9,143 results match your criteria regulate mitochondrial

Effect of hypoxia factors gene silencing on ROS production and metabolic status of A375 malignant melanoma cells.

Sci Rep 2021 May 14;11(1):10325. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Medical and Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, Trieda SNP 1, 04011, Košice, Slovakia.

The innate response of melanocytes to exogenous or endogenous stress stimuli like extreme pH and temperature, metabolite and oxygen deficiency or a high UV dose initiates a cellular stress response. This process activates adaptive processes to minimize the negative impact of the stressor on the pigment cell. Under physiological conditions, a non-cancer cell is directed to apoptosis if the stressor persists. Read More

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Detecting the epitranscriptome.

Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA 2021 May 13:e1663. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Biological Sciences, University at Albany, Albany, New York, USA.

RNA modifications and their corresponding epitranscriptomic writer and eraser enzymes regulate gene expression. Altered RNA modification levels, dysregulated writers, and sequence changes that disrupt epitranscriptomic marks have been linked to mitochondrial and neurological diseases, cancer, and multifactorial disorders. The detection of epitranscriptomics marks is challenging, but different next generation sequencing (NGS)-based and mass spectrometry-based approaches have been used to identify and quantitate the levels of individual and groups of RNA modifications. Read More

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SS-31 Protects Liver from Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via Modulating Macrophage Polarization.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 13;2021:6662156. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common complication in liver surgeries. It is a focus to discover effective treatments to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury. Previous studies show that oxidative stress and inflammation response contribute to the liver damage during IRI. Read More

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ADP Induces Blood Glucose Through Direct and Indirect Mechanisms in Promotion of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by Elevation of NADH.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 27;12:663530. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Extracellular ADP, a derivative of ATP, interacts with the purinergic receptors in the cell membrane to regulate cellular activities. This signaling pathway remains unknown in the regulation of blood glucose . We investigated the acute activity of ADP in mice through a peritoneal injection. Read More

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Capsaicin protects cardiomyocytes against lipopolysaccharide-induced damage via 14-3-3γ-mediated autophagy augmentation.

Front Pharmacol 2021 27;12:659015. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Jiangxi Academy of Clinical Medical Sciences, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

The myocardium is susceptible to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced damage in sepsis, and cardiac dysfunction is a leading cause of mortality in patients with sepsis. The changes in cardiomyocyte autophagy in sepsis and the effects and mechanism of action of capsaicin (Cap) remain unclear. The potential pathway of 14-3-3γ-dependent autophagy and the effects and mechanisms of Cap were studied in LPS-induced injury to primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Read More

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Cell-specific transcriptional control of mitochondrial metabolism by TIF1γ drives erythropoiesis.

Science 2021 May;372(6543):716-721

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 01238, USA.

Transcription and metabolism both influence cell function, but dedicated transcriptional control of metabolic pathways that regulate cell fate has rarely been defined. We discovered, using a chemical suppressor screen, that inhibition of the pyrimidine biosynthesis enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) rescues erythroid differentiation in bloodless zebrafish mutant embryos defective for transcriptional intermediary factor 1 gamma (). This rescue depends on the functional link of DHODH to mitochondrial respiration. Read More

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Airborne particulate matters induce thrombopoiesis from megakaryocytes through regulating mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

Part Fibre Toxicol 2021 May 13;18(1):19. Epub 2021 May 13.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, People's Republic of China.

Background: Although airborne fine particulate matter (PM) pollution has been demonstrated as an independent risk factor for pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, their currently-available toxicological data is still far from sufficient to explain the cause-and-effect. Platelets can regulate a variety of physiological and pathological processes, and the epidemiological study has indicated a positive association between PM exposure and the increased number of circulative platelets. As one of the target organs for PM pollution, the lung has been found to be involved in the storage of platelet progenitor cells (i. Read More

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Autophagy is critical for cysteine metabolism in pancreatic cancer through regulation of SLC7A11.

Autophagy 2021 May 14:1-2. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Laura and Isaac Perlmutter Cancer Center, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest forms of cancer. The elevated macroautophagy/autophagy in these tumors supports growth, promotes immune evasion, and increases therapeutic resistance. Therefore, targeting autophagy is a therapeutic strategy that is being pursued to treat PDAC patients. Read More

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Host-bacteria metabolic crosstalk drives biofilm.

