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Structural Issues Associated with Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Use in Men Who Have Sex with Men.

Int J Behav Med 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Behavioral Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Limited access to healthcare has been associated with limited uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM). This descriptive analysis examined, in a near universal healthcare setting, differences between MSM reporting using versus not using PrEP in the past 12 months.

Method: Data come from the 2017 Boston sample of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system, containing a venue-based and time-spaced sample of 530 MSM. Read More

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Fabrication of Cu-hemin metal-organic-frameworks nanoflower supported on three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide for the amperometric detection of HO.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 Apr 8;188(5):160. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Key Laboratory for Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, State and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Vascular Implants, Bioengineering College of Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, People's Republic of China.

A novel electrochemical sensor based on Cu-hemin metal-organic-frameworks nanoflower/three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (Cu-hemin MOFs/3D-RGO) was constructed to detect HO released from living cells. The nanocomposite was synthesized via a facile co-precipitation method using hemin as the ligand, then decorated with 3D-RGO. The prepared Cu-hemin MOFs showed a 3D hollow spherical flower-like structure with a large specific surface area and mesoporous properties, which could load more biomolecules and greatly enhance the stability by protecting the activity of hemin. Read More

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Health Equity of Rural Residents in Southwest China.

Front Public Health 2021 23;9:611583. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

School of Public Health, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

The Chinese government stresses healthcare reform to improve the health of all residents in urban and rural areas. However, much research showed that inequities still existed in health status and health services utilization in China, especially in economically disadvantaged areas. Southwest China's Yunnan Province is an ethnic frontier region with lagging economic development. Read More

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Unfit offenders in NSW: paying the price for gaps in service provision.

Psychiatr Psychol Law 2020 5;27(5):853-864. Epub 2020 May 5.

University of NSW, Randwick, NSW, Australia.

The (NSW) was amended in 2013 to include section 54 A, enabling an application to be made for the extension of a forensic patient's status. Thirteen patients were subject to an extension order between 2014 and 30 June 2018. Shared characteristics of these forensic patients were considered with a view to identifying the types of patients involved in these applications and the gaps in service provision that this might reflect. Read More

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'Rape myths' and a 'reasonable belief' of consent [2017] NSWCCA 279.

Psychiatr Psychol Law 2020 5;27(5):750-777. Epub 2020 May 5.

Prison Mental Health Service, Queensland Health, Brisbane, Australia.

Judicial directions in rape trials are designed to emphasise to jury members the importance of negating consent or that the accused believed on reasonable grounds that the complainant consented. After a jury convicted the accused in [2015], the NSW Court of Appeal in [2016] NSWCCA 52 found that the trial judge misdirected the jury on the question of the state of mind of the accused at the time of the alleged rape. After a judge sitting without a jury acquitted the accused, the NSW Court of Appeal in [2017] NSWCCA 279 found that the judge in the re-trial failed to direct herself in relation to making a finding about the steps taken by the accused to establish whether the complainant was consenting. Read More

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Foster Care: How We Can, and Should, Do More for Maltreated Children.

Soc Policy Rep 2020 Nov 30;33(3):1-40. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Professor of Human Development and Family Sciences and is Associate Director of the Population Research Center, both at the University of Texas at Austin. She has published extensively on the topic of physical punishment and is an internationally recognized expert on the effects that physical punishment by parents or by school personnel has on children. She earned her Ph.D. in Child Development from the University of Texas at Austin.

Foster care provides round-the-clock substitute care for nearly 700,000 U.S. children who are temporarily or permanently separated from their family of origin each year. Read More

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November 2020

Heeding the Call for Urgent Primary Care Payment Reform: What Do We Know about How to Get Started?

J Am Board Fam Med 2021 Mar-Apr;34(2):424-429

From the Eugene S. Farley Jr. Health Policy Center, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Denver (SBG, LAG); Robert Graham Center for Policy Studies in Family Medicine and Primary Care, Washington, D.C. (JMW).

The COVID-19 pandemic has added further urgency to the need for primary care payment reform. Fee-for-service payments limit the flexibility of practices to respond to crises and leave practices without sufficient revenues when visit volumes decrease. Historic fee-for-service payments have been inadequate, and prior implementations of prospective payments have encountered challenges; there is a need to bring forward the best available evidence on how to design prospective payments for payers and policymakers. Read More

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Keeping Patients at the Center of Family Medicine Scholarship.

