clinical Pharmacology, School of, Pharmaceutical Sciences & the Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Our previous study has demonstrated maternal high-fat diet (HFD) caused sex-dependent cardiac hypertrophy in adult male, but not female offspring. The present study tested the hypothesis that estrogen normalizes maternal HFD-induced cardiac hypertrophy by regulating angiotensin II receptor (ATR) expression in adult female offspring. Pregnant rats were divided into the normal diet (ND) and HFD (60% kcal fat) groups. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Loxoprofen Sodium Alleviates Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Induced by Angiotensin II in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs).

Drug Des Devel Ther 2020 18;14:5087-5096. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine Ward 2, Zibo Central Hospital, Zibo, Shandong 255020, People's Republic of China.

Background And Purpose: Endothelium exerts an important role in releasing vasoactive substances, maintaining the blood flow, regulating the growth of vessels, moderating the process of coagulation, and the balance of fibrinolytic system, the dysfunction of which is reported to result in arterial stiffness. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of loxoprofen sodium against HUVECs injury induced by angiotensin II.

Methods: The injury model on HUVECs was established through incubation with angiotensin II. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Brain Renin-Angiotensin System at the Intersect of Physical and Cognitive Frailty.

Front Neurosci 2020 30;14:586314. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was initially considered to be part of the endocrine system regulating water and electrolyte balance, systemic vascular resistance, blood pressure, and cardiovascular homeostasis. It was later discovered that intracrine and local forms of RAS exist in the brain apart from the endocrine RAS. This brain-specific RAS plays essential roles in brain homeostasis by acting mainly through four angiotensin receptor subtypes; ATR, ATR, MasR, and ATR. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Brain Angiotensin Type-1 and Type-2 Receptors in Physiological and Hypertensive Conditions: Focus on Neuroinflammation.

Curr Hypertens Rep 2020 07 13;22(7):48. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Physiology and Functional Genomics, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To review recent data that suggest opposing effects of brain angiotensin type-1 (ATR) and type-2 (ATR) receptors on blood pressure (BP). Here, we discuss recent studies that suggest pro-hypertensive and pro-inflammatory actions of ATR and anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory actions of ATR. Further, we propose mechanisms for the interplay between brain angiotensin receptors and neuroinflammation in hypertension. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Network of Angiotensin Receptors in Breast Cancer.

Filippo Acconcia

Cells 2020 05 27;9(6). Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Sciences, Biomedical Sciences and Technology Section, University Roma TRE, Viale Guglielmo Marconi 446, I-00146 Rome, Italy.

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a network of proteins regulating many aspects of human physiology, including cardiovascular, pulmonary, and immune system physiology. The RAS is a complicated network of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) (i.e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Recent Research Advances in Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Receptors.

Curr Hypertens Rep 2020 02 29;22(3):22. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Takamatsu, Kagawa, Japan.

Purpose Of Review: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays important roles in regulating blood pressure and body fluid, which contributes to the pathophysiology of hypertension and cardiovascular/renal diseases. However, accumulating evidence has further revealed the complexity of this signal transduction system, including direct interactions with other receptors and proteins. This review focuses on recent research advances in RAAS with an emphasis on its receptors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2020

High-dose nitrate therapy recovers the expression of subtypes α and β-adrenoceptors and Ang II receptors of the renal cortex in rats with myocardial infarction-induced heart failures.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2020 02 27;20(1):99. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Emergency, Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100029, China.

Background: Few studies examined the effect of long-acting nitrates on renal function in chronic heart failure (CHF). Thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of long-acting nitrate on the expression of adrenoceptors (AR) and angiotensin II receptor (ATR) subtypes of the renal cortex, in rats with myocardial infarction-induced CHF.

Methods: Rats were randomly divided into the following groups: control, sham-operated, CHF, low- and high-dose nitrate, positive drug control (olmesartan), and high-dose of long-acting nitrate + olmesartan. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2020

The Crystal Structure of Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor with Endogenous Peptide Hormone.

Structure 2020 04 30;28(4):418-425.e4. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan; RIKEN, SPring-8 Center, Hyogo 679-5165, Japan. Electronic address:

Angiotensin II (AngII) is a peptide hormone that plays a key role in regulating blood pressure, and its interactions with the G protein-coupled receptors, AngII type-1 receptor (ATR) and AngII type-2 receptor (ATR), are central to its mechanism of action. We solved the crystal structure of human ATR bound to AngII and its specific antibody at 3.2-Å resolution. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Role of angiotensin type 2 receptor in improving lipid metabolism and preventing adiposity.

Mol Cell Biochem 2019 Nov 14;461(1-2):195-204. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Department of Pharmacological & Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, 4849 Calhoun Rd., Health 2, Houston, TX, 77204, USA.