Microb Cell 2021 Apr 19;8(5):106-107. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.

is a prominent pathogen that can cause intractable lung infections in humans. persists in the airway despite inflammation and immune cell recruitment by adapting to host-derived antimicrobial factors. A key component of the immune response to infection are host metabolites that regulate inflammation and bacterial survival. Read More

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Resistin-Like Molecule α Dysregulates Cardiac Bioenergetics in Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 26;8:574708. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Heart (right) failure is the most frequent cause of death in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Although historically, increased right ventricular afterload has been considered the main contributor to right heart failure in such patients, recent evidence has suggested a potential role of load-independent factors. Here, we tested the hypothesis that resistin-like molecule α (RELMα), which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular remodeling in pulmonary artery hypertension, also contributes to cardiac metabolic remodeling, leading to heart failure. Read More

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Feeding-induced resistance to acute lethal sepsis is dependent on hepatic BMAL1 and FXR signalling.

Nat Commun 2021 May 12;12(1):2745. Epub 2021 May 12.

Immunoregulation Section, Autoimmunity Branch, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

In mice, time of day strongly influences lethality in response to LPS, with survival greatest at the beginning compared to the end of the light cycle. Here we show that feeding, rather than light, controls time-of-day dependent LPS sensitivity. Mortality following LPS administration is independent of cytokine production and the clock regulator BMAL1 expressed in myeloid cells. Read More

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Cannabinoid control of hippocampal functions: The where matters.

FEBS J 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine and Nursing, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Achucarro Basque Center for Neuroscience, 48940, Leioa, Spain.

In the brain, hippocampal circuits are crucial for cognitive performance (e.g., memory) and deeply affected in pathological conditions (e. Read More

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Inhibition of the HEG1-KRIT1 interaction increases KLF4 and KLF2 expression in endothelial cells.

FASEB Bioadv 2021 May 18;3(5):334-355. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Medicine University of California San Diego La Jolla CA USA.

The transmembrane protein heart of glass1 (HEG1) directly binds to and recruits Krev interaction trapped protein 1 (KRIT1) to endothelial junctions to form the HEG1-KRIT1 protein complex that establishes and maintains junctional integrity. Genetic inactivation or knockdown of endothelial HEG1 or KRIT1 leads to the upregulation of transcription factors Krüppel-like factors 4 and 2 (KLF4 and KLF2), which are implicated in endothelial vascular homeostasis; however, the effect of acute inhibition of the HEG1-KRIT1 interaction remains incompletely understood. Here, we report a high-throughput screening assay and molecular design of a small-molecule HEG1-KRIT1 inhibitor to uncover acute changes in signaling pathways downstream of the HEG1-KRIT1 protein complex disruption. Read More

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Mitofusin-2 boosts innate immunity through the maintenance of aerobic glycolysis and activation of xenophagy in mice.

Commun Biol 2021 May 10;4(1):548. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea.

Mitochondrial function and innate immunity are intimately linked; however, the mechanisms how mitochondrion-shaping proteins regulate innate host defense remains largely unknown. Herein we show that mitofusin-2 (MFN2), a mitochondrial fusion protein, promotes innate host defense through the maintenance of aerobic glycolysis and xenophagy via hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α during intracellular bacterial infection. Myeloid-specific MFN2 deficiency in mice impaired the antimicrobial and inflammatory responses against mycobacterial and listerial infection. Read More

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NMR structural analysis of the yeast cytochrome c oxidase subunit Cox13 and its interaction with ATP.

BMC Biol 2021 May 10;19(1):98. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Mitochondrial respiration is organized in a series of enzyme complexes in turn forming dynamic supercomplexes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast), Cox13 (CoxVIa in mammals) is a conserved peripheral subunit of Complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase, CytcO), localized at the interface of dimeric bovine CytcO, which has been implicated in the regulation of the complex.

Results: Here, we report the solution NMR structure of Cox13, which forms a dimer in detergent micelles. Read More

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Mitochondrial matrix proteases - quality control and beyond.

