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Interspecies activation correlations reveal functional correspondences between marmoset and human brain areas.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Sep;118(37)

Centre for Functional and Metabolic Mapping, Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7, Canada;

The common marmoset has enormous promise as a nonhuman primate model of human brain functions. While resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) has provided evidence for a similar organization of marmoset and human cortices, the technique cannot be used to map the functional correspondences of brain regions between species. This limitation can be overcome by movie-driven fMRI (md-fMRI), which has become a popular tool for noninvasively mapping the neural patterns generated by rich and naturalistic stimulation. Read More

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September 2021

Advancing Plasmon-Induced Selectivity in Chemical Transformations with Optically Coupled Transmission Electron Microscopy.

Acc Chem Res 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Material Science and Engineering, Stanford University School of Engineering, Stanford, California 94305, United States.

ConspectusNanoparticle photocatalysts are essential to processes ranging from chemical production and water purification to air filtration and surgical instrument sterilization. Photochemical reactions are generally mediated by the illumination of metallic and/or semiconducting nanomaterials, which provide the necessary optical absorption, electronic band structure, and surface faceting to drive molecular reactions. However, with reaction efficiency and selectivity dictated by atomic and molecular interactions, imaging and controlling photochemistry at the atomic scale are necessary to both understand reaction mechanisms and to improve nanomaterials for next-generation catalysts. Read More

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September 2021

Automated quantification of vomeronasal glomeruli number, size, and color composition after immunofluorescent staining.

Chem Senses 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Biological Sciences, University at Albany, Albany, NY, USA.

Glomeruli are neuropil rich regions of the main or accessory olfactory bulbs where the axons of olfactory or vomeronasal neurons and dendrites of mitral/tufted cells form synaptic connections. In the main olfactory system olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) expressing the same receptor innervate one or two glomeruli. However, in the accessory olfactory system, vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) expressing the same receptor can innervate up to 30 different glomeruli in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). Read More

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September 2021

Proliferative Effect of Food Plant Species from Brazil's Cerrado on Cultured Fibroblasts.

J Med Food 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Specialized Center for Aromatic, Medicinal and Toxic Plants (CEPLAMT), Natural History Museum and Botanical Garden, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Brazilian Cerrado is the second largest biome in South America and contains many unstudied valuable plant species rich in bioactive substances. In this study we investigated the phenolic content and proliferative effects on cultured fibroblasts of 32 extracts of different polarities prepared from 11 plants found in Cerrado regions. Eight extracts from six species increased cell proliferation and significantly induced ATP production by the cells. Read More

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September 2021

PanSVR: Pan-Genome Augmented Short Read Realignment for Sensitive Detection of Structural Variations.

Front Genet 2021 19;12:731515. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Center for Bioinformatics, School of Computer Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China.

The comprehensive discovery of structure variations (SVs) is fundamental to many genomics studies and high-throughput sequencing has become a common approach to this task. However, due the limited length, it is still non-trivial to state-of-the-art tools to accurately align short reads and produce high-quality SV callsets. Pan-genome provides a novel and promising framework to short read-based SV calling since it enables to comprehensively integrate known variants to reduce the incompleteness and bias of single reference to breakthrough the bottlenecks of short read alignments and provide new evidences to the detection of SVs. Read More

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The Genome of the CTG(Ser1) Yeast Is Plastic.

mBio 2021 Sep 7:e0187121. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

University of Kentgrid.9759.2, School of Biosciences, Kent Fungal Group, Canterbury Kent, United Kingdom.

Microorganisms need to adapt to environmental changes, and genome plasticity can lead to rapid adaptation to hostile environments by increasing genetic diversity. Here, we investigate genome plasticity in the CTG(Ser1) yeast , an organism with an enormous potential for second-generation biofuel production. We demonstrate that has an intrinsically plastic genome and that different isolates have genomes with distinct chromosome organizations. Read More

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September 2021

Automated facial-vestibulocochlear nerve complex identification based on data-driven tractography clustering.

NMR Biomed 2021 Sep 6:e4607. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Institute of Information Processing and Automation, College of Information Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, China.

Small size and intricate anatomical environment are the main difficulties facing tractography of the facial-vestibulocochlear nerve complex (FVN), and lead to challenges in fiber orientation distribution (FOD) modeling, fiber tracking, region-of-interest selection, and fiber filtering. Experts need rich experience in anatomy and tractography, as well as substantial labor costs, to identify the FVN. Thus, we present a pipeline to identify the FVN automatically, in what we believe is the first study of the automated identification of the FVN. Read More

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September 2021

Antioxidant spiropharanone, an undescribed variant of trans-decalin spiro-γ-lactone, from pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis: Twin inhibitors of inflammatory 5-lipoxygenase and serine protease dipeptidyl peptidase-4.

