69,734 results match your criteria regions examined

Functional connectivity of the attention networks is altered and relates to neuropsychological outcomes in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

Dev Cogn Neurosci 2021 Apr 3;48:100951. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Radiology, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Canada.

Cognitive and functional brain alterations can occur in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). We examined the functional connectivity (FC) among regions within and between attention networks, and whether inter- and intranetwork FC moderated cognition in children with PAE (n = 37; age 12.8 ± 2. Read More

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Morphological integration of the canine region within the hominine alveolar arch.

J Hum Evol 2021 Apr 7;154:102942. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute of Human Origins, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287, USA; School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287, USA.

The early hominin record is characterized by numerous shifts in dental proportions (e.g., canine reduction and megadontia) linked to changes in diet and social behavior. Read More

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Brain morphology is differentially impacted by peripheral cytokines in schizophrenia-spectrum disorder.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Department of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne and Melbourne Health; Department of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne; Centre for Mental Health, Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, School of Health Sciences, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia.

Deficits in brain morphology are one of the most widely replicated neuropathological features in schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (SSD), although their biological underpinnings remain unclear. Despite the existence of hypotheses by which peripheral inflammation may impact brain structure, few studies have examined this relationship in SSD. This study aimed to establish the relationship between peripheral markers of inflammation and brain morphology and determine whether such relationships differed across healthy controls and individuals with first episode psychosis (FEP) and chronic schizophrenia. Read More

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Fornix white matter microstructure differentially predicts false recollection rates in older and younger adults.

Neuropsychologia 2021 Apr 7:107848. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Psychology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Healthy aging is accompanied by increased false remembering in addition to reduced successful remembering in older adults. Neuroimaging studies implicate age-related differences in the involvement of medial temporal lobe and fronto-parietal regions in mediating highly confident false recollection. However, no studies have directly examined the relationship between white matter microstructure and false recollection in younger and older adults. Read More

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Effect Modification of Greenness on Temperature-Mortality Relationship among Older Adults: A Case-Crossover Study in China.

Environ Res 2021 Apr 7:111112. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Climate change exacerbates temperature-related mortality, but effects may vary by geographic characteristics. We hypothesize that higher greenness may mitigate temperature-related mortality, and that the effect may vary in different areas.

Objective: We examined how mortality among older adults in China was associated with temperature for 2000-2014, and how geolocation and residential greenness may modulate this association. Read More

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Birth prevalence of tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency in China: data from the national newborn screening program, 2013-2019.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

National Center for Birth Defects Monitoring of China, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, P. R. China.

Background: Tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency (BH4D), a less common form of hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA), can lead to severe developmental retardation if untreated. Little has been reported on the prevalence of BH4D among live births worldwide. This study examined its prevalence across China and between geographical areas within the country. Read More

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A Multilevel Examination of Lifetime Aggression: Integrating Cortical Thickness, Personality Pathology, and Trauma Exposure.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

University of Delaware, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, 108 Wolf Hall, Newark, DE 19176, USA.

Aggression represents a significant public health concern, causing serious physical and psychological harm. Although many studies have sought to characterize the etiology of aggression, research on the contributions of risk factors that span multiple levels of analysis for explaining aggressive behavior is lacking. To address this gap, we investigated the direct and unique contributions of cortical thickness (level 1), pathological personality traits (level 2), and trauma exposure (level 3) for explaining lifetime physical aggression in a high-risk sample of community adults (N = 129, 47. Read More

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In utero exposure to chlordecone affects histone modifications and activates LINE-1 in cord blood.

Life Sci Alliance 2021 Jun 9;4(6). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

University of Rennes, EHESP, Inserm, Institut de Recherche en Santé, Environnement et Travail (Irset)-UMR_S 1085, Rennes, France

Environmental factors can induce detrimental consequences into adulthood life. In this study, we examined the epigenetic effects induced by in utero chlordecone (CD) exposure on human male cord blood as well as in blood-derived Ke-37 cell line. Genome-wide analysis of histone H3K4me3 distribution revealed that genes related to chromosome segregation, chromatin organization, and cell cycle have altered occupancy in their promoters. Read More

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The impact of CT image parameters and skull heterogeneity modeling on the accuracy of transcranial focused ultrasound simulations.