J Am Board Fam Med 2021 Mar-Apr;34(2):249-250

In addition to the collection of veterans' health articles, this edition of the journal contains a wide range of family medicine research reports, commentaries, clinical reviews, and scholarly observations. These articles clearly exemplify a key strength of family medicine scholarship: the focus is on our patients. Two articles look at modern care of patients with venous thromboembolic disease-the first on acute management and the second on long-term care. Read More

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Prepared and motivated to work in midwifery continuity of care? A descriptive analysis of midwifery students' perspectives.

Women Birth 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Griffith University, Logan Campus, 68 University Dr, Meadowbrook, Queensland 4131, Australia; Transforming Maternity Care Collaborative, Australia.

Background: Internationally, midwifery education and maternity services are evolving to promote midwifery continuity of care. It is unclear whether current Australian midwifery education programs are graduating a midwifery workforce prepared and motivated to work in this way.

Aim: To discover how well midwifery students in Australia feel they have been prepared and motivated to work in midwifery continuity of care when they enter practice. Read More

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"Improved coordination of care after acute myocardial infarction in Poland since 2017: Promising early results".

Health Policy 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Jagiellonian University Medical College, Faculty of Health Science, Institute of Public Health.

A new model of complex patient care after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been in operation in Poland since late 2017, comprising invasive treatment, cardiac rehabilitation and scheduled outpatient follow-up. Its stated objectives are to improve secondary prevention measures, quality of care and long-term health outcomes in AMI-patients. The model implements all key aspects of post-MI care recommended by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), representing the first nation-wide model of structured and comprehensive post-MI care that closely follows ESC guidelines. Read More

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[Polishing and finishing of all-ceramic restorations: step by step].

Authors:
D L Li J G Tan

Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;56(4):396-400

Department of Prosthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology & Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, Beijing 100081, China.

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Occurrence and spatio-seasonal distribution of organophosphate tri- and di-esters in surface water from Dongting Lake and their potential biological risk.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 30;282:117031. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640, China; CAS Center for Excellence in Deep Earth Science, Guangzhou, 510640, China.

In this study, 24 surface water samples were collected from Dongting Lake, China, in the wet and dry seasons, then the concentrations, composition profiles and spatio-seasonal variations of nine organophosphate triesters (OPEs) and five organophosphate diesters (Di-OPs) were determined. Significantly higher total OPE concentrations (∑OPEs) were observed in the wet season (49.5-148 ng L) than in the dry season (5. Read More

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Leading health reform: a critical review of 'leadership' within allied health competency standards.

Aust Health Rev 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

ObjectiveThe study examined if, when and how select allied health professional standards currently articulate the Health LEADS Australia themes.MethodsEighteen allied health professional standards were searched to locate references to leadership. Data were extracted and analysed inductively, deductively and thematically as a meta-synthesis. Read More

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Correlation among experience of person-centered maternity care, provision of care and women's satisfaction: Cross sectional study in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249265. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institute for Maternal and Child Health-IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo"-Trieste, Italy.

Person-centered maternity care (PCMC) is defined as care which is respectful of and responsive to women's and families' preferences, needs, and values. In this cross-sectional study we aimed to evaluate the correlations among the degree of PCMC implementation, key indicators of provision of care, and women's satisfaction with maternity care in Sri Lanka. Degree of PCMC implementation was assessed using a validated questionnaire. Read More

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Evidence and politics of patient experience in Ontario: The perspective of healthcare providers and administrators.

Int J Health Plann Manage 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

The School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Patient experience has a direct impact on patients' engagement in healthcare, their commitment to treatment plans, and their relationship with their healthcare providers, all of which can impact their health outcomes. The complexity of the healthcare system, the increasing health needs of the population, and the priority and knowledge differences among healthcare stakeholders impact how they conceptualize and seek to achieve the ideal patient experience and the weights that they give to different elements of this experience.