J Food Biochem 2021 Sep 5:e13919. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

Marine Bioprospecting Section of Marine Biotechnology Division, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Cochin, India.

Marine pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (family Sepiidae) is regarded as an economically important class of cephalopod in the coastal Mediterranean and Asian regions. Bioassay-guided chromatographic purification of solvent extract of S. pharaonis led to the identification of a trans-decalin based spirolactone, spiropharanone, which was characterized as 1-hydroxy-7-(4'-methoxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl)-3,9,15-trimethyl-8-oxo-octahydro-5H-spiro[furan-8,9-naphtho]-8-yl-acetate by spectroscopic techniques. Read More

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September 2021

Changes in Vegetable Consumption in Times of COVID-19-First Findings From an International Civil Science Project.

Front Nutr 2021 17;8:686786. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Working Group Nutrition Ecology, Faculty 09-Agricultural Sciences, Nutritional Sciences and Environmental Management, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

The crisis related to the COVID-19 pandemic influenced food security and nutrition through both direct and indirect pathways. This ranged from short-term to long-term impacts, not only on health but also on food systems and thus on nutrition. This study aimed to identify how the observed constraints affected the food intake of populations across the globe. Read More

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Role of Sulfur Metabolism Gene and High-Sulfur Gene Expression in Wool Growth Regulation in the Cashmere Goat.

Front Genet 2021 18;12:715526. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities, Tongliao, China.

Sulfur, an essential mineral element for animals, mainly exists in the form of organic sulfur-containing amino acids (SAAs), such as cystine, methionine, and cysteine, within the body. The content, form, and structure of sulfur play an important role in determining the wool fiber quality. In addition, keratin-associated proteins, one of the most crucial wool fiber components, are rich in SAAs. Read More

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Contribution of Extracellular Matrix Component Landscapes in the Adult Subventricular Zone to the Positioning of Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells.

Exp Neurobiol 2021 Aug;30(4):275-284

Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

Neurogenesis persists in restricted regions of the adult brain, including the subventricular zone (SVZ). Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) in the SVZ proliferate and give rise to new neurons and glial cells depending on intrinsic and environmental cues. Among the multiple factors that contribute to the chemical, physical, and mechanical components of the neurogenic niche, we focused on the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of vasculature and fractones in the SVZ. Read More

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Superpixels With Content-Adaptive Criteria.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 10;30:7702-7716. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Superpixels are widely used in computer vision applications. Most of the existing superpixel methods use established criteria to indiscriminately process all pixels, resulting in superpixel boundary adherence and regularity being unnecessarily inter-inhibitive. This study builds upon a previous work by proposing a new segmentation strategy that classifies image content into meaningful areas containing object boundaries and meaningless parts that include color-homogeneous and texture-rich regions. Read More

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September 2021

On the value of Burmese amber for understanding insect evolution: Insights from †Heterobathmilla - an exceptional stem group genus of Strepsiptera (Insecta).

Cladistics 2021 Apr 10;37(2):211-229. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Entomology Group, Institut für Zoologie und Evolutionsforschung, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Erbertstrasse 1, Jena, D-07743, Germany.

Burmese amber and amber from other periods and regions became a rich source of new extinct insect species and yielded important insights in insect evolution in the dimension of time. Amber fossils have contributed to the understanding of the phylogeny, biology, and biogeography of insects and other groups, and have also gained great importance for dating molecular trees. Another major potential is the documentation of faunal, floral and climatic shifts. Read More

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Digestive tube of an herbivorous fish (Rhytiodus microlepis) from the Amazonian floodplain lakes: A morphological and histochemical study.

Anat Histol Embryol 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil.

This study describes the morphology and histochemistry of the digestive tube of the herbivorous fish Rhytiodus microlepis, which is commonly found in the Amazonian floodplain lakes, Brazil. Thirty-eight fish were used in this study. The digestive tube was measured and dissected for anatomical description, and stained with (i) haematoxylin and eosin, for histological analyses; (ii) periodic acid-Schiff, for detected neutral mucins; and (iii) Alcian Blue (AB) pH 1. Read More

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September 2021

Two Cases of Hidradenitis Suppurativa Treated with Adalimumab at the Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Clinical Hospital Mostar.

Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2021 Jul;29(2):108-110

Prof. Jasna Zeljko Penavić, MD, PhD, Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Clinical Hospital Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina;

Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease primarily affecting apocrine gland-rich areas of the body and presenting with painful nodules, abscesses, sinus tracts, and scarring (1). HS is a defect of the follicular epithelium; some have therefore called for the naming the disease acne inversa instead of hidradenitis suppurativa. The term acne inversa links the pathogenesis to acne and reflects the fact that it is an expression of follicular occlusion in localizations inverse to acne vulgaris (2). Read More

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LIPAD (LRRK2/Luebeck International Parkinson's Disease) Study Protocol: Deep Phenotyping of an International Genetic Cohort.

