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Pulse wave velocity is decreased in acromegaly compared to non-acromegaly study participants with similar cardiovascular risk profile.

Growth Horm IGF Res 2021 Apr 29;57-58:101395. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Almazov National Medical Research Centre, Ulica Akkuratova 2, St. Petersburg 197341, Russia.

Objective: Acromegaly patients were reported to have an increased arterial stiffness that could contribute to the frequent cardiovascular complications in this population. The chronic excess of GH and IGF-1 may lead to arterial stiffening via different mechanisms, including hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, however, it is not known whether the activation of GH/IGF-1 axis might influence arterial stiffening independently of cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this prospective case-control study was to compare arterial stiffness assessed with pulse-wave velocity (PWV) in acromegaly versus non-acromegaly group with similar cardiovascular risk profile. Read More

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Litter decomposition can be reduced by pesticide effects on detritivores and decomposers: Implications for tropical stream functioning.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 28;285:117243. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Leioa, Spain; IKERBASQUE, Bilbao, Spain.

Understanding which factors affect the process of leaf litter decomposition is crucial if we are to predict changes in the functioning of stream ecosystems as a result of human activities. One major activity with known consequences on streams is agriculture, which is of particular concern in tropical regions, where forests are being rapidly replaced by crops. While pesticides are potential drivers of reduced decomposition rates observed in agricultural tropical streams, their specific effects on the performance of decomposers and detritivores are mostly unknown. Read More

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Internal loading of phosphate in rivers reduces at higher flow velocity and is reduced by iron rich sand application: an experimental study in flumes.

Water Res 2021 Apr 18;198:117160. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Division of Soil and Water Management, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20 bus 2459, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.

Many lowland regions are afflicted with high phosphorus (P) peaks in rivers during the summer months. Static incubations of sediments have shown that reductive dissolution of ferric iron (Fe(III)) minerals in the sediment explain these P peaks. This study was set up to identify if that mechanism also dominates in a dynamic system, thereby testing the roles of water flow velocity and sediment Fe/P ratio. Read More

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The barley SHN1-type transcription factor HvSHN1 imparts heat, drought and salt tolerances in transgenic tobacco.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 May 1;164:44-53. Epub 2021 May 1.

Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology and Improvement, University of Sfax, Center of Biotechnology of Sfax, Route Sidi Mansour, Km 6 B.P' 1177, 3018 Sfax, Tunisia. Electronic address:

The APETAL2/Ethylene Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) family was the subject of intensive research which led to the identification of several members involved in different stress responses such as salinity, drought and high temperature. The SHN/WIN clade of AP2/ERF participates in many important processes such as cutin and wax biosynthesis, ethylene signaling and gene expression. Here, we report the functional analysis of SHN1-type transcription factor, HvSHN1, from barely. Read More

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Gray matter volume correlates of adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder: A comparison of manual intervention and automated segmentation in FreeSurfer.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2021 Apr 24;313:111297. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI United States.

Exposure to early life trauma is common and confers risk for psychological disorders in adolescence, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Trauma exposure and PTSD are also consistently linked to alterations in gray matter volume (GMV). Despite the quantity of structural neuroimaging research in trauma-exposed populations, little consensus exists amongst research groups on best practices for image processing method and manual editing procedures. Read More

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Extracorporeal support for trauma: A trauma quality improvement project (TQIP) analysis in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Apr 30;48:170-176. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Division of Acute Care Surgery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States of America.

Introduction: The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in trauma patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) continues to evolve. The objective of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of trauma patients with ARDS who received ECMO to a propensity matched cohort of patients who underwent conventional management.

Methods: The Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) database was queried from 2013 to 2016 for all patients with ARDS and those who received ECMO. Read More

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Artificial intelligence in ultrasound.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Apr 12;139:109717. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Medical Ultrasound, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Ultrasound Research and Education Institute, Tongji University School of Medicine, Tongji University Cancer Center, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Ultrasound Diagnosis and Treatment, National Clnical Research Center of Interventional Medicine, Shanghai, 200072, PR China. Electronic address:

Ultrasound (US), a flexible green imaging modality, is expanding globally as a first-line imaging technique in various clinical fields following with the continual emergence of advanced ultrasonic technologies and the well-established US-based digital health system. Actually, in US practice, qualified physicians should manually collect and visually evaluate images for the detection, identification and monitoring of diseases. The diagnostic performance is inevitably reduced due to the intrinsic property of high operator-dependence from US. Read More

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Distribution and assessment of heavy metal contents in surface sediments of the western Sunda Shelf.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 May 4;168:112433. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Metallogeny, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao 266061, China; Laboratory for Marine Geology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, China.

