3,368 results match your criteria refuge periods

Sex- and Developmental Stage-Related Differences in the Hepatic Transcriptome of Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) Exposed to 17β-Trenbolone.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

U.S. Geological Survey, Eastern Ecological Science Center, Patuxent Research Refuge Beltsville, Maryland, USA.

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can cause transcriptomic changes that may disrupt biological processes associated with reproductive function including metabolism, transport, and cell growth. We investigated effects from in ovo and dietary exposure to 17β-trenbolone (17βT; at 0, 1 and 10 ppm) on the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) hepatic transcriptome. Our objectives were to identify differentially expressed hepatic genes, assess perturbations of biological pathways, and examine sex- and developmental stage-related differences. Read More

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Managing resistance evolution to transgenic maize in corn borers in Spain.

Crit Rev Biotechnol 2021 Jun 21:1-19. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

INRAE, Eco-Innov, Université Paris-Saclay, Thiverval-Grignon, France.

Since 1998, genetically engineered maize varieties expressing the insecticidal Cry1Ab protein (i.e. event MON 810) have been grown in the European Union (EU), mainly in Spain. Read More

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Temporal and spatial dynamics of arthropod groups in terrestrial subsurface habitats in central Portugal.

Zoology (Jena) 2021 Apr 27;147:125931. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, 2100, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark; Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes (cE3c), Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal. Electronic address:

The mesovoid shallow substratum (MSS) can act as a climatic refuge for invertebrates, as a biogeographic corridor to deeper substrates or as a permanent habitat for some species. This study characterizes the seasonal invertebrate diversity and abundance of MSS ecosystems in central Portugal focusing on Diplopoda, Diplura, Orthoptera and Coleoptera during one year. Sampling was performed with standard MSS pitfalls in scree slopes (colluvial MSS) of karst areas and environmental parameters (temperature, pH, conductivity, water content, organic carbon, nitrate, phosphate and ammonium) were quantified. Read More

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Refugee, Migrant and Asylum Seekers' Experience of Accessing and Receiving Primary Healthcare in a UK City of Sanctuary.

J Immigr Minor Health 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

GP Centre, Bournemouth University, Gateway Building, St Paul's Lane, Bournemouth, BH8 8GR, UK.

The World Health Organisation estimate there are about 1 billion migrants in the world today. The scale of population movement and a global refugee crisis presents an enormous challenge for healthcare provision, and too often the specific health needs of refugees and migrants are not met. This study assessed refugee, asylum seeker and vulnerable migrants' (AMRs') experience of front line primary healthcare in a region of the United Kingdom designated as a 'City of Sanctuary'. Read More

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Drivers of diversity and community structure of bees in an agroecological region of Zimbabwe.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jun 1;11(11):6415-6426. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Crop science and Post-Harvest Technology Chinhoyi University of Technology Chinhoyi Zimbabwe.

Worldwide bees provide an important ecosystem service of plant pollination. Climate change and land-use changes are among drivers threatening bee survival with mounting evidence of species decline and extinction. In developing countries, rural areas constitute a significant proportion of the country's land, but information is lacking on how different habitat types and weather patterns in these areas influence bee populations. Read More

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Rivers, not refugia, drove diversification in arboreal, sub-Saharan African snakes.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jun 1;11(11):6133-6152. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of Kansas Lawrence KS USA.

The relative roles of rivers versus refugia in shaping the high levels of species diversity in tropical rainforests have been widely debated for decades. Only recently has it become possible to take an integrative approach to test predictions derived from these hypotheses using genomic sequencing and paleo-species distribution modeling. Herein, we tested the predictions of the classic river, refuge, and river-refuge hypotheses on diversification in the arboreal sub-Saharan African snake genus . Read More

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Marshes on the move.

Gabriel Popkin

Science 2021 Jun;372(6548):1254-1258

Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Maryland.

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Strategic testing approaches for targeted disease monitoring can be used to inform pandemic decision-making.

PLoS Biol 2021 Jun 17;19(6):e3001307. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

More than 1.6 million Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) tests were administered daily in the United States at the peak of the epidemic, with a significant focus on individual treatment. Here, we show that objective-driven, strategic sampling designs and analyses can maximize information gain at the population level, which is necessary to increase situational awareness and predict, prepare for, and respond to a pandemic, while also continuing to inform individual treatment. Read More

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A systematic review on the implication of Candida in peri-implantitis.

