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Blood lead levels and their associated risk factors in Chinese adults from 1980 to 2018.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 10;218:112294. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Public Health, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266000, China. Electronic address:

In China, studies on lead exposure to grownup are scarce compared to children, although relevant disease burdens for adults are much severe than that in developed countries. The present study evaluated blood lead levels (BLLs) in Chinese adults by data mining using Monte Carlo simulation. A total of 115 scientific studies published between January 1980 and March 2021 reflecting 45,514 Chinese adults were included in the study. Read More

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Convergent validity of the Chinese version of the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale.

Asian J Psychiatr 2021 May 9;61:102671. Epub 2021 May 9.

Neuropsychology and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Lab, CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Beijing, China; Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Schizotypy is the latent personality reflecting the liability to schizophrenia. The Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS) is a newly developed questionnaire to measure the levels of schizotypy. The Chinese version of MSS has been developed and previous findings supported its structure validity. Read More

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Examining the influence of perspective and prosody on expected emotional responses to irony: Evidence from event-related brain potentials.

Can J Exp Psychol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Psychology, University of Nottingham.

Ironic language is typically more difficult to process and interpret than a literal equivalent, hence is assumed to serve several social and emotional functions not achieved by literal communication (such as politeness or introducing humor). Several factors may influence emotional responses to irony, such as the perspective from which the utterance is encountered (e.g. Read More

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Integrated Structural Analysis of -Glycans and Free Oligosaccharides Allows for a Quantitative Evaluation of ER Stress.

Biochemistry 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Biochemistry, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8556, Japan.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been reported in a variety of diseases. Although ER stress can be detected using specific markers, it is still difficult to quantitatively evaluate the degree of stress and to identify the cause of the stress. The ER is the primary site for folding of secretory or transmembrane proteins as well as the site where glycosylation is initiated. Read More

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The policy consequences of defining rewilding.

Ambio 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Conservation and Policy, Zoological Society of London, Regent's Park, London, NW1 4RY, UK.

More than 30 years after it was first proposed as a biodiversity conservation strategy, rewilding remains a controversial concept. There is currently little agreement about what the goals of rewilding are, and how these are best achieved, limiting the utility of rewilding in mainstream conservation. Achieving consensus about rewilding requires agreeing about what "wild" means, but many different definitions exist, reflecting the diversity of values in conservation. Read More

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Precise determination of the focal point on a glass sample using spectroscopy analysis.

Appl Opt 2021 Apr;60(12):3535-3539

Laser marking of various materials is commonly used nowadays in commercial products. In the past two decades, lasers have been used extensively to mark insulators such as glass and wood during industrial production. Usually, a system of mirrors is used during a marking procedure. Read More

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Measurement of neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in Ukrainian preschool children.

Child Neuropsychol 2021 May 13:1-16. Epub 2021 May 13.

Collaborative Initiative for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) are rarely measured in preschool children due to relative insensitivity of assessment methods at this age. To examine the potential of a nonverbal battery in early identification of cognitive problems in alcohol-exposed children, 291 prospectively identified Ukrainian children were evaluated using a test battery focusing on early executive functioning (EF) and visuospatial skills, areas of cognitive development particularly sensitive to PAE in older children. Tests included the Differential Ability Scales, 2 Edition (DAS-2) and several NEPSY/NEPSY-II subtests, standardized in the United States. Read More

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[Key points of post-marketing evaluation of classic traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions based on combination of disease and syndrome].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Apr;46(8):2004-2009

the First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Chinese Medicine Zhengzhou 450000, China.

Classic prescriptions, hospital preparations and famous traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) experience prescriptions are the main sources of new drug development and innovation. The multi-components and multi-targets treatment characteristics of TCM are advantages, but at the same time, broad indications, unclear clinical positioning and lack of evidence-based evidence support are the key problems affecting the play of TCM efficacy and restricting its promotion and application. The hot in recent research was to how to break through the bottleneck, precise clinical positioning, highlight the advantages of the classic TCM prescriptions, and complete the transformation from clinical practice, clinical research to clinical evidence, but at the same time, it is also the difficulty. Read More

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The Life History of Learning Subsistence Skills among Hadza and BaYaka Foragers from Tanzania and the Republic of Congo.

Hum Nat 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Life Sciences, Centre for Culture and Evolution, Brunel University London, Uxbridge, UK.

