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AIM/CD5L attenuates DAMPs in the injured brain and thereby ameliorates ischemic stroke.

Cell Rep 2021 Sep;36(11):109693

Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine for Pathogenesis, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan; LEAP, Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan; Laboratoire d'ImmunoRhumatologie Moléculaire, Plateforme GENOMAX, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale UMR_S 1109, Faculté de Médecine, Fédération Hospitalo-Universitaire OMICARE, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg, Laboratory of Excellence TRANSPLANTEX, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France. Electronic address:

The sterile inflammation caused by damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) worsens the prognosis following primary injury such as ischemic stroke. However, there are no effective treatments to regulate DAMPs. Here, we report that AIM (or CD5L) protein reduces sterile inflammation by attenuating DAMPs and that AIM administration ameliorates the deleterious effects of ischemic stroke. Read More

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September 2021

Age-Related Functional Reserve Decline Is Not Seen in Pharyngeal Swallowing Pressures.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2021 Sep 15:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Neurology, Dell Medical School, The University of Texas at Austin.

Purpose Functional reserve represents the difference between an individual's ability to produce a maximum output function and the ability to perform a functional task. Several studies have documented an age-related decrease in functional reserve with oral tongue pressure generation. Whether this pattern is seen in pharyngeal swallowing pressures is unknown. Read More

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September 2021

Is quality maternal healthcare all about successful childbirth? Views of mothers in the Wa Municipality, Ghana.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(9):e0257401. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Faculty of Health, The Australian Centre for Public and Population Health Research, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Introduction: In spite of the countless initiatives of the Ghana government to improve the quality of maternal healthcare, Upper West Region still records poor childbirth outcomes. This study, therefore, explored women's perception of the quality of maternal healthcare they receive in the Wa Municipality of the Upper West Region of Ghana.

Materials And Methods: This is a qualitative cross-sectional study of 62 women who accessed maternal healthcare in the Wa Municipality of Ghana. Read More

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September 2021

Digital Pathology in Cameroon.

JCO Glob Oncol 2021 Aug;7:1380-1389

University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL.

Purpose: Cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent among the group of treatable diseases in African countries. There is a shortage of clinicians and pathologists available for cancer diagnosis and treatment. These limited resources must be efficiently used to maximize the number of patients treated. Read More

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Virulence of enterovirus-A71 fluctuates depending on the phylogenetic clade formed in the epidemic year and epidemic region.

J Virol 2021 Sep 15:JVI0151521. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Neurovirology Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, 1568506, Japan.

Although epidemics of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) have occurred worldwide, the Asia-Pacific region has seen large sporadic outbreaks with many severe neurological cases. This suggests that the virulence of the circulating viruses fluctuates in each epidemic and that HFMD outbreaks with many severe cases occur when highly virulent viruses are circulating predominantly, which has not been experimentally verified. Here, we analyzed 32 clinically isolated strains obtained in Japan from 2002 to 2013, along with 27 Vietnamese strains obtained from 2015 to 2016 that we characterized previously using human SCARB2 transgenic mice. Read More

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September 2021

All-cause acute care hospitalization rates of immigrants and the Canadian-born population: A linkage study.

Health Rep 2021 Sep;32(9):3-13

Health Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

Background: As Canadian immigration levels increase, knowledge concerning immigrant health becomes increasingly important for health system policy and planning. This study compares the rate of all-cause hospitalization among immigrants with that of their Canadian-born counterparts.

Data And Methods: Using records from the Discharge Abstract Database (2004/2005 to 2016/2017) and the Ontario Mental Health Reporting System (2006/2007 to 2017/2018) linked to the 2016 Longitudinal Immigration Database, this study compared the age-standardized hospitalization rates (ASHRs) among immigrants with those of the Canadian-born population; the latter were obtained from a linkage based on the 2011 National Household Survey. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of COVID-19 on Timing of Hip-Fracture Surgeries: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of the Pre/Post-Quarantine Period in Northern Italy.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Public Health Sciences and Paediatrics, Università di Torino, Torino, Italy.

Background: To assess whether the imposition of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) national quarantine (March 10, 2020) resulted in a shift in the proportion of patients operated for hip fracture on the day of admission, the following day and two days after admission in the region of Piedmont, northern Italy.

Methods: Interrupted time-series analysis (ITSA) comparing hospitalization rate and timing of hip-fracture surgeries between pre- and post-quarantine period. The same data observed in Piedmont the year before were included as a control time series with no "intervention" (quarantine) in the middle of the observation period. Read More

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September 2021

Prenatal alcohol and cannabis exposure can have opposing and region-specific effects on parvalbumin interneuron numbers in the hippocampus.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Medical Sciences, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Rd, Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2, Canada.