Int J Implant Dent 2021 Jun 17;7(1):73. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Stomatology II, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940, Leioa, Vizcaya, Spain.

Background: Candida is a heterogeneous fungal genus. Subgingival sulcus is a refuge for Candida, which has already been related to the pathogenic inflammation of periodontitis. This work aims to review the presence of Candida in the sulcular fluid surrounding dental implants and discuss its potential role in peri-implantitis. Read More

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Biofilm Formation by Pathogens Causing Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia at Intensive Care Units in a Tertiary Care Hospital: An Armor for Refuge.

Biomed Res Int 2021 28;2021:8817700. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Background: Emerging threat of drug resistance among pathogens causing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) has resulted in higher hospital costs, longer hospital stays, and increased hospital mortality. Biofilms in the endotracheal tube of ventilated patients act as protective shield from host immunity. They induce chronic and recurrent infections that defy common antibiotics. Read More

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Flourishing in Resonance: Joint Resilience Building Through Music and Motion.

Front Psychol 2021 31;12:666702. Epub 2021 May 31.

Artesis Plantijn Hogeschool Antwerpen, Royal Conservatoire Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Worldwide, children face adverse childhood experiences, being exposed to risks ranging from, exposure to political violence and forced migration over the deleterious effects of climate change, to unsafe cultural practices. As a consequence, children that seek refuge or migrate to European countries are extremely vulnerable, often struggling with integration in school, peer community, and their broader social circle. This multifaceted struggle can derive from external factors, such as the adaptation process and contact with other children, or internal factors such as the fears and trauma that every child carries within them since they departed from their homeland. Read More

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Low MSP-1 haplotype diversity in the West Palearctic population of the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum.

Malar J 2021 Jun 12;20(1):265. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

US Geological Survey, Eastern Ecological Research Center at Patuxent Research Refuge, Beltsville, MD, 20705, USA.

Background: Although avian Plasmodium species are widespread and common across the globe, limited data exist on how genetically variable their populations are. Here, the hypothesis that the avian blood parasite Plasmodium relictum exhibits very low genetic diversity in its Western Palearctic transmission area (from Morocco to Sweden in the north and Transcaucasia in the east) was tested.

Methods: The genetic diversity of Plasmodium relictum was investigated by sequencing a portion (block 14) of the fast-evolving merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) gene in 75 different P. Read More

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Do environmental regulations matter on Spanish foreign investment? A multisectorial approach.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Departamento de Análisis Económico y Economía Política, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Ramón y Cajal, 1, 41018, Sevilla, Spain.

A gravity model is used to investigate the impact of the stringency and enforcement of the environmental regulation on Spanish investment flows abroad during the period 2008-2018. From the pollution haven hypothesis' (PHH) perspective, the research tests if offshoring and outsourcing processes from Spanish multinational enterprises (MNEs) were due to movements through FDI of high-polluting industries seeking refuge in countries with a low standard of legal environmental protection framework. The analysis includes FDI into primary, manufacturing, construction, wholesale and retail, professional services, leisure services, utilities, and other services. Read More

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Interphase epichromatin: last refuge for the 30-nm chromatin fiber?

Chromosoma 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Administration, School of Pharmacy, University of New England, 716 Stevens Avenue, Portland, ME, 04103, USA.

"Interphase epichromatin" describes the surface of chromatin located adjacent to the interphase nuclear envelope. It was discovered in 2011 using a bivalent anti-nucleosome antibody (mAb PL2-6), now known to be directed against the nucleosome acidic patch. The molecular structure of interphase epichromatin is unknown, but is thought to be heterochromatic with a high density of "exposed" acidic patches. Read More

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Strip spraying delays pyrethroid resistance in the redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor: a novel refuge strategy.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Cesar Australia, Parkville, Australia.

Background: Pesticide resistance has seen control options for the redlegged earth mite (RLEM), Halotydeus destructor, dwindle for Australian grain farmers. The recent discovery of high recessiveness for pyrethroid resistance in RLEM provided an opportunity to examine the feasibility of a refuge strategy to slow the evolution of resistance. Unlike lepidopterous pests in Bt crops, where refuge strategies are routinely practiced, RLEM is a slow-moving pest, which will impact the design of susceptible refuges. Read More

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Are Plantations Useful as a Refuge of Bryophytes Diversity in Tropical Areas?