The heavy metal contents (Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg, and As) of 88 surface sediment samples from the western Sunda Shelf were analyzed to determine their spatial distribution patterns and contamination status. The results demonstrated that high enrichment regions of heavy metals were focused in the Kelantan, Pahang, and Ambat river estuaries, and deep water regions of the study area. These high enrichment regions were mainly controlled by riverine inputs and their hydrodynamic conditions. Read More

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Robotic-navigated percutaneous pedicle screw placement has less facet joint violation than fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screws.

World Neurosurg 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506.

Objective: Directly compare robotic- versus fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous pedicle screw (PPS) placement in thoracolumbar spine trauma with a focus on clinically-acceptable pedicle screw accuracy and facet joint violation (FJV).

Methods: A retrospective chart review assessed 37 trauma patients undergoing percutaneous thoracic and/or lumbar fixation. Post-operative computed tomography images were reviewed by authors blinded to surgical technique who assessed pedicle screw trajectory accuracy and FJV frequency. Read More

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A comparative study of Plasmodium falciparum Histidine-Rich Protein 2 (PfHRP2) blood levels and peripheral blood parasitemia as parameters of disease severity in individuals with imported falciparum malaria.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2021 May 4:102076. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute for Tropical Diseases, Harbour Hospital Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: In falciparum malaria the total parasite biomass can be estimated by blood levels of histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2), a Plasmodium falciparum-specific protein, which has been widely studied in malaria-endemic regions. This study investigates the usefulness of PfHRP2 as marker for disease severity in imported falciparum malaria.

Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis was done in 145 patients with imported falciparum malaria. Read More

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Evolution of host use in fungivorous ciid beetles (Coleoptera: Ciidae): molecular phylogeny focusing on Japanese taxa.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 May 4:107197. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Zoology, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwake, Sakyo, Kyoto 606 8502 Japan.

Consumer-resource interactions between trophic levels are ubiquitous and important factors in shaping the diversity of insects. However, dietary patterns such as host specificity and conservatism have been insufficiently examined in fungivorous insects. Here we reconstructed the evolutionary history of host use in fungivorous ciid beetles (Coleoptera: Ciidae) and tested for host conservatism. Read More

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Multivariate approach for longitudinal analysis of brain metabolite levels from ages 5-11 years in children with perinatal HIV infection.

Neuroimage 2021 May 4:118101. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address:

Treatment guidelines recommend that children with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV) initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) early in life and remain on it lifelong. As part of a longitudinal study examining the long-term consequences of PHIV and early ART on the developing brain, 89 PHIV children and a control group of 85 HIV uninfected children (HIV-) received neuroimaging at ages 5, 7, 9 and 11 years, including single voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in three brain regions, namely the basal ganglia (BG), midfrontal gray matter (MFGM) and peritrigonal white matter (PWM). We analysed age-related changes in absolute metabolite concentrations using a multivariate approach traditionally applied to ecological data, the Correlated Response Model (CRM) and compared these to results obtained from a multilevel mixed effect modelling (MMEM) approach. Read More

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A Review of the Botany, Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of the Flos Inulae.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 4:114125. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Chinese Materia Medica, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Ministry of Education, Harbin, 150040, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Plants of the genus Inula have long been used as an ethnomedicine in Asia, Europe, and North America for its high medicinal value and health benefits. Inula japonica Thunb. (I. Read More

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Suppressive, Curative, and Prophylactic Potentials of an Antimalarial Polyherbal Mixture and its Individual Components in Plasmodium berghei-Infected Mice.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 4:114105. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Malaria remains one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in tropical regions of the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where it remains epidemiologically holoendemic. The absence of effective vaccines and Plasmodium resistance to antimalarial drugs have been the major challenges to malaria control measures. An alternative strategy could be the application of validated and standardized herbal formulations. Read More

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The effect of xenon on fetal neurodevelopment following maternal sevoflurane anesthesia and laparotomy in rabbits.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2021 May 4:106994. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospitals of the KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium; Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Background: There is concern that maternal anesthesia during pregnancy impairs brain development of the human fetus. Xenon is neuroprotective in pre-clinical models of anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity in neonates. It is not known if xenon also protects the developing fetal brain when administered in addition to maternal sevoflurane-anesthesia during pregnancy. Read More

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Characterization of brain functional connectivity in treatment-resistant depression.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 May 4:110346. Epub 2021 May 4.

Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran; Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Northwestern University, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To characterize the functional connectivity (FC) of target brain regions for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD), and to evaluate its gender and brain lateralization dependence.

Methods: Thirty-one TRD patients and twenty-nine healthy control (HC) subjects participated. FC of subcallosal cingulate gyrus (SCG), ventral caudate (VCa), nucleus accumbens (NAc), lateral habenula (LHb), and inferior thalamic peduncle (ITP) were evaluated using resting-state fMRI. Read More

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A radiomic approach to predict myocardial fibrosis on coronary CT angiography in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Int J Cardiol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, No. 197 Ruijin 2nd Rd, Shanghai 200025, China. Electronic address:

Background: Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) derived from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) represents myocardial fibrosis (MF) and is associated with prognosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, it cannot be evaluated when CMR is unavailable. Hence, we aimed to investigate the ability of radiomic features derived from coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) to detect the presence and extent of MF in HCM, with LGE as references. Read More

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Glutaminolysis-induced mTORC1 activation drives non-alcoholic steatohepatitis progression.

J Hepatol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Medicine and Surgery, Reus, Spain; Unitat de Recerca Biomèdica (URB-CRB), Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan, Institut d'Investigacio Sanitaria Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain; The Campus of International Excellence Southern Catalonia, Tarragona, Spain. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: A holistic insight on the relationship between obesity and metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease is an unmet clinical need. Omics investigations can be used to investigate the multifaceted role of altered mitochondrial pathways to promote nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, a major risk factor for liver disease-associated death. There are no specific treatments but remission via surgery might offer an opportunity to examine the signaling processes that govern the complex spectrum of chronic liver diseases observed in extreme obesity. Read More

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Global burden of acute viral hepatitis and its association with socioeconomic development status, 1990-2019.

J Hepatol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Hepatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China; Hepatology Research Institute, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Acute viral hepatitis (AVH) represents an important global health problem; however, the progress in understanding AVH is limited because of the priority of combating persistent hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) virus infections. Therefore, an improved understanding of the burden of AVH is required to help design strategies for global intervention.

Methods: Data of four major AVH types, including acute hepatitis A (AHA), AHB, AHC, and AHE, excluding AHD, were collected by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 database. Read More

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Time-dependent changes in striatal monoamine levels and gene expression following single and repeated amphetamine administration in rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 4:174148. Epub 2021 May 4.

Instituto de Investigaciones Psicológicas; Centro de Investigación en Neurociencias, Universidad de Costa Rica. Electronic address:

As drug addiction may result from pathological usurpations of learning and memory's neural mechanisms, we focused on the amphetamine-induced time-dependent neurochemical changes associated with neural plasticity. We used juvenile rats as the risk for drug abuse is higher during adolescence. Experiment 1 served to define the appropriate amphetamine dose and the neurochemical effects of a single administration. Read More

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Early Effects of Viper Envenomation on Retina and Optic Nerve Blood Flow: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study.

Toxicon 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine.

In this study, the early retinal and optic nerve blood flows of patients exposed to Viper bite were evaluated with non-invasive optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and compared with healthy controls. The retinal and optic disc OCTA data of 31 victims of viper bite (group S) without systemic envenomation clinical symptoms and 31 healthy controls (group C) were compared. Only patients with early signs of envenomation were included in the study. Read More

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Trends and gaps in climate change and health research in North America.

Environ Res 2021 May 4:111205. Epub 2021 May 4.

Unidad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Calle 61 X 66 # 525. Col. Centro, Mérida, Yucatán, México.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (2014) assessed the state of climate change and health knowledge, globally through the Human Health: Impacts, Adaptation, and Co-Benefits Chapter and regionally through chapters, such as the North America Chapter. With IPCC's 6th Assessment Report scheduled to be released in 2021, we asked: how has climate change and health research in North America advanced since the IPCC's 5th Assessment Report in 2014? Specifically, we systematically identified and examined trends in the extent, range, and nature of climate-health research conducted in North America. We used a scoping review methodology to systematically identify literature and map publication trends. Read More

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Metabolic tradeoffs control biodiversity gradients through geological time.