Background: We have recently shown that alcohol and cannabis can interact prenatally, and in a recent review paper we further identified Parvalbumin-positive (PV) interneurons in the hippocampus as a potential point of convergence for these teratogens.

Methods: A 2 (EtOH, Air) x 2 (THC, Vehicle) design was used to expose pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to either EtOH or air, in addition to either THC or the inhalant vehicle solution, from gestational days 5-20. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect parvalbumin-positive interneurons in one male and one female pup from each litter at post-natal day (PND) 70. Read More

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September 2021

Assessment of trends in climatic extremes from observational data in the Kashmir basin, NW Himalaya.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Sep 14;193(10):649. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Geology, School Education Department, Government of Jammu and Kashmir, Srinagar, 190002, India.

The present study aims to assess the recent changes and trends in the extreme climate indices in the Kashmir basin using the observational records from 1980 to 2016. The extreme climate indices were computed using the ClimPACT2 software and a total of 39 indices were selected for the analysis having particular utility to various sectors like agriculture, water resources, energy consumption, and human health. Besides adopting the station scale analysis, regional averages were computed for each index. Read More

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September 2021

Splitting and Splaying Apart of the Craniomaxillofacial Skeleton by Medially Directed Disruptive Forces of Unusual Etiologies- A Case Series.

Authors:
Priya Jeyaraj

Ann Maxillofac Surg 2021 Jan-Jun;11(1):195-213. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Military Dental Centre, Secunderabad, Telangana, India.

Introduction: Extreme forces directed towards the centre of the facial region can produce devastating injuries, with disruption of the mandible, maxilla and naso-orbito-ethmoid complex, with or without frontal bone involvement. The magnitude and trajectory of the force and nature of the impacting object, dictate the degree of displacement and comminution of the craniomaxillofacial skeletal components, as well as the extent of soft tissue loss sustained.

Diagnosis & Challenges: To elucidate various challenges faced in the management of four cases of extreme craniomaxillofacial injuries, caused by centrally directed forces of rather unusual etiologies, namely, a traversing bullet, a bamboo rod, a heavy iron cattle tethering peg and a metal electrical pole. Read More

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November 2021

A Rare Entity of Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma of the Mandible - A Case Report.

Ann Maxillofac Surg 2021 Jan-Jun;11(1):156-159. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Consultant Maxillofacial Surgeon, People Tree Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

The Rationale: Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma originally known as malignant fibrous histiocytoma was declassified by the World Health Organization in 2002 as a formal diagnostic entity and renamed as an undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma. It accounts for <1% of malignant tumours of the long bone.

Patient Concerns: A 33-year-old male patient reported with swelling and pain in the lower left posterior jaw region for 3 months with a history of fall on the floor 3 months back. Read More

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Magnetic systems for cancer immunotherapy.

Acta Pharm Sin B 2021 Aug 30;11(8):2172-2196. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303, USA.

Immunotherapy is a rapidly developing area of cancer treatment due to its higher specificity and potential for greater efficacy than traditional therapies. Immune cell modulation through the administration of drugs, proteins, and cells can enhance antitumoral responses through pathways that may be otherwise inhibited in the presence of immunosuppressive tumors. Magnetic systems offer several advantages for improving the performance of immunotherapies, including increased spatiotemporal control over transport, release, and dosing of immunomodulatory drugs within the body, resulting in reduced off-target effects and improved efficacy. Read More

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Drought has negative consequences on aphid fitness and plant vigor: Insights from a meta-analysis.

Ecol Evol 2021 Sep 28;11(17):11915-11929. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Ecological Sciences Department The James Hutton Institute Dundee UK.

Aphids are abundant in natural and managed vegetation, supporting a diverse community of organisms and causing damage to agricultural crops. Due to a changing climate, periods of drought are anticipated to increase, and the potential consequences of this for aphid-plant interactions are unclear.Using a meta-analysis and synthesis approach, we aimed to advance understanding of how increased drought incidence will affect this ecologically and economically important insect group and to characterize any potential underlying mechanisms. Read More

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September 2021

Human-wildlife conflict in the roof of the world: Understanding multidimensional perspectives through a systematic review.

Ecol Evol 2021 Sep 2;11(17):11569-11586. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development Kathmandu Nepal.

Human-wildlife conflicts have intensified by many folds and at different levels in recent years. The same is true in the case of the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH), the roof of the world, and a region known for its wealth in biodiversity. We present a systematic literature review (SLR) using the search, appraisal, synthesis, and analysis (SALSA) framework; and for spatial and network analysis, we employed the VOSviewer software. Read More

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September 2021

Role of "Stiff Rim" sign obtained by shear wave elastography in diagnosis and guiding therapy of breast cancer.