Life (Basel) 2021 May 12;11(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

Maestría en Biología de la Conservación y Ecología Tropical, Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, San Cayetano s/n, Loja 1101608, Ecuador.

Neotropical montane forests are considered biodiversity hotspots, where epiphytic bryophytes are an important component of the diversity, biomass and functioning of these ecosystems. We evaluated the richness and composition of bryophytes in secondary successional forests and mixed plantations of . In each forest type, the presence and cover of epiphytic bryophytes was registered in 400 quadrats of 20 cm × 30 cm. Read More

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The Use of Winter Water Temperature and Food Composition by the Copepod (Uljanin, 1875) to Provide a Temporal Refuge from Fish Predation.

Biology (Basel) 2021 May 1;10(5). Epub 2021 May 1.

National Institute of Ecology, Seo-Cheon Gun 325-813, Chungcheongnam Province, Korea.

Frequent predation induces various defense strategies in prey, including morphological changes or migration patterns in zooplankton. We hypothesized that the winter dominance of in the Upo Wetlands, South Korea, is an evolved temporal defense mechanism to avoid fish predation. Long-term data (2014-2019) showed that fish consumed the most cyclopoid copepods from spring to autumn. Read More

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Unsupervised Domain Adaptation Based Image Synthesis and Feature Alignment for Joint Optic Disc and Cup Segmentation.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Jun 1;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Due to the discrepancy of different devices for fundus image collection, a well-trained neural network is usually unsuitable for another new dataset. To solve this problem, the unsupervised domain adaptation strategy attracts a lot of attentions. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised domain adaptation method based image synthesis and feature alignment (ISFA) method to segment optic disc and cup on the fundus image. Read More

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Gender Differences in the Relationship between Housing, Socioeconomic Status, and Self-Reported Health Status.

Rev Environ Health 2021 Feb 20;19(3-4):177-196. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Centrefor Health and Policy Studies (CHAPS), University of Calgary,Calgary, Canada.

This study investigates gender differences in housing, socioeconomic status, and self-reported health status. The analysis focuses on the social and economic dimensions of housing, such as demand, control, material aspects (affordability, type of dwelling) and meaningful aspects (pride in dwelling, home as a refuge) of everyday life in the domestic environment. A random sample, crosssectional telephone survey was administered in the city of Vancouver, Canada in June 1999 (n = 650). Read More

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February 2021

Improving species status assessments under the U.S. endangered species act and implications for multispecies conservation challenges worldwide.

Conserv Biol 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina, and Southeastern Grasslands Initiative, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.

Despite its successes, the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) has proven challenging to implement due to funding limitations, workload backlog, and other problems. Read More

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Headstarting as a cost-effective conservation strategy for an endangered mammal.

Curr Biol 2021 May;31(10):R465-R466

Centre for Ecosystem Science, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2052, Australia; Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2052, Australia.

Introduced predators threaten prey species worldwide, but strategies to protect vulnerable wildlife from introduced predators can be expensive, time-consuming, and logistically difficult. Novel conservation strategies that reduce predation affordably and efficiently must be explored. 'Headstarting' is one such strategy, whereby prey are isolated from predators only during the critical early life stage before being returned to the wild, thus improving juvenile survivorship and recruitment to contribute to an increase in population growth. Read More

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On the sensitivity of plankton ecosystem models to the formulation of zooplankton grazing.

PLoS One 2021 25;16(5):e0252033. Epub 2021 May 25.

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

Model representations of plankton structure and dynamics have consequences for a broad spectrum of ocean processes. Here we focus on the representation of zooplankton and their grazing dynamics in such models. It remains unclear whether phytoplankton community composition, growth rates, and spatial patterns in plankton ecosystem models are especially sensitive to the specific means of representing zooplankton grazing. Read More

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Quantifying the Contribution of Seed Blended Refugia in Field Corn to Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Populations.