FEBS J 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute for Mitochondrial Diseases and Aging, Medical Faculty, University of Cologne, D-50931, Cologne, Germany.

To ensure correct function, mitochondria have developed several mechanisms of protein quality control (QC). Protein homeostasis highly relies on chaperones and proteases to maintain proper folding and remove damaged proteins that might otherwise form cell-toxic aggregates. Besides quality control, mitochondrial proteases modulate and regulate many essential functions, such as trafficking, processing, and activation of mitochondrial proteins, mitochondrial dynamics, mitophagy, and apoptosis. Read More

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Regulating Twisted Skeleton to Construct Organ-Specific Perylene for Intensive Cancer Chemotherapy.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, No. 11 Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, 100190, Beijing, CHINA.

The systemic use of pharmaceutical drugs for cancer patients is a compromise between desirable therapy and side effects because of the intrinsic shortage of organ-specific pharmaceutical drug. Design and construction of pharmaceutical drug to achieve the organ-specific delivery is thus desperately desirable. We herein regulate perylene skeleton to effect organ-specificity and present an example of lung-specific distribution on the basis of bay-twisted PDIC-NC. Read More

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CD4 T-cell differentiation and function: Unifying glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, polyamines NAD mitochondria.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Research Center for Immunotherapy (FZI), University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany. Electronic address:

The progression through different steps of T-cell development, activation, and effector function is tightly bound to specific cellular metabolic processes. Previous studies established that T-effector cells have a metabolic bias toward aerobic glycolysis, whereas naive and regulatory T cells mainly rely on oxidative phosphorylation. More recently, the field of immunometabolism has drifted away from the notion that mitochondrial metabolism holds little importance in T-cell activation and function. Read More

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Pharmacological inhibition of GLUT1 as a new immunotherapeutic approach after myocardial infarction.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 May 12;190:114597. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the major contributors to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Excess inflammation significantly contributes to cardiac remodeling and heart failure after MI. Accumulating evidence has shown the central role of cellular metabolism in regulating the differentiation and function of cells. Read More

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STARS overexpression in the mdx mouse enhances muscle functional capacity and regulates the actin cytoskeleton and oxidative phosphorylation pathways.

Exp Physiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Striated Muscle activator of Rho signalling (STARS) is an actin-binding protein that regulates transcriptional pathways controlling muscle function, growth and myogenesis; processes impaired in dystrophic muscle. Regulation of the STARS pathway in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? Members of the STARS signalling pathway are reduced in the quadriceps of patients with DMD and in mouse models of muscular dystrophy. Read More

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Neuropeptide Y and its receptors are expressed in chicken skeletal muscle and regulate mitochondrial function.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 May 4:113798. Epub 2021 May 4.

University of Arkansas, Center of Excellence for Poultry Science, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701. Electronic address:

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a highly conserved 36-amino acid neurotransmitter, which is primarily expressed in the mammalian arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. It is a potent orexigenic neuropeptide, stimulating appetite and inducing feed intake in a variety of species. Recent research has shown that NPY and its receptors can be expressed by peripheral tissues, but their role is not yet well defined. Read More

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Atp23p and Atp10p coordinate to regulate the assembly of yeast mitochondrial ATP synthase.

FASEB J 2021 Jun;35(6):e21538

Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of Chinese Ministry of Education, Center for Human Genome Research, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Two chaperones, Atp23p and Atp10p, were previously shown to regulate the assembly of yeast mitochondrial ATP synthase, and extra expression of ATP23 was found to partially rescue an atp10 deletion mutant, by an unknown mechanism. Here, we identified that the residues 112-115 (LRDK) of Atp23p were required for its function in assisting assembly of the synthase, and demonstrated both functions of Atp23p, processing subunit 6 precursor and assisting assembly of the synthase, were required for the partial rescue of atp10 deletion mutant. By chasing labeling with isotope S-methionine, we found the stability of subunit 6 of the synthase increased in atp10 null strain upon overexpression of ATP23. Read More

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Distinct fission signatures predict mitochondrial degradation or biogenesis.

Nature 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute of Physics, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland.