Int J Med Sci 2021 28;18(15):3615-3623. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Ultrasound in Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, Shanghai 200233, P.R, China.

Because the halo around the tumor in shear wave elastography (SWE) is defined as the "stiff rim" sign, the diagnosis of breast lesions with the stiff rim sign is popular. However, only a few studies have described the stiff rim sign quantitatively. This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of the stiff rim sign in the diagnosis and tumor, node, metastasis stage of breast cancer. Read More

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Spatial and temporal analysis of myocardial infarction incidence in Zanjan province, Iran.

BMC Public Health 2021 Sep 14;21(1):1667. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Center for Mental Health Research College of Health and Medicine, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

Background: Myocardial Infarction (MI) is a major important public health concern and has huge burden on health system across the world. This study aimed to explore the spatial and temporal analysis of the incidence of MI to identify potential clusters of the incidence of MI patterns across rural areas in Zanjan province, Iran.

Materials & Methods: This was a retrospective and geospatial analysis study of the incidence of MI data from nine hospitals during 2014-2018. Read More

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September 2021

The 3D nuclear conformation of the major histocompatibility complex changes upon cell activation both in porcine and human macrophages.

BMC Mol Cell Biol 2021 Sep 14;22(1):45. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

GenPhySE, Université de Toulouse, INRAE, ENVT, 1388 GenPhySE, 24 Chemin de Borde Rouge, 31326 Cedex, Castanet-Tolosan, France.

Background: The crucial role of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) for the immune response to infectious diseases is well-known, but no information is available on the 3D nuclear organization of this gene-dense region in immune cells, whereas nuclear architecture is known to play an essential role on genome function regulation. We analyzed the spatial arrangement of the three MHC regions (class I, III and II) in macrophages using 3D-FISH. Since this complex presents major differences in humans and pigs with, notably, the presence of the centromere between class III and class II regions in pigs, the analysis was implemented in both species to determine the impact of this organization on the 3D conformation of the MHC. Read More

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September 2021

Second Attempt of Guided Tissue Regeneration on a Previous Successfully Grafted Site with Periodontal Breakdown-A 5-Year Follow-up.

Authors:
Lean Heong Foo

Eur J Dent 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Periodontic Unit, Department of Restorative Dentistry, National Dental Centre Singapore, Singapore.

Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has been proven to promote attachment and regeneration of periodontal tissue. However, there is a 20 to 40% incidence of attachment loss on regenerated attachments reported in the literature. To my knowledge, this is the first case report on a second attempt in GTR on a previous successful grafted site with clinical attachment loss. Read More

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September 2021

Multi-hazard susceptibility and exposure assessment of the Hindu Kush Himalaya.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 30;804:150039. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Yale School of the Environment, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA.

Mountainous regions are highly hazardous, and these hazards often lead to loss of human life. The Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH), like many mountainous regions, is the site of multiple and overlapping natural hazards, but the distribution of multi-hazard risk and the populations exposed to it are poorly understood. Here, we present high-resolution transboundary models describing susceptibility to floods, landslides, and wildfires to understand population exposure to multi-hazard risk across the HKH. Read More

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Systemic and topical Ginkgo biloba leaf extract ameliorated rat paw inflammation in comparison to dexamethasone.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Sep 11:114619. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; Alghad International Colleges of Applied Medical Sciences, Abha, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract (Egb-761) is used for treating various inflammatory disease conditions therefore this study was performed.

Aim Of The Study: The present study aimed at comparing the therapeutic efficacy of both systemic and topical Egb-761 versus dexamethasone on carrageenan-induced hind paw inflammation in rats.

Material And Methods: Wistar albino rats were injected with carrageenan solution in the sub-planter region of the right hind paw. Read More

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September 2021

Global burden of lung cancer attributable to ambient fine particulate matter pollution in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019.

Environ Res 2021 Sep 11;204(Pt A):112023. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People's Republic of China; Clinical Research Center of Shandong University, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People's Republic of China; Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Understanding the latest global spatio-temporal pattern of lung cancer burden attributable to ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM) is crucial to prioritize global lung cancer prevention, as well as environment improvement.

Methods: Data on lung cancer attributable to ambient PM were downloaded from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2019. The numbers and age-standardized rates on lung cancer mortality (ASMR) and disability-adjusted life years (ASDR) were estimated by age, sex, region, and country. Read More

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September 2021

North Atlantic winter cyclones starve seabirds.

Curr Biol 2021 Sep;31(17):3964-3971.e3

Atlantic Laboratory for Avian Research, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3, Canada.