J Neural Eng 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Foundation of Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT'IS), Zeughausstrasse 43, Zurich, 8004, SWITZERLAND.

Objective: Low-intensity transcranial ultrasound stimulation (TUS) is a promising non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) technique. TUS can reach deeper areas and target smaller regions in the brain than other NIBS techniques, but its application in humans is hampered by the lack of a straightforward and reliable procedure to predict the induced ultrasound exposure. Here, we examined how skull modeling affects computer simulations of TUS. Read More

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Reduced resting state functional connectivity in the hippocampus-midbrain-striatum network of schizophrenia patients.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Mar 26;138:83-88. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Psychiatry, UMC Utrecht Brain Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Contemporary preclinical models suggest that abnormal functioning of a brain network consisting of the hippocampus, midbrain and striatum plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Previous neuroimaging studies examined individual aspects of this model in schizophrenia patients and individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis. However, this exact preclinical brain network has not been translated to human neuroimaging studies with schizophrenia patients and therefore it is currently unknown how functioning of this network is altered in patients. Read More

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Ceftriaxone reduces waterpipe tobacco smoke withdrawal-induced anxiety in rats via modulating the expression of TNF-α/NFĸB, Nrf2, and GLT-1.

Neuroscience 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Yarmouk University, Irbid 21110, Jordan.

Tobacco exposure has been linked to neuroinflammation and adaptive/maladaptive changes in neurotransmitter systems, including in glutamatergic systems. We examined the effects of waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) on inflammatory mediators and astroglial glutamate transporters in mesocorticolimbic brain regions including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). The behavioral consequences of WTS exposure on withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior were assessed using elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field (OF) tests. Read More

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An Overview of Traceback Investigations and Three Case Studies of Recent Outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infections Linked to Romaine Lettuce.

J Food Prot 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, College Park, Maryland.

Leafy greens contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have continued to cause foodborne illness outbreaks in recent years and present a threat to public health. An important component of foodborne illness outbreak investigations is determining the source of the outbreak vehicle through traceback investigations. The Food and Drug Administration is home to traceback investigation experts that employ a standardized process to initiate, execute, and interpret the results of traceback investigations in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and state and local partners. Read More

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Global Burden of Non-communicable Diseases Attributable to Dietary Risks in 1990-2019.

J Hum Nutr Diet 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, the Second Affiliated Hospital of ZheJiang University School of Medicine, 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310009, China.

Background: Dietary risks have raised attention around worldwide during the past decades. The aims of this burden-of-disease study were to evaluate the global dietary risks for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) from 1990 to 2019 and quantify their impact on mortality and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Data from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease Study on deaths and DALYs from NCDs attributable to worldwide dietary risks were obtained and underwent deep analysis by year, age, gender, location, leading risks, and leading causes, and their associations were examined. Read More

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Epigenetic Regulation of Neural Transmission after Cerebellar Fastigial Nucleus Lesions in Juvenile Rats.

Cerebellum 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Psychiatry, Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, Social Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Structural and functional abnormalities in the cerebellar midline region, including the fastigial nucleus, have been reported in neuropsychiatric disorders, also comprising the cerebellar cognitive affecting syndrome. In rats, early fastigial lesions reduce social interaction during development and lead to cognitive and emotional deficits in adults, accompanied by compromised neuronal network activity. Since epigenetic mechanisms are implicated in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, we investigated whether fastigial nucleus lesions in juvenile rats would impact epigenetic regulation of neural transmission. Read More

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Morpho-Phylo Taxonomy of Novel Dothideomycetous Fungi Associated With Dead Woody Twigs in Yunnan Province, China.

Front Microbiol 2021 23;12:654683. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Biodiversity and Biogeography of East Asia (KLPB), Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China.

Within the field of mycology, macrofungi have been relatively well-studied when compared to microfungi. However, the diversity and distribution of microfungi inhabiting woody material have not received the same degree of research attention, especially in relatively unexplored regions, such as Yunnan Province, China. To help address this knowledge gap, we collected and examined fungal specimens from different plants at various locations across Yunnan Province. Read More

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Evidence of Age-Related Hemodynamic and Functional Connectivity Impairment: A Resting State fMRI Study.