Aspects of human life history and cognition, such as our long childhoods and extensive use of teaching, theoretically evolved to facilitate the acquisition of complex tasks. The present paper empirically examines the relationship between subsistence task difficulty and age of acquisition, rates of teaching, and rates of oblique transmission among Hadza and BaYaka foragers from Tanzania and the Republic of Congo. We further examine cross-cultural variation in how and from whom learning occurred. Read More

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Linked Color Imaging (LCI) Emphasizes the Color Changes in the Gastric Mucosa After Helicobacter pylori Eradication.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-Ku, Okayama, 700-8558, Japan.

Background: Diffuse redness is a characteristic endoscopic finding that indicates current infection of Helicobacter pylori, which is reduced after successful eradication. Linked color imaging (LCI) has been reported to improve the visibility of diffuse redness compared to white light imaging (WLI); however, quantitative evaluation has not been reported.

Aims: This study aimed to objectively evaluate the color change of the gastric mucosa after H. Read More

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Tissue and Circulating Fatty Acids as Biomarkers to Evaluate Long-Term Fat Intake Are Tissue and Sex Dependent in CD-1 Mice.

J Nutr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA.

Background: There is currently no consensus on which tissues are optimal for assessing specific diet-derived fatty acids (FAs) as biomarkers for long-term dietary studies.

Objectives: This study measured the content of unique diet-derived FAs from dairy, echium, and fish in tissues (adipose, muscle, liver, erythrocyte membranes, and plasma phospholipids, cholesterol esters, triglycerides, and free fatty acids) after long-term feeding in CD-1 mice.

Methods: Beginning at weaning, mice (n = 10-11/sex/diet) were fed 1 of 4 diets (40% kcal/total energy) that only differed in FA composition: control fat blend (CON), reflecting the FA profile of the average US American diet, or CON supplemented with 30% of fish oil (FO), dairy fat (DF), or echium oil (EO). Read More

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Averting a public health crisis in England's coastal communities: a call for public health research and policy.

J Public Health (Oxf) 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Plymouth Institute of Health and Care Research (PIHR), University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK.

Coastal communities have received little attention in the public health literature, perhaps because our mental maps tend to associate socio-economic deprivation and health inequalities with inner cities. Mapping a range of key health indicators at small area level, this paper reveals a distinct core-periphery pattern in disease prevalence, with coastal communities experiencing a high burden of ill health across almost all conditions included in the Quality and Outcomes Framework dataset. Other sources suggest poor outcomes for children and young people living in coastal areas. Read More

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EEG alterations during wake and sleep in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

iScience 2021 Apr 1;24(4):102386. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Psychology, University of Rome "Sapienza", Via dei Marsi, 78, Rome 00185, Italy.

Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) undergo a slowing of waking electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms since prodromal stages, which could be ascribed to poor sleep quality. We examined the relationship between wake and sleep alterations by assessing EEG activity during sleep and (pre-sleep/post-sleep) wakefulness in AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls. AD and MCI show high sleep latency and less slow-wave sleep. Read More

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Divided We Stand: The Collaborative Work of Patients and Providers in an Enigmatic Chronic Disease.

Proc ACM Hum Comput Interact 2021 Jan;4(CSCW3)

Columbia University, Department of Biomedical Informatics.

In chronic conditions, patients and providers need support in understanding and managing illness over time. Focusing on endometriosis, an enigmatic chronic condition, we conducted interviews with specialists and focus groups with patients to elicit their work in care specifically pertaining to dealing with an enigmatic disease, both independently and in partnership, and how technology could support these efforts. We found that the work to care for the illness, including reflecting on the illness experience and planning for care, is significantly compounded by the complex nature of the disease: enigmatic condition means uncertainty and frustration in care and management; the multi-factorial and systemic features of endometriosis without any guidance to interpret them overwhelm patients and providers; the different temporal resolutions of this chronic condition confuse both patients and provides; and patients and providers negotiate medical knowledge and expertise in an attempt to align their perspectives. Read More

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January 2021

Check-list and questionnaire datasets on diversity in Spain's higher education.

Data Brief 2021 Jun 1;36:107024. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Education, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain.