Each winter, the North Atlantic Ocean is the stage for numerous cyclones, the most severe ones leading to seabird mass-mortality events called "winter wrecks." During these, thousands of emaciated seabird carcasses are washed ashore along European and North American coasts. Winter cyclones can therefore shape seabird population dynamics by affecting survival rates as well as the body condition of surviving individuals and thus their future reproduction. Read More

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September 2021

High-throughput kinome-RNAi screen identifies protein kinase R activator (PACT) as a novel genetic modifier of CUG foci integrity in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1).

PLoS One 2021 14;16(9):e0256276. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 (DM1) is the most common form of adult muscular dystrophy (~1:8000). In DM1, expansion of CTG trinucleotide repeats in the 3' untranslated region of the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) gene results in DMPK mRNA hairpin structures which aggregate as insoluble ribonuclear foci and sequester several RNA-binding proteins. The resulting sequestration and misregulation of important splicing factors, such as muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1), causes the aberrant expression of fetal transcripts for several genes that contribute to the disease phenotype. Read More

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September 2021

Lack of effect on in-hospital mortality of drugs used during COVID-19 pandemic: Findings of the retrospective multicenter COVOCA study.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(9):e0256903. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

U.O.S.D. Infectious Diseases Emergency and Acceptance, Cotugno Hospital, Naples, Italy.

Introduction: During COVID-19 pandemic, the use of several drugs has represented the worldwide clinical practice. However, though the current increase of knowledge about the disease, there is still no effective treatment for the usage of drugs. Thus, we retrospectively assessed use and effects of therapeutic regimens in hospitalized patients on in-hospital mortality. Read More

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September 2021

CaR: A Cutting and Repulsion-Based Evolutionary Framework for Mixed-Integer Programming Problems.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Sep 14;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

A mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem contains both constraints and integer restrictions. Integer restrictions divide the feasible region defined by constraints into multiple discontinuous feasible parts. In particular, the number of discontinuous feasible parts will drastically increase with the increase of the number of integer decision variables and/or the size of the candidate set of each integer decision variable. Read More

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September 2021

Knowledge of HPV, its vaccines, and attitudes toward HPV vaccines among obstetrician-gynecologists, pediatricians and immunization services providers in Western China.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Sep 14:1-7. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: In mainland China, HPV vaccines have been available to the public. However, only a few related studies among health care providers, as the key information providers, were reported although public concerns on HPV vaccines still exist. In this study, we aim to assess the knowledge of HPV, its vaccines, and attitudes toward HPV vaccines among the three most important groups of health care providers in Western China. Read More

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September 2021

Geographic analysis of military health system (MHS) buprenorphine prescribers and patients.

J Opioid Manag 2021 ;17(7):87-100

Georgetown University School of Medicine, Program Director Pain Fellowship, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland.

Objective: To demonstrate the prevalence of opioid use disorder (OUD) in the military health system (MHS), geographically map OUD patients and providers, and offer policy recommendations to help increase buprenorphine waiver prescribing.

Design: This study was a retrospective review of data from the MHS records. Deidentified records of MHS OUD patients receiving buprenorphine were utilized. Read More

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September 2021

Recent Advances in Lactic Acid Production by Lactic Acid Bacteria.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Biophysics, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

Lactic acid can synthesize high value-added chemicals such as poly lactic acid. In order to further minimize the cost of lactic acid production, some effective strategies (e.g. Read More

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September 2021

Reflexing Suspicious β-Region Findings on Capillary Serum Protein Electrophoresis to Immunofixation or Immunosubtraction for Detecting Monoclonal Proteins.

Am J Clin Pathol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Objectives: Monoclonal immunoglobulins (M-proteins) that migrate in the β region on serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) are often cloaked by this region's normal constituents. The present study interrogates the utility of using both quantitative and qualitative alterations in β-region bands for detection of β-migrating M-proteins.

Methods: Consecutive SPEP cases analyzed by capillary electrophoresis were searched to identify the initial workup on 1,841 patients with increased total β regions, suspicious β-region findings resulting in reflex immunofixation (IFE), or immunosubtraction (ISUB). Read More

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September 2021

A dual-emissive europium-based metal-organic framework for selective and sensitive detection of Fe and Fe.

Dalton Trans 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, P. R. China.

A dual-emissive optical material as a ratiometric fluorescent probe has been demonstrated to be remarkably superior in precise and quantitative analyses. Herein, a novel dual-emissive fluorescent probe Eu-BDC-OH was designed and successfully synthesized using Eu and 2-hydroxyterephthalic acid (HBDC-OH) at room temperature. Eu-BDC-OH has a three-dimensional interpenetrating network structure with a large number of exposed hydroxyl functional groups, providing abundant active sites for molecular recognition. Read More

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September 2021