Front Neurol 2021 23;12:633500. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Greece.

To assess age-related changes in intrinsic functional brain connectivity and hemodynamics during adulthood in the context of the retrogenesis hypothesis, which states that the rate of age-related changes is higher in late-myelinating (prefrontal, lateral-posterior temporal) cerebrocortical areas as compared to early myelinating (parietal, occipital) regions. In addition, to examine the dependence of age-related changes upon concurrent subclinical depression symptoms which are common even in healthy aging. Sixty-four healthy adults (28 men) aged 23-79 years (mean 45. Read More

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Numerical analysis of the mechanical behaviour of intact and implanted lumbar functional spinal units: Effects of loading and boundary conditions.

Proc Inst Mech Eng H 2021 Apr 9:9544119211008343. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India.

The objective of this study was to develop an improved finite element (FE) model of a lumbar functional spinal unit (FSU) and to subsequently analyse the deviations in load transfer owing to implantation. The effects of loading and boundary conditions on load transfer in intact and implanted FSUs and its relationship with the potential risk of vertebral fracture were investigated. The FE models of L1-L5 and L3-L4 FSUs, intact and implanted, were developed using patient-specific CT-scan dataset and segmentation of cortical and cancellous bone regions. Read More

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Cortical maturation from childhood to adolescence is reflected in resting state EEG signal complexity.

Dev Cogn Neurosci 2021 Mar 23;48:100945. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Psychology, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada.

Endogenous cortical fluctuations captured by electroencephalograms (EEGs) reflect activity in large-scale brain networks that exhibit dynamic patterns over multiple time scales. Developmental changes in the coordination and integration of brain function leads to greater complexity in population level neural dynamics. In this study we examined multiscale entropy, a measure of signal complexity, in resting-state EEGs in a large (N = 405) cross-sectional sample of children and adolescents (9-16 years). Read More

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Childhood trauma affects autobiographical memory deficits through basal cortisol and prefrontal-extrastriate functional connectivity.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Feb 10;127:105172. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Health Science, Kitasato University School of Allied Health Sciences, Japan.

Background: Psychological trauma can damage the brain, especially in areas where glucocorticoid receptors are expressed, via perturbed secretion of cortisol. Childhood trauma is associated with blunted basal cortisol secretion, brain alterations, and autobiographical memory deficits referred to as overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). However, it remains unknown whether childhood trauma affects OGM through altered cortisol and brain alterations. Read More

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February 2021

Tear Propagation in Vaginal Tissue under Inflation.

Acta Biomater 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

STRETCH Lab, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, United States. Electronic address:

Vaginal tearing at childbirth is extremely common yet understudied despite the long-term serious consequences on women's health. The mechanisms of vaginal tearing remain unknown, and their knowledge could lead to the development of transformative prevention and treatment techniques for maternal injury. In this study, whole rat vaginas with pre-imposed elliptical tears oriented along the axial direction of the organs were pressurized using a custom-built inflation setup, producing large tear propagation. Read More

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Support for an inhibitory model of word retrieval.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Apr 5:135876. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Psychology, Boston College, United States.

Word retrieval may involve an inhibitory process in which a target word is activated and related words are suppressed. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined the inhibition of language processing cortex by the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during word retrieval using an anagram-solving paradigm. Participants were presented with a distractor that was read aloud followed by a to-be-solved anagram. Read More

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Hypoalbuminemia in Patients Following Their Recovery from Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019.

J Med Virol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a contagious virus that has spread to more than 200 countries, territories and regions. Thousands of studies to date have examined all aspects of this disease, yet little is known about the post-recovery status of patients, especially in the long term. Here, we examined erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum albumin biomarkers in patients with a history of severe and mild-to-moderate COVID-19 following their recovery. Read More

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Analysis of overlapping genetic association in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Diabetologia 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

JDRF/Wellcome Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Aims/hypothesis: Given the potential shared aetiology between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, we aimed to identify any genetic regions associated with both diseases. For associations where there is a shared signal and the allele that increases risk to one disease also increases risk to the other, inference about shared aetiology could be made, with the potential to develop therapeutic strategies to treat or prevent both diseases simultaneously. Alternatively, if a genetic signal co-localises with divergent effect directions, it could provide valuable biological insight into how the association affects the two diseases differently. Read More

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Sleep deprivation impairs molecular clearance from the human brain.

Brain 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital - Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.

It remains an enigma why human beings spend one-third of their life asleep. Experimental data suggest that sleep is required for clearance of waste products from brain metabolism. This has, however, never been verified in humans. Read More

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First report of on kiwifruit in South Africa.

J Nematol 2020 18;52. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Green Biotechnologies Research Centre of Excellence, University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa.

Kiwi is becoming one of the most important fruit in subtropical regions of South Africa with altitudes that confer sufficient chilling requirements. During a survey on biodiversity of plant-parasitic nematodes of kiwi in Magoebaskloof in Limpopo Province, several plant-parasitic nematodes were discovered, with species occurring at the highest frequency. Nematodes were sampled from roots and the rhizosphere of one stunted Kiwi tree, extracted using the tray method and then fixed. Read More

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Quantitative Multicomponent T2 Relaxation Showed Greater Sensitivity Than Flair Imaging to Detect Subtle Alterations at the Periphery of Lower Grade Gliomas.

Front Oncol 2021 22;11:651137. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Proton Therapy Unit, Hospital of Trento, Azienda Provinciale per i Servizi Sanitari (APSS), Trento, Italy.

Purpose: To demonstrate that quantitative multicomponent T2 relaxation can be more sensitive than conventional FLAIR imaging for detecting cerebral tissue abnormalities.

Methods: Six patients affected by lower-grade non-enhancing gliomas underwent T2 relaxation and FLAIR imaging before a radiation treatment by proton therapy (PT) and were examined at follow-up. The T2 decay signal obtained by a thirty-two-echo sequence was decomposed into three main components, attributing to each component a different T2 range: water trapped in the lipid bilayer membrane of myelin, intra/extracellular water and cerebrospinal fluid. Read More

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Transcriptomic Analysis of Mouse Brain After Traumatic Brain Injury Reveals That the Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Candesartan Acts Through Novel Pathways.

Front Neurosci 2021 22;15:636259. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in complex pathological reactions, where the initial lesion is followed by secondary inflammation and edema. Our laboratory and others have reported that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have efficacy in improving recovery from traumatic brain injury in mice. Treatment of mice with a subhypotensive dose of the ARB candesartan results in improved functional recovery, and reduced pathology (lesion volume, inflammation and gliosis). Read More

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Interoception primes emotional processing: Multimodal evidence from neurodegeneration.

J Neurosci 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Cognitive Neuroscience Center (CNC), Universidad de San Andrés, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Recent frameworks in cognitive neuroscience and behavioral neurology underscore interoceptive priors as core modulators of negative emotions. However, the field lacks experimental designs manipulating the priming of emotions via interoception and exploring their multimodal signatures in neurodegenerative models. Here, we designed a novel task that involves interoceptive and control-exteroceptive priming conditions followed by post-Intero and post-Extero facial emotion recognition (FER). Read More

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Establishment of heterochromatin in domain-size-dependent bursts.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(15)

Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2200, Denmark

Methylation of histone H3K9 is a hallmark of epigenetic silencing in eukaryotes. Nucleosome modifications often rely on positive feedback where enzymes are recruited by modified nucleosomes. A combination of local and global feedbacks has been proposed to account for some dynamic properties of heterochromatin, but the range at which the global feedbacks operate and the exact mode of heterochromatin propagation are not known. Read More

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Parthenogenetic mosaicism: generation via second polar body retention and unmasking of a likely causative PER2 variant for hypersomnia.

Clin Epigenetics 2021 Apr 7;13(1):73. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan.

Background: Parthenogenetic mosaicism is an extremely rare condition identified only in five subjects to date. The previous studies indicate that this condition is mediated by parthenogenetic activation and is free from a specific phenotype ascribed to unmaking of a maternally inherited recessive variant in the parthenogenetic cell lineage.

Results: We examined a 28-year-old Japanese 46,XX female with Silver-Russell syndrome and idiopathic hypersomnia. Read More

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