Mitochondrial fission is a highly regulated process that, when disrupted, can alter metabolism, proliferation and apoptosis. Dysregulation has been linked to neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Key components of the fission machinery include the endoplasmic reticulum and actin, which initiate constriction before dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) binds to the outer mitochondrial membrane via adaptor proteins, to drive scission. Read More

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Microvesicles released from pneumolysin-stimulated lung epithelial cells carry mitochondrial cargo and suppress neutrophil oxidative burst.

Sci Rep 2021 May 5;11(1):9529. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Pulmonary Inflammation, and Department of Infectious Diseases and Respiratory Medicine, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 10117, Berlin, Germany.

Microvesicles (MVs) are cell-derived extracellular vesicles that have emerged as markers and mediators of acute lung injury (ALI). One of the most common pathogens in pneumonia-induced ALI is Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), but the role of MVs during Spn lung infection is largely unknown. In the first line of defense against Spn and its major virulence factor, pneumolysin (PLY), are the alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). Read More

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Fic and non-Fic AMPylases: protein AMPylation in metazoans.

Open Biol 2021 May 5;11(5):210009. Epub 2021 May 5.

Cellular and Molecular Biology Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Protein AMPylation refers to the covalent attachment of an AMP moiety to the amino acid side chains of target proteins using ATP as nucleotide donor. This process is catalysed by dedicated AMP transferases, called AMPylases. Since this initial discovery, several research groups have identified AMPylation as a critical post-translational modification relevant to normal and pathological cell signalling in both bacteria and metazoans. Read More

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Nanoparticle conjugation of ginsenoside Rb3 inhibits myocardial fibrosis by regulating PPARα pathway.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 May 1;139:111630. Epub 2021 May 1.

School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Cardiac fibrosis occurs in ischemic and non-ischemic heart failure, hereditary cardiomyopathy, diabetes and aging. Energy metabolism, which serves a crucial function in the course and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, might have therapeutic benefits for myocardial fibrosis. Ginsenoside Rb3 (G-Rb3) is one of the main components of Ginseng and exhibits poor oral bioavailability but still exerts regulate energy metabolism effects in some diseases. Read More

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DNA-Based pH Nanosensor with Adjustable FRET Responses to Track Lysosomes and pH Fluctuations.

Anal Chem 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, College of Pharmacy and KLMDASR of Tianjin, Nankai University, Tongyan Road, Haihe Education Park, Tianjin 300350, People's Republic of China.

Extensive attention has been recently focused on designing signal adjustable biosensors. However, there are limited approaches available in this field. In this work, to visually track lysosomes with high contrast, we used the i-motif structure as a pH-responsive unit and proposed a novel strategy to regulate the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) response of the pH sensor. Read More

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Multiplexed mRNA assembly into ribonucleoprotein particles plays an operon-like role in the control of yeast cell physiology.

Elife 2021 May 4;10. Epub 2021 May 4.

Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

Prokaryotes utilize polycistronic messages (operons) to co-translate proteins involved in the same biological processes. Whether eukaryotes achieve similar regulation by selectively assembling and translating monocistronic messages derived from different chromosomes is unknown. We employed transcript-specific RNA pulldowns and RNA-seq/RT-PCR to identify yeast mRNAs that co-precipitate as ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. Read More

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LCT-3d Induces Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis by Upregulating Death Receptor 5 in Gastric Cancer Cells.

Front Oncol 2021 16;11:658608. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Drug Preparation, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Gastric cancer is a global health problem. In this study, we investigate the role of a novel Indole derivative, named LCT-3d, in inhibiting the growth of gastric cancer cells by MTT assay. The Western blotting results showed that LCT-3d modulated the mitochondrial-related proteins and Cleaved-Caspases 3/9, to induce cell apoptosis. Read More

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The nuclear sirtuin SIRT6 protects the heart from developing aging-associated myocyte senescence and cardiac hypertrophy.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 May 2;13. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Surgery, Basic Science Division, The Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, IL 60637, Chicago.

Sirtuins have been shown to regulate the aging process. We have previously demonstrated that Sirt6 blocks the pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Here, we show that Sirt6 can also mitigate aging-induced cardiomyocyte senescence and cardiac hypertrophy. Read More

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