Aims: This study sought to understand the perspectives of healthcare providers and administrators in Ontario regarding the factors affecting the patient experience. Read More

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Structural vulnerability: migration and health in social context.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 Apr;6(Suppl 1)

Department of Anthropology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Based on the authors' work in Latin America and Africa, this article describes and applies the concept 'structural vulnerability' to the challenges of clinical care and healthcare advocacy for migrants. This concept helps consider how specific social, economic and political hierarchies and policies produce and pattern poor health in two case studies: one at the USA-Mexico border and another in Djibouti. Migrants' and providers' various entanglements within inequitable and sometimes violent global migration systems can produce shared structural vulnerabilities that then differentially affect health and other outcomes. Read More

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Treading the Thin Line: Pharmacy Workers' Perspectives on Medication Abortion Provision in Lusaka, Zambia.

Stud Fam Plann 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

MSI Reproductive Choices, London, W1T 6LP, UK.

Context: Despite liberal abortion laws, safe abortion access in Zambia is impeded by limited legal awareness, lack of services, and restrictive clinical policies. As in many countries with restricted abortion access, women frequently seek abortions informally from pharmacies.

Methods: We conducted 16 in-depth interviews in 2019 to understand the experiences and motivations of pharmacy workers who sell medication abortion (MA) drugs in Lusaka. Read More

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Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders amongst flower farm workers in Kenya.

S Afr J Physiother 2021 9;77(1):1515. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Public Health, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a global public concern for health and social-care systems, as well as individuals. They are the second-most prevalent cause of disability globally.

Objectives: The primary objective was to determine the prevalence of WMSDs amongst flower farm workers. Read More

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Antioxidant characteristics and hepatoprotective effects of a formula derived from Maydis stigma, Nelumbo nucifera and Taraxacum officinale against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Sep;33(5):2131-2142

Department of Food Science and Technology, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung County, Taiwan.

The hepatoprotective effects of a water extract formula (WEF) derived from three selected TCM herbs (i.e. Corn silk (Maydis stigma), lotus leaf (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)) were apprised by the antioxidant activities and by the decay of carbon tetrachloride (CCl)-induced rats. Read More

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September 2020

Alcohol Industry Arguments for Liberalizing Alcohol Policy in Finland: Analysis of Twitter Data.

J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2021 Mar;82(2):279-287

Department of Social Research, Unit of Social and Public Policy, University of Helsinki, Finland.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the arguments used by the alcohol industry and actors aligning with it as a lobbying strategy on Twitter to influence the reform of the Finnish alcohol law during its preparation phase between 2014 and 2017, when the original purpose of the law reform was changed from reducing alcohol-related harm to liberalizing alcohol policy.

Method: Primary data were collected on Twitter between 2014 and 2017 from six alcohol industry actors (n = 1,085 tweets). The Twitter data were analyzed by coding using Microsoft Excel and by content and thematic analyses using a modified version of the European Centre for Monitoring Alcohol Marketing's (2011) seven key messages of the alcohol industry. Read More

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Clinical Use of Neurophysiological Biomarkers and Self-Assessment Scales to Predict and Monitor Treatment Response for Psychotic and Affective disorders.

Curr Pharm Des 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Director of the Scientific Research Institute, The Medical University of Plovdiv. Bulgaria.

Psychoses and affective disorders are severe mental illnesses with a considerable negative effect on an individual and global scale. They are among the most damaging and socially significant diseases, which contribute to permanent disabilities for the patients. The aim of this review is to analyse the capacity of neuroscientific methods as tools to reform psychiatry into a biologically valid medical discipline. Read More

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[The impact of territorial care in the treatment of people diagnosed with schizophrenia and delusional disorders in a Rio de Janeiro community].

Salud Colect 2021 Mar 17;17:e3020. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Doctora en Psiquiatría, Posdoctora en Epidemiología Psiquiátrica. Profesora Titular, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

Care for people diagnosed with schizophrenia and delusional disorders involves many challenges, especially in territorial contexts of pronounced social vulnerability. In Rio de Janeiro, the two decades after the passing of Federal Law 10,216 on Psychiatric Reform in 2001 have been characterized by the transition from a hospital-centered model to one based on community services. Taking the case of a community in Rio de Janeiro, data was extracted from the medical records of 94 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizotypal disorders, and delusional disorders (ICD-10 codes F20 to F29) in five public health services. Read More

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Detection of Escherichia coli using luminometer with pyruvate kinase.