Recent studies on mice with null mutation of the angiotensin type 2 receptor (ATR) gene have implicated the involvement of ATR in regulating adipocyte size and obesity, a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome. However, the outcome from these studies remains inconclusive. Therefore, current study was designed to test whether pharmacological activation of ATR regulates adiposity and lipid metabolism. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2019

Renin-angiotensin system in osteoarthritis: A new potential therapy.

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Oct 10;75:105796. Epub 2019 Aug 10.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province, China. Electronic address:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common chronic joint diseases. However, the mechanism remains unclear. The traditional renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important system for regulating homeostasis and controlling balance. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2019

ACE inhibitor suppresses cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction by regulating dendritic cells and AT receptor-mediated mechanism in mice.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jun 8;114:108660. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Cardiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Dendritic cells (DCs) play a complex role in the progression of myocardial infarction (MI). The impact of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy, partly via affecting DCs maturation and recruitment, was tested on a MI mouse model. Furthermore, the cardioprotective effects of ACEI were enhanced through attenuating migration of DCs from the spleen into peripheral circulation, thereby inhibiting DCs maturation and tissue inflammation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Angiotensin II and tumor necrosis factor-α stimulate the growth, migration and invasion of BEL-7402 cells via down-regulation of GRK2 expression.

Dig Liver Dis 2019 02 20;51(2):263-274. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Anhui Medical University, Key Laboratory of Anti-inflammatory and Immune Medicine, Ministry of Education, Anhui Collaborative Innovation Center of Anti-inflammatory and Immune Medicine, Hefei, Anhui, PR China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To investigate the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) on the biological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and the associated changes in G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) expression.

Methods: The mean serum levels of Ang II and TNF-α in normal subjects and patients with benign liver tumors (BLTs) and HCC were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and liver samples from the patients with HCC and HCC mice were used to assess the protein levels of both cytokines, their major receptors and GRK2. In addition, the dynamics of Bel-7402 cells were determined with cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and Transwell experiments, while the levels of the primary cytokine receptors Ang II type-1 receptor (AT1R) and type-2 receptor (AT2R) as well as TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) were detected by flow cytometry (FCM). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2019

Kir4.1/Kir5.1 in the DCT plays a role in the regulation of renal K excretion.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2019 03 9;316(3):F582-F586. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York.

The aim of this mini review is to provide an overview regarding the role of inwardly rectifying potassium channel 4.1 (Kir4.1)/Kir5. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Resveratrol ameliorates maternal and post-weaning high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via renin-angiotensin system.

Lipids Health Dis 2018 Jul 28;17(1):178. Epub 2018 Jul 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Niao Sung, Kaohsiung, 83301, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can develop in prenatal stages and can be exacerbated by exposure to a postnatal high-fat (HF) diet. We investigated the protective effects of resveratrol on prenatal and postnatal HF diet-induced NAFLD.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rat offspring were placed in five experimental groups (n = 10-12 per group): normal diet (VNF), maternal HF diet (ONF), postnatal HF diet (VHF), and maternal HF diet/postnatal HF diet (OHF). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Crystal structure of the human angiotensin II type 2 receptor bound to an angiotensin II analog.

Nat Struct Mol Biol 2018 07 2;25(7):570-576. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Angiotensin II (AngII) plays a central role in regulating human blood pressure, which is mainly mediated by interactions between AngII and the G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) AngII type 1 receptor (ATR) and AngII type 2 receptor (ATR). We have solved the crystal structure of human ATR binding the peptide ligand [Sar, Ile]AngII and its specific antibody at 3.2-Å resolution. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Telmisartan inhibits NSCLC A549 cell proliferation and migration by regulating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

Oncol Lett 2018 Apr 8;15(4):5859-5864. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Yanbian University, Yanji, Jilin 133000, P.R. China.

Expression of angiotensin II (Ang II), a key biological peptide in the renin-angiotensin system, is closely associated with the occurrence and development of cancer. Ang II binds two receptor subtypes, the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and the AT2R, to mediate a series of biological effects. Telmisartan, a specific AT1R blocker, has been reported to have potential as an anticancer drug for treating renal cancer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prenatal dexamethasone and postnatal high-fat diet have a synergistic effect of elevating blood pressure through a distinct programming mechanism of systemic and adipose renin-angiotensin systems.