Universities around the world, and particularly Spanish universities, are involved in the process of implementing diversity policies and practices, although productivity rankings have not yet considered inclusion indicators in their quality approaches. The current paper, which is a result of a national research project (No. EDU2017-82,862-R), describes two rich datasets on the issue of diversity in Spain's universities. Read More

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A Public Mental Health Study Among Iraqi Refugees in Sweden: Social Determinants, Resilience, Gender, and Cultural Context.

Front Sociol 2021 26;6:551105. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, National Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention of Mental Ill-Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

This public mental health study highlights the interactions among social determinants and resilience on mental health, PTSD and acculturation among Iraqi refugees in Sweden 2012-2013. The study aims to understand participants' health, resilience and acculturation, paying specific attention to gender differences. The study, using a convenience sampling survey design ( = 4010, 53. Read More

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HOW IMPORTANT IS THE THERAPEUTIC ALLIANCE IN TREATING OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER WITH EXPOSURE AND RESPONSE PREVENTION? AN EMPIRICAL REPORT.

Clin Neuropsychiatry 2016 Dec;13(6):88-93

New York State Psychiatric Institute/Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Objective: Substantial research has established exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) as an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Yet, the role of the therapeutic alliance as a factor in EX/RP remains a relatively understudied area. We sought to investigate this issue and explore which aspects of the alliance matter most to treatment outcome. Read More

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December 2016

Stepwise ABC system for classification of any type of genetic variant.

Eur J Hum Genet 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Human Genetics and Department of Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG-AMP) system for variant classification is score based with five classes: benign, likely benign, variant of unknown significance (VUS), likely pathogenic, and pathogenic. Here, we present a variant classification model that can be an add-on or alternative to ACMG classification: A stepwise system that can classify any type of genetic variant (e.g. Read More

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Tobacco industry marketing adaptations to Singapore plain packaging.

Tob Control 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Singapore has implemented plain packaging, a measure that strips all colours, logos and branding elements from tobacco packs. In other countries, tobacco companies responded to plain packaging with a variety of marketing tactics. Our goal was to describe the tobacco industry's marketing adaptations to Singapore plain packaging. Read More

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Marine algal toxins and their vectors in southern California cetaceans.

Harmful Algae 2021 Mar 28;103:102000. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA, United States.

Published baseline data on biotoxin exposure in cetaceans is sparse but critical for interpreting mortality events as harmful algal blooms increase in frequency and duration. We present the first synthesis of domoic acid (DA), saxitoxin (STX), okadaic acid (OA), and microcystin detections in the feces and urine of stranded and bycaught southern California cetaceans, over an 18 year period (2001-2018), along with corresponding stomach content data. DA was detected in 13 out of 19 cetacean species, most often in harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) (81. Read More

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Characterizing environmental geographic inequalities using an integrated exposure assessment.

Environ Health 2021 May 12;20(1):58. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Parc ALATA BP2, 60550, Verneuil en Halatte, France.

Background: At a regional or continental scale, the characterization of environmental health inequities (EHI) expresses the idea that populations are not equal in the face of pollution. It implies an analysis be conducted in order to identify and manage the areas at risk of overexposure where an increasing risk to human health is suspected. The development of methods is a prerequisite for implementing public health activities aimed at protecting populations. Read More

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A case report of individualized ventilation in a COVID-19 patient - new possibilities and caveats to consider with flow-controlled ventilation.

BMC Anesthesiol 2021 05 12;21(1):145. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Background: Flow-controlled ventilation (FCV) is a novel ventilation method increasingly being used clinically, particularly during the current COVID-19 pandemic. However, the continuous flow pattern in FCV during inspiration and expiration has a significant impact on respiratory parameters and ventilatory settings compared to conventional ventilation modes. In addition, the constant flow combined with direct intratracheal pressure measurement allows determination of dynamic compliance and ventilation settings can be adjusted accordingly, reflecting a personalized ventilation approach. Read More

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Blood neutrophils from children with COVID-19 exhibit both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers.

EBioMedicine 2021 May 9;67:103357. Epub 2021 May 9.

División Infectología, Hospital General de Agudos Dr. Juan A. Fernández, Av. Cerviño 3356, CABA C1425, Argentina.

Background: Perhaps reflecting that children with COVID-19 rarely exhibit severe respiratory symptoms and often remain asymptomatic, little attention has been paid to explore the immune response in pediatric COVID-19. Here, we analyzed the phenotype and function of circulating neutrophils from children with COVID-19.