Front Neurol 2021 9;12:710572. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Pathogenic variants in the Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 ( gene are the most common known monogenic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). -linked PD is clinically indistinguishable from idiopathic PD and inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion with reduced penetrance and variable expressivity that differ across ethnicities and geographic regions. To systematically assess clinical signs and symptoms including non-motor features, comorbidities, medication and environmental factors in PD patients, unaffected pathogenic variant carriers, and controls. Read More

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Interaction of Human β Defensin Type 3 (hBD-3) with Different PIP2-Containing Membranes, a Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study.

Authors:
Liqun Zhang

J Chem Inf Model 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee 38505, United States.

Human β defensin type 3 (hBD-3) is a cysteine-rich small antibacterial peptide. It belongs to the human innate immune system. hBD-3 has six cysteine residues, which form three pairs of disulfide bonds, and those bonds break in the reducing condition. Read More

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September 2021

Classification and genetic targeting of cell types in the primary taste and premotor center of the adult brain.

Elife 2021 09 2;10. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, United States.

Neural circuits carry out complex computations that allow animals to evaluate food, select mates, move toward attractive stimuli, and move away from threats. In insects, the subesophageal zone (SEZ) is a brain region that receives gustatory, pheromonal, and mechanosensory inputs and contributes to the control of diverse behaviors, including feeding, grooming, and locomotion. Despite its importance in sensorimotor transformations, the study of SEZ circuits has been hindered by limited knowledge of the underlying diversity of SEZ neurons. Read More

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September 2021

The Sakaguchi-Kuramoto model in presence of asymmetric interactions that break phase-shift symmetry.

Chaos 2021 Aug;31(8):083130

Centre for Nonlinear Science and Engineering, School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA Deemed University, Thanjavur 613 401, India.

The celebrated Kuramoto model provides an analytically tractable framework to study spontaneous collective synchronization and comprises globally coupled limit-cycle oscillators interacting symmetrically with one another. The Sakaguchi-Kuramoto model is a generalization of the basic model that considers the presence of a phase lag parameter in the interaction, thereby making it asymmetric between oscillator pairs. Here, we consider a further generalization by adding an interaction that breaks the phase-shift symmetry of the model. Read More

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Boundary transformation representation of attractor shape deformation.

Authors:
A R Sloboda

Chaos 2021 Aug;31(8):083133

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania 17837, USA.

Detecting parameter changes in chaotic systems depends on characterizing the deformation of the strange attractor. Here, we present a new method for comparing the geometry of two attractors by examining their boundaries in 2D via shape context analysis. Poincaré sections for each attractor are sampled along their outer limits, and a boundary transformation is computed that warps one set of points into the other. Read More

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Geodesic Tracks: Computing Discrete Geodesics with Track-based Steiner Point Propagation.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 2021 Sep 1;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

This paper presents a simple yet effective method for computing geodesic distances on triangle meshes. Unlike the popular window propagation methods that partition mesh edges into intervals of varying lengths, our method places evenly-spaced, source-independent Steiner points on edges. Given a source vertex, our method constructs a Steiner-point graph that partitions the surface into mutually exclusive tracks, called geodesic tracks. Read More

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September 2021

Reciprocal adaptation of rice and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae: cross-species 2D GWAS reveals the underlying genetics.

Plant Cell 2021 Aug;33(8):2538-2561

Institute of Crop Sciences/National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 12 South Zhong-Guan-Cun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100081, China.

A 1D/2D genome-wide association study strategy was adopted to investigate the genetic systems underlying the reciprocal adaptation of rice (Oryza sativa) and its bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) using the whole-genome sequencing and large-scale phenotyping data of 701 rice accessions and 23 diverse Xoo strains. Forty-seven Xoo virulence-related genes and 318 rice quantitative resistance genes (QR-genes) mainly located in 41 genomic regions, and genome-wide interactions between the detected virulence-related genes and QR genes were identified, including well-known resistance genes/virulence genes plus many previously uncharacterized ones. Read More

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Multiple Wetting-Dewetting States of a Water Droplet on Dual-Scale Hierarchical Structured Surfaces.

JACS Au 2021 Jul 24;1(7):955-966. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588, United States.