Lipids Health Dis 2018 Mar 14;17(1):50. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, #123, Ta-Pei Road, Niao-Sung District, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Background: Hypertension may result from high-fat (HF) diet induced-obesity and overexposure to glucocorticoids in utero. Recent studies demonstrated the potent contribution of adipose tissue's renin-angiotensin system (RAS) to systemic RAS, which plays a key role in regulating blood pressure (BP). In this study, we investigated the effects of prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure and postnatal HF diet on RAS of adipose tissue. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Role of mTORC1 Controlling Proteostasis after Brain Ischemia.

Front Neurosci 2018 15;12:60. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.

Intense efforts are being undertaken to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms triggered after brain ischemia and to develop effective pharmacological treatments. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are complex and not completely understood. One of the main problems is the fact that the ischemic damage is time-dependent and ranges from negligible to massive, involving different cell types such as neurons, astrocytes, microglia, endothelial cells, and some blood-derived cells (neutrophils, lymphocytes, etc. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2018

The angiotensin type 2 receptor in the human adrenocortical zona glomerulosa and in aldosterone-producing adenoma: low expression and no functional role.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2018 03 20;132(6):627-640. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

Clinica dell'Ipertensione Arteriosa, Department of Medicine-DIMED, University of Padova, Italy

The angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) receptor (MasR) play a cardiovascular protective role by counter-regulating Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-mediated effects, but whether this involves blunting of adrenocortical hormone secretion is unknown. We investigated the presence of AT1R, AT2R, and MasR in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), a condition featuring hyperaldosteronism, and in APA-adjacent tissue. The effect of Compound 21 (C21), an AT2R agonist, on CYP11B1 (cortisol synthase) and CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) gene expression in NCI-H295R and HAC15 cell lines, and in APA and APA-adjacent tissue, was also assessed using the AT1R antagonist irbesartan to ascertain the specificity of C21 effect. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Angiotensin type 2 receptor activation promotes browning of white adipose tissue and brown adipogenesis.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2017;2:17022. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.

Brown adipose tissue dissipates energy in the form of heat. Recent studies have shown that adult humans possess both classical brown and beige adipocytes (brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue, WAT), and stimulating brown and beige adipocyte formation can be a new avenue to treat obesity. Angiotensin II (AngII) is a peptide hormone that plays important roles in energy metabolism via its angiotensin type 1 or type 2 receptors (AT1R and AT2R). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

The influence of TNF-α and Ang II on the proliferation, migration and invasion of HepG2 cells by regulating the expression of GRK2.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2017 04 18;79(4):747-758. Epub 2017 Mar 18.

Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Anhui Medical University, Key Laboratory of Anti-inflammatory and Immune Medicine, Ministry of Education, Anhui Collaborative Innovation Center of Anti-inflammatory and Immune Medicine, Hefei, 230032, Anhui, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common digestive system malignancy that is associated with a poor prognosis. This study researched the interaction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and angiotensin II (Ang II) in HCC cells proliferation, migration and invasion and examined their influence on the expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) and relevant receptors.

Methods: Cell Counting Kit-8 and Transwell assays were performed to evaluate the effects of TNF-α and Ang II on HepG2 cells proliferation, migration and invasion. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Differential renal effects of candesartan at high and ultra-high doses in diabetic mice-potential role of the ACE2/AT2R/Mas axis.

Biosci Rep 2016 10 27;36(5). Epub 2016 Oct 27.

Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1H 8M5 Institute of Cardiovascular & Medical Sciences, BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Canada G12 8TA

High doses of Ang II receptor (AT1R) blockers (ARBs) are renoprotective in diabetes. Underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We evaluated whether high/ultra-high doses of candesartan (ARB) up-regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R)/Mas receptor [protective axis of the of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS)] in diabetic mice. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2016

An Intronic Enhancer Element Regulates Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Expression during Satellite Cell Differentiation, and Its Activity Is Suppressed in Congestive Heart Failure.

J Biol Chem 2016 Dec 18;291(49):25578-25590. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

From the Department of Medicine and Medical Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, Missouri 65212.

Patients with advanced congestive heart failure (CHF) or chronic kidney disease often have increased angiotensin II (Ang II) levels and cachexia. We previously demonstrated that Ang II, via its type 1 receptor, causes muscle protein breakdown and apoptosis and inhibits satellite cell (SC) proliferation and muscle regeneration, likely contributing to cachexia in CHF and chronic kidney disease. In contrast, Ang II, via its type 2 receptor (AT2R) expression, is robustly induced during SC differentiation, and it potentiates muscle regeneration. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2016

The ROS derived mitochondrial respirstion not from NADPH oxidase plays key role in Celastrol against angiotensin II-mediated HepG2 cell proliferation.

Apoptosis 2016 11;21(11):1315-1326

Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescription Effect and Clinical Evaluation of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, 264003, Shandong, China.