Curr Biol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

The latitudinal gradient of increasing marine biodiversity from the poles to the tropics is one of the most conspicuous biological patterns in modern oceans. Low-latitude regions of the global ocean are often hotspots of animal biodiversity, yet they are set to be most critically affected by anthropogenic climate change. As ocean temperatures rise and deoxygenation proceeds in the coming centuries, the volume of aerobically viable habitat is predicted to decrease in these zones. Read More

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SLiMs in intrinsically disordered protein regions regulate the cell cycle dynamics of ORC1-CDC6 interaction and pre-replicative complex assembly.

Mol Cell 2021 May;81(9):1861-1862

Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, Tartu 50411, Estonia. Electronic address:

Hossain et al. (2021) show that human origin recognition complex subunit ORC1 and licensing factor CDC6 interact when the pre-replicative complex forms in G1. Short linear motifs (SLiMs) in intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) mediate this interaction and its regulation by CDKs. Read More

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Chlorosulfolipid (Danicalipin A) Membrane Structure: Hybrid Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 May 7:4537-4542. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Seoul, Seoul, 02504, Republic of Korea.

Chlorosulfolipids (CSLs) are major components of flagellar membranes in sea algae. Unlike typical biological lipids, CSLs contain hydrophilic sulfate and chloride groups in the hydrocarbon tail; this has deterred the prediction of the CSL membrane structure since 1960. In this study, we combine coarse-grained (CG) and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to gain significant insights into the membrane structure of Danicalipin A, which is one of the typical CSLs. Read More

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Comparative international incidence of Ewing Sarcoma 1988-2012.

Int J Cancer 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Ewing Sarcoma (ES) is the second most common primary bone tumor in children and adolescents. There are few known epidemiological or genetic risk factors for ES. Numerous reports describe incidence rates and trends within the United States, but international comparisons are sparse. Read More

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The application of a workflow integrating the variable reproducibility and harmonizability of radiomic features on a phantom dataset.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0251147. Epub 2021 May 7.

The D-Lab, Department of Precision Medicine, GROW- School for Oncology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Radiomics-the high throughput extraction of quantitative features from medical images and their correlation with clinical and biological endpoints- is the subject of active and extensive research. Although the field shows promise, the generalizability of radiomic signatures is affected significantly by differences in scan acquisition and reconstruction settings. Previous studies reported on the sensitivity of radiomic features (RFs) to test-retest variability, inter-observer segmentation variability, and intra-scanner variability. Read More

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Genome-wide DNA methylation and RNA-seq analyses identify genes and pathways associated with doxorubicin resistance in a canine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell line.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0250013. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Doxorubicin resistance is a major challenge in the successful treatment of canine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (cDLBCL). In the present study, MethylCap-seq and RNA-seq were performed to characterize the genome-wide DNA methylation and differential gene expression patterns respectively in CLBL-1 8.0, a doxorubicin-resistant cDLBCL cell line, and in CLBL-1 as control, to investigate the underlying mechanisms of doxorubicin resistance in cDLBCL. Read More

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Structural basis for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies with novel binding epitopes.

PLoS Biol 2021 May 7;19(5):e3001209. Epub 2021 May 7.

MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science & Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

The ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) threatens global public health and economy unprecedentedly, requiring accelerating development of prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. Molecular understanding of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) would greatly help advance the development of monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy, as well as the design of next generation recombinant vaccines. Here, we applied H2L2 transgenic mice encoding the human immunoglobulin variable regions, together with a state-of-the-art antibody discovery platform to immunize and isolate NAbs. Read More

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Underwater Image Enhancement via Medium Transmission-Guided Multi-Color Space Embedding.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 May 7;PP. Epub 2021 May 7.

Underwater images suffer from color casts and low contrast due to wavelength-and distance-dependent attenuation and scattering. To solve these two degradation issues, we present an underwater image enhancement network via medium transmission-guided multi-color space embedding, called Ucolor. Concretely, we first propose a multi-color space encoder network, which enriches the diversity of feature representations by incorporating the characteristics of different color spaces into a unified structure. Read More

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