J Econ Entomol 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Bayer Crop Science, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), a pest of cotton that also occurs in field corn, is commonly controlled through the use of foliar-applied insecticides or transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) genes. To minimize the risk of Bt resistance in pest populations, refuge systems have been implemented for sustainable agroecosystem management. Historically, structured refuge compliance among growers has been low, leading to the commercialization of seed blended refugia. Read More

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The Pioneer Neuropharmacologist Alfred Fröhlich (1871-1953) and the Origins of Neuroendocrinology: A Sesquicentennial Remembrance.

Neuroscientist 2021 May 24:10738584211016777. Epub 2021 May 24.

Laboratory of Theoretical and Applied Neuroscience, University of Macedonia School of Social Sciences, Humanities and Arts, Thessalonica, Greece.

The birth of neuroendocrinology as a scientific discipline is traced back to 1900-1901, when Joseph Babinski, Alfred Fröhlich, and Harvey Cushing independently identified adiposogenital dystrophy (Fröhlich syndrome), and related gonadal underdevelopment and obesity to a tumor near the pituitary gland. This discovery prompted decades of research into the brain mechanisms responsible for the control of peripheral metabolism and endocrine functions. On the occasion of the 150th anniversary of Fröhlich's birth, this study traces the origins of his intellectual formation and his association with renowned contemporaries in Austria, England, Italy, and finally Cincinnati, Ohio, where he sought refuge after Austria's annexation by Nazi Germany. Read More

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Predation release of Texas horned lizards () living in small towns.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 24;11(10):5355-5363. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Biology Texas Christian University Fort Worth TX USA.

Texas horned lizards () have a number of ways to avoid predation, including camouflage, sharp cranial horns, flattening of the body, and the ability to squirt blood from the eyes. These characteristics and their relatively low survival rates in the wild suggest these lizards are under high predation pressure. These lizards have been declining in much of their eastern range due to increased urbanization, agriculture, and loss of prey species. Read More

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Temperature As A Driver of the Pathogenicity and Virulence of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis: A Systematic Review.

J Wildl Dis 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Institute of Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University, Albury-Wodonga Campus, PO Box 789, Albury, New South Wales 2640 Australia.

Chytridiomycosis, caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is a leading cause of global amphibian declines. Severe infections with Bd can lead to cardiac arrest, and mass deaths during epidemics have been reported. Temperature, pH, salinity, and moisture are important determinants of the survival, growth, reproduction, and pathogenicity of Bd, as well as its effect on amphibian populations. Read More

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Trypanosoma cruzi and Incidental Sarcocystis spp. in Endangered Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) of South Texas, USA.

J Wildl Dis 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, 4458 TAMU, College Station, Texas 77843, USA.

The federally endangered ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) population of south Texas is declining; fewer than an estimated 80 ocelots remain. South Texas has robust transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite causing Chagas disease in humans and various mammals. This parasite's impact in ocelots is unknown. Read More

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American crocodiles (Crocodylus acutus) as restoration bioindicators in the Florida Everglades.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(5):e0250510. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, United States of America.

The federally threatened American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is a flagship species and ecological indicator of hydrologic restoration in the Florida Everglades. We conducted a long-term capture-recapture study on the South Florida population of American crocodiles from 1978 to 2015 to evaluate the effects of restoration efforts to more historic hydrologic conditions. The study produced 10,040 crocodile capture events of 9,865 individuals and more than 90% of captures were of hatchlings. Read More

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Gene alterations as predictors of radiation-induced toxicity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

J Transl Med 2021 05 17;19(1):212. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Background: Optimizing the therapeutic ratio for radiation therapy (RT) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is uniquely challenging owing to high rates of early and late toxicity involving nearby organs at risk. These toxicities have a profound impact on treatment compliance and quality of life. Emerging evidence suggests that RT dose alone cannot fully account for the variable severity of RT-related adverse events (rtAEs) observed in HNSCC patients. Read More

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Spring Phenology Drives Range Shifts in a Migratory Arctic Ungulate with Key Implications for the Future.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 May 16. Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Environment, Yukon Government, Dawson City, YT, Y0B 1G0, Canada.

Annual variation in phenology can have profound effects on the behavior of animals. As climate change advances spring phenology in ecosystems around the globe, it is becoming increasingly important to understand how animals respond to variation in the timing of seasonal events and how their responses may shift in the future. We investigated the influence of spring phenology on the behavior of migratory, barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus), a species that has evolved to cope with short Arctic summers. Read More

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