Angiotensin II (AngII) is an important factor that promotes the proliferation of cancer cells, whereas celastrol exhibits a significant antitumor activity in various cancer models. Whether celastrol can effectively suppress AngII mediated cell proliferation remains unknown. In this study, we studied the effect of celastrol on AngII-induced HepG2 cell proliferation and evaluated its underlying mechanism. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2016

Heterologous regulation of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor by angiotensin II in astrocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

J Neurochem 2016 11 12;139(4):523-536. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA.

Brainstem and cerebellar astrocytes have critical roles to play in hypertension and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, respectively. Angiotensin (Ang) II, via the astroglial Ang type 1 receptor (AT1R), has been demonstrated to elevate pro-inflammatory mediators in the brainstem and the cerebellum. The activation of astroglial cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R), a master regulator of homeostasis, has been shown to neutralize inflammatory states. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2016

Renal effects of angiotensin II in the newborn period: role of type 1 and type 2 receptors.

BMC Physiol 2016 Apr 18;16. Epub 2016 Apr 18.

Department of Physiology & Pharmacology; Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute for Child and Maternal Health, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive, NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 4N1, Canada.

Background: Evidence suggests a critical role for the renin-angiotensin system in regulating renal function during postnatal development. However, the physiological relevance of a highly elevated renin-angiotensin system early in life is not well understood, nor which angiotensin receptors might be involved. This study was designed to investigate the roles of angiotensin receptors type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) in regulating glomerular and tubular function during postnatal development. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

ROS and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-dependent trafficking of angiotensin II type 2 receptor begets neuronal NOS in cardiac myocytes.

Basic Res Cardiol 2015 May 25;110(3):21. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

Department of Physiology & Biomedical Sciences, Hypoxia Research Institute, Institute of Human-Environment Interface Biology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, 103 Dae Hak Ro, Chong no Gu, 110-799, Seoul, Korea.

Angiotensin II (Ang II), a potent precursor of hypertrophy and heart failure, upregulates neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS or NOS1) in the myocardium. Here, we investigate the involvement of type 1 and 2 angiotensin receptors (AT1R and AT2R) and molecular mechanisms mediating Ang II-upregulation of nNOS. Our results showed that pre-treatment of left ventricular (LV) myocytes with antagonists of AT1R or AT2R (losartan, PD123319) and ROS scavengers (apocynin, tiron or PEG-catalase) blocked Ang II-upregulation of nNOS. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Angiotensin type 2 receptor signaling in satellite cells potentiates skeletal muscle regeneration.

J Biol Chem 2014 Sep 11;289(38):26239-26248. Epub 2014 Aug 11.

Heart and Vascular Institute, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112. Electronic address:

Patients with advanced congestive heart failure (CHF) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) often have increased angiotensin II (Ang II) levels and cachexia. Ang II infusion in rodents causes sustained skeletal muscle wasting and decreases muscle regenerative potential through Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-mediated signaling, likely contributing to the development of cachexia in CHF and CKD. However, the potential role of Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) signaling in skeletal muscle physiology is unknown. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2014

Angiotensin receptors modulate the renal hemodynamic effects of nitric oxide in conscious newborn lambs.

Physiol Rep 2014 May 28;2(5). Epub 2014 May 28.

The Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute for Child and Maternal Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada The Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

This study aimed to elucidate the roles of both angiotensin II (ANG II) receptors - type 1 (AT1Rs) and type 2 (AT2Rs) - separately and together in influencing hemodynamic effects of endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) during postnatal development. In conscious, chronically instrumented lambs aged ~1 week (8 ± 1 days, N = 8) and ~6 weeks (41 ± 2 days, N = 8), systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure (SAP, DAP, MAP) and venous pressure (MVP), renal blood flow (RBF), and renal vascular resistance (RVR) were measured in response to the l-arginine analog, l-NAME after pretreatment with either the AT1R antagonist, ZD 7155, the AT2R antagonist, PD 123319, or both antagonists. The increase in SAP, DAP, and MAP by l-NAME was not altered by either ATR antagonist in either age group. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mechanism of erythropoietin regulation by angiotensin II.

Mol Pharmacol 2014 Jun 2;85(6):898-908. Epub 2014 Apr 2.

Department of Pharmacology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (Y.-C.K., O.M., E.A.M., P.J.R., R.M.D.); and Department of Animal Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (D.K.Y.).

Erythropoietin (EPO) is the primary regulator of red blood cell development. Although hypoxic regulation of EPO has been extensively studied, the mechanism(s) for basal regulation of EPO are not well understood. In vivo studies in healthy human volunteers and animal models indicated that angiotensin II (Ang II) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors regulated blood EPO levels. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF