11,368 results match your criteria regulate insulin

α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonists Regulate Inflammation and Growth Hormone Resistance in Sepsis.

Shock 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Departments of Surgery, State University of New York (SUNY), Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, USA.

Abstract: During sepsis the normal induction of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) by growth hormone (GH) action on liver is attenuated, a phenomenon called hepatic GH resistance. Hepatic GH resistance can be caused by cytokine-mediated activation of the NF-κB pathway which interferes with normal GH-signaling. The afferent and efferent fibers of the vagus nerve are integral to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) which attenuates hepatic TNFα production by activating the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). Read More

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miR-720 Regulates Insulin Secretion by Targeting Rab35.

Biomed Res Int 2021 5;2021:6662612. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Medical Center of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China.

miRNAs pose a good prospect in the diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study is aimed at investigating whether miR-720 targets Rab35 to regulate insulin secretion in MIN6 cells and its molecular mechanism and the clinical value of miR-720 as a specific biomarker of T2D. Fifty-five samples of new diagnosis T2D patients and normal control were collected. Read More

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Distinct signaling by insulin and IGF-1 receptors and their extra- and intracellular domains.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(17)

Section of Integrative Physiology and Metabolism, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215;

Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptors share many downstream signaling pathways but have unique biological effects. To define the molecular signals contributing to these distinct activities, we performed global phosphoproteomics on cells expressing either insulin receptor (IR), IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R), or chimeric IR-IGF1R receptors. We show that IR preferentially stimulates phosphorylations associated with mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and Akt pathways, whereas IGF1R preferentially stimulates phosphorylations on proteins associated with the Ras homolog family of guanosine triphosphate hydrolases (Rho GTPases), and cell cycle progression. Read More

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Fuzhuan brick tea supplemented with areca nuts: Effects on serum and gut microbiota in mice.

J Food Biochem 2021 Apr 20:e13737. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

College of Food Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, China.

Areca nut and Fuzhuan brick tea, a type of natural plant products, have obvious effects of fat reduction and weight loss; however, there is no report on their synergistic effect. This study investigated the effects of Fuzhuan brick tea supplemented with different concentrations of areca nut (5% (LAF), 10% (MAF), and 20% (HAF)) on serum and gut microbiota in Kunming (KM) mice. The results showed that Fuzhuan brick tea supplemented with areca nuts (AFTs) could reduce weight, prevent the accumulation of fat, inhibit the increase in the levels of serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood glucose, free fatty acid, insulin, and total bile acid, alleviate the decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and regulate the composition of gut microbiota by high-fat diet intervention. Read More

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Glucagon transiently stimulates mTORC1 by activation of an EPAC/Rap1 signaling axis.

Cell Signal 2021 Apr 16:110010. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, United States of America. Electronic address:

Activation of the protein kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) in both complexes 1 and 2 (mTORC1/2) in the liver is repressed during fasting and rapidly stimulated in response to a meal. The effect of feeding on hepatic mTORC1/2 is attributed to an increase in plasma levels of nutrients, such as amino acids, and insulin. By contrast, fasting is associated with elevated plasma levels of glucagon, which is conventionally viewed as having a counter-regulatory role to insulin. Read More

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AKT/AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of TBC1D4 disrupts the interaction with insulin-regulated aminopeptidase.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 16:100637. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute of Clinical Biochemistry and Pathobiochemistry, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University, Medical Faculty, Düsseldorf, Germany; German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Düsseldorf, Germany. Electronic address:

TBC1D4 is a 160 kDa multi-domain Rab GTPase-activating protein (RabGAP), and a downstream target of the insulin- and contraction-activated kinases AKT and AMPK. Phosphorylation of TBC1D4 has been linked to translocation of GLUT4 from storage vesicles (GSVs) to the cell surface. However, its impact on enzymatic activity is not well understood, as previous studies mostly investigated the truncated GAP domain lacking the known phosphorylation sites. Read More

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Childhood Onset Strabismus: A Neurotrophic Factor Hypothesis.

J Binocul Vis Ocul Motil 2021 Apr 19:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Neurosciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Strabismus is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with complex molecular and neurophysiological causes. Evidence in the literature suggests a strong role for motor innervation in the etiology of strabismus, which connects central neural processes to the peripheral extraocular muscles. Current treatments of strabismus through surgery show that an inherent sensorimotor plasticity in the ocular motor system decreases the effectiveness of treatment, often driving eye alignment back toward its misaligned pre-surgical state by altering extraocular muscle tonus. Read More

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Diabetic retinopathy, oxidative stress and sirtuins: an in depth look in enzymatic patterns and new therapeutic horizons.

Surv Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, Policlinico Umberto I. Sapienza University of Rome, v. le del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. DR represents the most common microvascular complication of diabetes, and its incidence is constantly rising. The complex interactions between inflammation, oxidative stress, and the production of free oxygen radicals caused by prolonged exposure to hyperglycemia determine the development of DR. Read More

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PKCα: Prospects in Regulating Insulin Resistance and AD.

Trends Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Kusuma School of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) is known to participate in various signaling pathways due to its ubiquitous and dynamic characteristics. Previous studies report that PKCα abrogates peripheral insulin resistance, and recent publications show that it takes part in regulating Alzheimer's disease (AD). Based on evidence in the literature, we have highlighted how many of the substrates of PKCα in its signal transduction cascades are common in AD and diabetes and may have the capability to regulate both diseases simultaneously. Read More

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SGLT2 inhibitors as calorie restriction-mimetics: insights on longevity pathways and age-related diseases.

Endocrinology 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Endocrinology Service, Department of General Medicine, Sengkang General Hospital, SingHealth Group Singapore.

SGLT2 inhibitors induce glycosuria, reduce insulin levels, promote fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. By promoting a nutrient deprivation state, SGLT2 inhibitors upregulate the energy deprivation sensors AMPK and SIRT1, inhibit the nutrient sensors mTOR and insulin/IGF-1, and modulate the closely-linked HIF-2α/HIF-1α pathways. Phosphorylation of AMPK and upregulation of adiponectin and PPAR-α favour a reversal of the metabolic syndrome which have been linked to suppression of chronic inflammation. Read More

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Leveraging Genomic Associations in Precision Digital Care for Weight Loss: Cohort Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Health Informatics, University of San Francisco, 2130 Fulton St, San Francisco, US.

Background: In this age of global COVID-19 pandemic, the urgency of addressing an epidemic of obesity and associated inflammatory illnesses has come to the fore. Studies have demonstrated that interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and lifestyle interventions like food and exercise may vary metabolic outcomes, contributing to obesity and therapeutic response. However, there is a paucity of research relating outcomes from digital therapeutics to inclusion of genetic data in care interventions. Read More

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[Research progress in the role and mechanism of polysaccharides in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2021 Mar;41(3):471-475

Anhui Provincial Engineering Research Center for Polysaccharide Drugs, Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Active Biological Macromolecules, Wuhu 241002, China.

Polysaccharides are a group of compounds composed of multiple monosaccharides of the same or different structures combined by glycosidic bonds, and are widely found in animals and plants and in the cell walls of microorganisms. Polysaccharides possess the advantages of high safety and low toxicity. Recent studies revealed that polysaccharides have a wide range of biological activities including immunoregulation, anti-tumor, antiviral, antioxidant activities, and blood glucose-and lipid- lowering effects. Read More

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A step towards glucose control with a novel nanomagnetic-insulin fordiabetes care.

Int J Pharm 2021 Apr 9:120587. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada; School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200436, PR China. Electronic address:

Massive efforts have been devoted to insulin delivery for diabetes care. Achieving a long-term tight-regulated blood glucose level with a low risk of hypoglycemia remains a great challenge. In this study we propose a novel strategy to efficiently regulate insulin action after insulin is injected or released into patient body aiming to achieve better glycemic control, which is achieved by the administration of insulin-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs-Ins). Read More

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Integrated metabolomics and network pharmacology approach to exploring the potential mechanism of tianxiang capsule for treating motion sickness.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 14;275:114107. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Motion sickness is a multi-system syndrome caused by abnormal spatial environmental sensory conflicts. Tianxiang Capsule (TXC) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula for the prevention and treatment of motion sickness for years. However, the main active components of TXC and mechanism of its therapeutic effects on motion sickness are still unclear. Read More

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Signaling Pathways Regulating Thermogenesis.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 26;12:595020. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, United States.

Obesity, an excess accumulation of white adipose tissue (WAT), has become a global epidemic and is associated with complex diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Presently, there are no safe and effective therapeutic agents to treat obesity. In contrast to white adipocytes that store energy as triglycerides in unilocular lipid droplet, brown and brown-like or beige adipocytes utilize fatty acids (FAs) and glucose at a high rate mainly by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) action to uncouple mitochondrial proton gradient from ATP synthesis, dissipating energy as heat. Read More

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Dyrk1a Mutations Cause Undergrowth of Cortical Pyramidal Neurons via Dysregulated Growth Factor Signaling.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, Florida; Doctoral Program in Chemical and Biological Sciences, The Skaggs Graduate School of Chemical and Biological Sciences at Scripps Research, Jupiter, Florida. Electronic address:

Background: Mutations in DYRK1A are a cause of microcephaly, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability; however, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood.

Methods: We generated a conditional mouse model using Emx1-cre, including conditional heterozygous and homozygous knockouts, to investigate the necessity of Dyrk1a in the cortex during development. We used unbiased, high-throughput phosphoproteomics to identify dysregulated signaling mechanisms in the developing Dyrk1a mutant cortex as well as classic genetic modifier approaches and pharmacological therapeutic intervention to rescue microcephaly and neuronal undergrowth caused by Dyrk1a mutations. Read More

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Probiotics-rich emulsion improves insulin signalling in Palmitate/Oleate-challenged human hepatocarcinoma cells through the modulation of Fetuin-A/TLR4-JNK-NF-κB pathway.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Apr 8;139:111560. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Experimental Biology, Faculty of Biology and Animal Science, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Norwida 27B, 50-375 Wrocław, Poland; International Institute of Translational Medicine, Jesionowa, 11, Malin, 55-114 Wisznia Mała, Poland. Electronic address:

Background: Fetuin-A, also known as α2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein (AHSG), is an abundant plasmatic serum protein synthesized predominantly in liver and adipose tissue. This glycoprotein is known to negatively regulate insulin signaling through the inhibition of insulin receptor (IR) autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity, which participates in insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome development. Recent studies demonstrated that IR and associated metabolic disorders, are closely related to the gut microbiota and modulating it by probiotics could be effective in metabolic diseases management. Read More

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Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), but not IRS2, plays a dominant role in regulating pancreatic alpha cell function in mice.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 8:100646. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Islet Cell and Regenerative Biology, Joslin Diabetes Center, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address:

Dysregulated glucagon secretion deteriorates glycemic control in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Although insulin is known to regulate glucagon secretion via its cognate receptor (insulin receptor, INSR) in pancreatic alpha cells, the role of downstream proteins and signaling pathways underlying insulin's activities are not fully defined. Using in vivo (knockout) and in vitro (knockdown) studies targeting insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, we compared the relative roles of IRS1 and IRS2 in regulating alpha cell function. Read More

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Fatty acid synthase inhibition ameliorates diabetes induced liver injury in rodent experimental model.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 9;901:174078. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India. Electronic address:

The abnormal dietary life style leads to hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance with ectopic lipid accumulation and elevated levels of hepatic glucose development which are the underlying pathological characteristics of fatty liver diseases. The pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid synthase of de novo lipogenesis may regulate the dysfunctional lipid biotransformation and reverse the pathological state of diabetic liver injury. The three pharmacological interventions (PTS; Pterostilbene, ARB; Arbutin, PUR; Purpurin) were administered to manage the condition of diabetic liver injury against the high fat diet (HFD) + Streptozotocin (STZ) 30 mg/kg b. Read More

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Protection of β-pancreatic cells from dysfunctionality of insulin using vitexin by apoptosis of INS-1 cells.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr 9:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of endocrinology, The Fourth People's Hospital of Jinan city, Jinan, Shandong Province, China.

Aims: This study was performed to explore the possible beneficial effects of vitexin on high glucose (HG)-induced cytotoxicity in pancreatic β-cells.

Methods: INS-1 pancreatic β-cell line has used this study. HG-induced (33 Mm) exposed INS-1 cell death; the apoptosis INS-1 cells treated vitexin 10, 20, 40, and 80 µg/mL for 24 hours. Read More

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Effects of selected hormones and their combination on progesterone and estradiol production and proliferation of feline granulosa cells cultured in vitro.

Theriogenology 2021 Mar 28;168:1-12. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of of Animal and Food Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, 74078, USA. Electronic address:

Little is known about the hormonal regulation of feline ovarian granulosa cell proliferation and steroidogenesis. The present study aimed to develop a hormone responsive granulosa cell culture system to measure steroidogenic and cell proliferation responses to help identify factors that might regulate ovarian function in queens. Five experiments were conducted each with 75 or more ovaries, three in spring and two in fall seasons. Read More

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The good and bad of adipose tissue macrophage exosomes in obesity.

Cell Metab 2021 Apr;33(4):700-702

Obesity and Metabolism Laboratory, JM-USDA Human Nutrition Research Center at Tufts University, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Adipose tissue macrophages regulate adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin-glucose homeostasis. In a recent study by Ying et al. (2021), M2 polarized bone marrow-derived macrophages secreted exosomes containing miR-690 that, when administered to obese mice, improved glucose-insulin homeostasis. Read More

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Silencing circRNA LRP6 down-regulates PRMT1 to improve the streptozocin-induced pancreatic β-cell injury and insulin secretion by sponging miR-9-5p.

J Bioenerg Biomembr 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Endocrinology and Kidney Internal Medicine, Chonggang General Hospital, No. 1, Dayan Village 3, Dadukou District, Chongqing, 400080, China.