J Mol Recognit 2021 Apr 6:e2896. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

National Ocean Technology Center, Tianjin, China.

Portable and quantitative detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) has the potential to reform clinical diagnostics, food safety, and environmental monitoring. At present, most commercial devices used for pathogen detection have disadvantages such as expensive, highly complex operations, or limited detection specificity. Read More

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Riding the rapids: COVID-19, the three rivers curriculum, and the experiences of the university of pittsburgh school of medicine.

FASEB Bioadv 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine Pittsburgh PA USA.

When faced with the COVID-19 pandemic this past spring, the University of Pittsburgh's School of Medicine (UPSOM) took rapid steps to ensure the safety of students, staff, and the faculty as well as to maintain the educational process. Curriculum reform efforts, already underway, proved to be an advantage in the transformation. We quickly converted to a remote and then a hybrid curriculum. Read More

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February 2021

Establishing a national HTA program for medical devices in Italy: Overhauling a fragmented system to ensure value and equal access to new medical technologies.

Health Policy 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Drugs and Medical Devices, Ministry of Health, Via Ribotta 5, 00144 Rome (Italy).

Differing contexts have greatly influenced HTA development in various countries, with considerable effort recently made by international HTA networks (e.g., EUnetHTA) and the European Union (EU) to make HTA a more coherent, equal, and efficient process. Read More

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[Educational reform and the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: A complicated equation for our students].

Bull Cancer 2021 Apr;108(4):335-336

Centre Léon Bérard, 28, rue Laennec, 69008 Lyon, France.

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Medicine shortages: there are solutions! Actions to take to reduce medicine shortages.

Authors:
Michael J Ryan

Aust Health Rev 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

The aim of this paper is to propose solutions to reduce the number and frequency of medicine shortages in Australia. Some of the many factors that contribute to medicine shortages, such as manufacturers' production processes and business decisions, are outside the control of Australian stakeholders. But there are many factors that are within the control of stakeholders, including poor communication between stakeholders, incomplete and inaccurate information, unhelpful practices and attitudes of hospital tender authorities, and lack of certainty and incentives for manufacturers in relation to pharmaceutical tenders. Read More

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Assessment of compliance with oral nutritional supplementation and exploration of barriers and facilitators for patients after gastrectomy: A mixed-methods study.

J Adv Nurs 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Fundamental Nursing, School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province, P.R. China.

Aims: To evaluate the compliance of patients after gastrectomy in taking oral nutritional supplementation and to explore the promoting and hindering factors.

Design: A mixed-methods design with an explanatory sequential approach was employed.

Methods: We conducted a 12-week longitudinal study to evaluate the oral nutritional supplementation compliance of 122 patients after gastric cancer surgery and the factors that affected their compliance. Read More

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How Should Health Professionalism Be Redefined to Address Health Equity?

AMA J Ethics 2021 03 1;23(3):E265-270. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Associate chief of the Division of Family Medicine at the George Washington School of Medicine and Health Sciences in Washington, DC.

Increasing focus on health equity is placing a spotlight on health professionals' roles. Recent public health crises-the opioid epidemic, maternal mortality, and the COVID-19 pandemic-have renewed focus on racial and ethnic inequity and underscored that trust is foundational to public health and health professionalism. Organizational, system, and policy reform demand that professionalism be redefined in terms of its capacity to motivate equity in health professions education and clinical practice. Read More

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Predicting the results of evaluation procedures of academics.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2019 21;5:e199. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

STLab, Institute of Cognitive Science and Technologies, National Research Council, Roma, Italy.

Background: The 2010 reform of the Italian university system introduced the National Scientific Habilitation (ASN) as a requirement for applying to permanent professor positions. Since the CVs of the 59,149 candidates and the results of their assessments have been made publicly available, the ASN constitutes an opportunity to perform analyses about a nation-wide evaluation process.

Objective: The main goals of this paper are: (i) predicting the ASN results using the information contained in the candidates' CVs; (ii) identifying a small set of quantitative indicators that can be used to perform accurate predictions. Read More

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