Surfaces with microscale roughness can entail dual-scale hierarchical structures such as the recently reported nano/microstructured surfaces produced in the laboratory (Wang et al. Nature2020, 582, 55-57). However, how the dual-scale hierarchical structured surface affects the apparent wetting/dewetting states of a water droplet, and the transitions between the states are still largely unexplored. Read More

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Optical properties of dissolved organic matter highlight peatland-like properties in a constructed wetland.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 19;802:149770. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Watershed Hydrology Group, School of Earth, Environment & Society, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Constructing novel peatland ecosystems can help to restore the long-term carbon accumulating properties of northern soil systems that have been lost through resource extraction. Although mining companies are legally required to restore landscapes following extraction, there are limited tools to evaluate the effectiveness of restoring peat accumulating landscapes. This study analyzed the spatial patterns of the first seven years (n = 575) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) optical characteristics from a pilot watershed built to restore boreal plains peatlands on a former open pit oil sands mine. Read More

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Impact of Au metal clusters on the structural and inhibitory mechanism of Aβ peptide: A theoretical approach.

Environ Res 2021 Aug 28;204(Pt A):111920. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Ave., Windsor, ON, PO Box N9B 3P4, Canada.

One of the main causes for Alzheimer disease is the abnormal self-assembly of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide, which in turn forms a toxic β-rich aggregation. A recent study suggests that gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can inhibit the Aβ aggregation. Nevertheless, the effects of AuNPs on Aβ peptide system are still ambiguous and needs exploration that is more detailed. Read More

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Gastrointestinal (GI)-Tract Microbiome Derived Neurotoxins and their Potential Contribution to Inflammatory Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's Disease (AD).

J Alzheimers Dis Parkinsonism 2021 25;11(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

LSU Neuroscience Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, United States.

The human gastrointestinal (GI)-tract microbiome is a rich, complex and dynamic source of microorganisms that possess a staggering diversity and complexity. Importantly there is a significant variability in microbial complexity even amongst healthy individuals-this has made it difficult to link specific microbial abundance patterns with age-related neurological disease. GI-tract commensal microorganisms are generally beneficial to human metabolism and immunity, however enterotoxigenic forms of microbes possess significant potential to secrete what are amongst the most neurotoxic and pro-inflammatory biopolymers known. Read More

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Automatic detection of COVID-19 using pruned GLCM-Based texture features and LDCRF classification.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Aug 24;137:104781. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Institute for Information Technology and Communications (IIKT) Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, D-39106, Magdeburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Recently, automatic computer-aided detection (CAD) of COVID-19 using radiological images has received a great deal of attention from many researchers and medical practitioners, and consequently several CAD frameworks and methods have been presented in the literature to assist the radiologist physicians in performing diagnostic COVID-19 tests quickly, reliably and accurately. This paper presents an innovative framework for the automatic detection of COVID-19 from chest X-ray (CXR) images, in which a rich and effective representation of lung tissue patterns is generated from the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) based textural features. The input CXR image is first preprocessed by spatial filtering along with median filtering and contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization to improve the CXR image's poor quality and reduce image noise. Read More

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Cell-free DNA is abundant in ascites and represents a liquid biopsy of ovarian cancer.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 Sep 5;162(3):720-727. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Gynaecological Cancer Research Group, School of Women's and Children's Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of New South Wales, Australia. Electronic address:

Objective: Malignant ascites is a common clinical feature of ovarian cancer and represents a readily accessible sample of tumour cells and tumour DNA. This study aimed to characterise the cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in ascites in terms of its size profile, stability and cell-free tumour DNA (cftDNA) content.

Methods: Cell spheroids, loose cells and cell-free fluid was collected from ascites from 18 patients with ovarian cancer. Read More

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September 2021

Boosting Unassisted Alkaline Solar Water Splitting Using Silicon Photocathode with TiO Nanorods Decorated by Edge-Rich MoS Nanoplates.

Small 2021 Aug 28:e2103457. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

To construct a highly efficient photoelectrochemical tandem device with silicon photocathode operating in alkaline conditions, it is desirable to develop stable and active catalysts which enable the photocathode to reliably perform under an alkaline environment. With nanostructured passivation layer and edge-exposed transition metal disulfides, silicon photocathode provides new opportunities for achieving unbiased alkaline solar water splitting. Here, the TiO nanorod arrays decorated by edge-rich MoS nanoplates are elaborately synthesized and deposited on p-Si. Read More

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Chromosome organization and gene expansion in the highly fragmented genome of the ciliate Strombidium stylifer.

J Genet Genomics 2021 Jul 3. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Institute of Evolution & Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China. Electronic address:

Chromosomes are well-organized carriers of genetic information in eukaryotes and are usually quite long, carrying hundreds and thousands of genes. Intriguingly, a clade of single-celled ciliates, Spirotrichea, feature nanochromosomes-also called "gene-sized chromosomes". These chromosomes predominantly carry only one gene, flanked by short telomere sequences. Read More

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