Due to the sedentary lifestyles of people, the number of obese people is increasing alarmingly, which leads to the high prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM). It was reported that circularRNA (circRNA) LRP6 was upregulated in HG-treated mesangial cells, and it could regulate high glucose-induced cell injury via sponging miR-205. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the underlying pathogenesis of DM. Read More

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IGF2 deficiency causes mitochondrial defects in skeletal muscle.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2021 Apr;135(7):979-990

Department of Endocrinology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Exercise training improves muscle fitness in many aspects, including induction of mitochondrial biogenesis and maintenance of mitochondrial dynamics. The insulin-like growth factors were recently proposed as key regulators of myogenic factors to regulate muscle development. The present study aimed to investigate the physical exercise impact on insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and analyzed its functions on skeletal muscle cells in vitro. Read More

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ZEB1-induced LINC01559 expedites cell proliferation, migration and EMT process in gastric cancer through recruiting IGF2BP2 to stabilize ZEB1 expression.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Apr 6;12(4):349. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Renji Hospital Affiliated to Medical College of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200025, China.

Gastric cancer (GC) is a common type of tumor that is characterized with high metastatic rate. In recent years, increasing studies have indicated that lncRNAs are involved in the regulation on cancer cell proliferation and migration. However, the functional role of long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1559 (LINC01559) in GC is still unclear. Read More

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Growth Hormone/Insulin Growth Factor Axis in Sex Steroid Associated Disorders and Related Cancers.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 18;9:630503. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Endocrine Oncology Research Group, Department of Surgery, RCSI University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dublin, Ireland.

To date, almost all solid malignancies have implicated insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signalling as a driver of tumour growth. However, the remarkable level of crosstalk between sex hormones, the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and its ligands IGF-1 and 2 in endocrine driven cancers is incompletely understood. Similar to the sex steroids, IGF signalling is essential in normal development as well as growth and tissue homoeostasis, and undergoes a steady decline with advancing age and increasing visceral adiposity. Read More

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Importance of the route of insulin delivery to its control of glucose metabolism.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Molecular Physiology & Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, United States.

Pancreatic insulin secretion produces an insulin gradient at the liver compared to the rest of the body (approximately 3:1). This physiologic distribution is lost when insulin is injected subcutaneously, causing impaired regulation of hepatic glucose production and whole body glucose uptake, as well as arterial hyperinsulinemia. Thus, the hepatoportal insulin gradient is essential to the normal control of glucose metabolism during both fasting and feeding. Read More

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The mediator complex kinase module is necessary for fructose regulation of liver glycogen levels through induction of glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6pc).

Mol Metab 2021 Mar 31:101227. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, 10461, USA; Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, 10461, USA; Fleischer Institute for Diabetes and Metabolism, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, 10461, USA.

Objective: Liver glycogen levels are dynamic and highly regulated by nutrient availability as the levels decrease during fasting and are restored during the feeding cycle. However, feeding in the presence of fructose in water suppressed glycogen accumulation in the liver by upregulating the expression of the glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6pc) gene, although the exact mechanism is unknown. We generated liver-specific knockout MED13 mice that lacked the transcriptional mediator complex kinase module to examine its effect on the transcriptional activation of inducible target gene expression, such as the ChREBP- and FOXO1-dependent control of the G6pc gene promoter. Read More

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The ER Chaperones BiP and Grp94 Regulate the Formation of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) Oligomers.

J Mol Biol 2021 Mar 31;433(13):166963. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Biochemistry, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454, USA. Electronic address:

While cytosolic Hsp90 chaperones have been extensively studied, less is known about how the ER Hsp90 paralog Grp94 recognizes clients and influences client folding. Here, we examine how Grp94 and the ER Hsp70 paralog, BiP, influence the folding of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), an established client protein of Grp94. ProIGF2 is composed of a disulfide-bonded insulin-like hormone and a C-terminal E-peptide that has sequence characteristics of an intrinsically disordered region. Read More

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Direct Stimulatory Effects of the CB Ligand JTE 907 in Human and Mouse Islets.

Cells 2021 Mar 22;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Diabetes, School of Life Course Sciences, King's College London, Guy's Campus, London SE1 1UL, UK.

Aims: The endocannabinoid system is a complex cell-signaling network through which endogenous cannabinoid ligands regulate cell function by interaction with CB and CB cannabinoid receptors, and with the novel cannabinoid receptor GPR55. CB, CB, and GPR55 are expressed by islet β-cells where they modulate insulin secretion. We have previously shown that administration of the putative CB antagonist/inverse agonist JTE 907 to human islets did not affect the insulinotropic actions of CB agonists and it unexpectedly stimulated insulin secretion on its own. Read More

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