Methods: An observational study including 182 children with COVID-19, 21 children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), and 40 healthy children was performed in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Read More

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Usefulness of different adiposity indexes for identification of metabolic disturbances in patients with obesity.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2021 May 12:1-6. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University - Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Context: Despite the role of BMI as a classical obesity index, other indexes reflecting mainly abdominal obesity, usually outperform BMI in terms of metabolic complications prediction.

Objective: The aim of the present study is to compare the usefulness of different adiposity indexes for the identification of metabolic disturbances in patients with obesity.

Methods: In the study, we included 461 patients - group 1 with obesity ( = 182), group 2 with prediabetes ( = 193), and group 3 with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes ( = 86). Read More

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Understanding the Meaning of Recovery to Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery.

JAMA Surg 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Steinberg-Bernstein Centre for Minimally Invasive Surgery and Innovation, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Québec, Canada.

Importance: Postoperative recovery is difficult to define or measure. Research addressing interventions aimed to improve recovery after abdominal surgery often focuses on measures such as duration of hospital stay and complication rates. Although these clinical parameters are relevant, understanding patients' perspectives regarding postoperative recovery is fundamental to guiding patient-centered care. Read More

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Calcium isotope fractionation by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, across endothelial and epithelial cell barriers and with binding to proteins.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Center for Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital Heidelberg, Germanygrid.5253.1.

Timely and accurate diagnosis of osteoporosis is essential for adequate therapy. Calcium isotope ratio (δCa) determination has been suggested as a sensitive, non-invasive and radiation-free biomarker for the diagnosis of osteoporosis, reflecting bone calcium balance. The quantitative diagnostic is based on the calculation of the δCa difference between blood, urine and bone. Read More

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Low amounts of heavy water increase the phase separation propensity of a fragment of the androgen receptor activation domain.

Protein Sci 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Barcelona, Spain.

The phase equilibria of intrinsically disordered proteins are exquisitely sensitive to changes in solution conditions and this can be used to investigate the driving forces of phase separation in vitro as well as the biological roles of phase transitions in live cells. Here we investigate how using D O as co-solvent in an aqueous buffer changes the phase equilibrium of a fragment of the activation domain of the androgen receptor, a transcription factor that plays a role in the development of the male phenotype and is a therapeutic target for castration resistant prostate cancer. We show how replacing even small fractions of H O with D O increases the propensity of this fragment to undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, likely reflecting a stabilization of the hydrophobic interactions that drive condensation. Read More

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Moderators of strength gains and hypertrophy in resistance training: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Sports Sci 2021 May 12:1-10. Epub 2021 May 12.

Laboratory of Physical Activity and Health Promotion, University of Rio de Janeiro State, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

This meta-analysis investigated the role of resistance training (RT) moderators on strength and muscle mass gains in untrained young (YG) and older (OG) adults. Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials simultaneously assessing muscle strength and mass. Effect sizes (ES) reflecting improvements in strength and muscle mass were found for all moderators in YG and OG (ES 0. Read More

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The dual status of filled pauses: Evidence from genre, proficiency and co-occurrence.

Lang Speech 2021 May 12:238309211010862. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, UK.

The present corpus study aims to contribute to the debate regarding the lexical or non-lexical status of filled pauses. Although they are commonly associated with hesitation, disfluency, and production difficulty, it has also been argued that they can serve more fluent communicative functions in discourse (e.g. Read More

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Photochemical processes in flavo-enzymes as a probe for active site dynamics: TrmFO of Thermus thermophilus.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

LOB, CNRS, INSERM, Ecole Polytechnique, Institut Polytechnique de Paris, 91128, Palaiseau Cedex, France.

Quenching of flavin fluorescence by electron transfer from neighboring aromatic residues is ubiquitous in flavoproteins. Apart from constituting a functional process in specific light-active systems, time-resolved spectral characterization of the process can more generally be employed as a probe for the active site configuration and dynamics. In the C51A variant of the bacterial RNA-transforming flavoenzyme TrmFO from the bacterium Thermus thermophilus, fluorescence is very short-lived (~ 1 ps), and close-by Tyr343 is known to act as the main quencher, as confirmed here by the very similar dynamics observed in protein variants with modified other potential quenchers, Trp283 and Trp214. Read More

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