1,567 results match your criteria reflecting posterior


Multiple adjoining word- and face-selective regions in ventral temporal cortex exhibit distinct dynamics.

J Neurosci 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Center for Neuroscience at the University of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh, A210 Langley Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.

The map of category-selectivity in human ventral temporal cortex (VTC) provides organizational constraints to models of object recognition. One important principle is lateral-medial response biases to stimuli that are typically viewed in the center or periphery of the visual field. However, little is known about the relative temporal dynamics and location of regions that respond preferentially to stimulus classes that are centrally viewed, like the face- and word-processing networks. Read More

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Distinct outcome processing in deterministic and probabilistic reversal learning.

Cortex 2021 May 11;141:224-239. Epub 2021 May 11.

Laboratory of Cognitive Neurorehabilitation, Division of Neurorehabilitation, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Geneva, Switzerland; Division of Neurorehabilitation, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University Hospital of Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Anticipations that fail to happen are important drivers of behavioral adaptation. Their processing appears to depend on the context. In a deterministic environment, where a stimulus unequivocally predicts the outcome, processing of absent outcomes involves the posterior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Read More

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The impact of postbariatric hypoglycemia on driving performance - a randomized, single-blind, two-period crossover study in a driving simulator.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology, Nutritional Medicine and Metabolism, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Postbariatric hypoglycemia (PBH) is an increasingly recognized complication of bariatric surgery, but its effect on daily functioning remains unclear. In this randomized single-blind crossover trial we assessed driving performance in patients with PBH. Ten active drivers with PBH (8 females, age 38. Read More

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Evidence accumulation relates to perceptual consciousness and monitoring.

Nat Commun 2021 05 31;12(1):3261. Epub 2021 May 31.

Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience, Center for Neuroprosthetics and Brain Mind Institute, Faculty of Life Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Geneva, Switzerland.

A fundamental scientific question concerns the neural basis of perceptual consciousness and perceptual monitoring resulting from the processing of sensory events. Although recent studies identified neurons reflecting stimulus visibility, their functional role remains unknown. Here, we show that perceptual consciousness and monitoring involve evidence accumulation. Read More

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Associations Between Amyloid and Tau Pathology, and Connectome Alterations, in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Neurodegeneration Imaging Group, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience (IoPPN), King's College London, UK.

Background: The roles of amyloid-β and tau in the degenerative process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain uncertain. [18F]AV-45 and [18F]AV-1451 PET quantify amyloid-β and tau pathology, respectively, while diffusion tractography enables detection of their microstructural consequences.

Objective: Examine the impact of amyloid-β and tau pathology on the structural connectome and cognition, in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. Read More

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Lateralized Periodic Discharges: Which patterns are interictal, ictal, or peri-ictal?

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 Jul 27;132(7):1593-1603. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Epilepsy and EEG Unit, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA.

There is an ongoing debate if Lateralized Periodic Discharges (LPDs) represent an interictal pattern reflecting non-specific but irritative brain injury, or conversely, is an ictal pattern. The challenge is: how to correctly manage these patients? Between this apparent dichotomous distinction, there is a pattern lying along the interictal-ictal continuum (IIC) that we may call "peri-ictal". Peri-ictal means that LPDs are temporally associated with epileptic seizures (although not necessarily in the same recording). Read More

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Modified-Frailty Index Does Not Independently Predict Complications, Hospital Length of Stay or 30-Day Readmission Rates Following Posterior Lumbar Decompression and Fusion for Spondylolisthesis.

Spine J 2021 May 16. Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, John Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Background Context: Frailty has been associated with inferior surgical outcomes in various fields of spinal surgery. With increasing healthcare costs, hospital length of stay (LOS) and unplanned readmissions have emerged as clinical proxies reflecting overall value of care. However, there is a paucity of data assessing the impact that baseline frailty has on quality of care in patients with spondylolisthesis. Read More

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Functional and structural connective disturbance of the primary and default network in patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures.

Epilepsy Res 2021 Aug 25;174:106595. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, PR China. Electronic address:

Objective: The present study aims to investigate the disturbance of functional and structural profiles of patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS).

Methods: Resting-state fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data was collected from fifty-six patients and sixty-two healthy controls. Degree centrality (DC) of functional connectivity was first calculated and compared between groups using a two-sample t-test. Read More

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Comparing the supine and erect pelvis radiographic examinations: an evaluation of anatomy, image quality and radiation dose.

Br J Radiol 2021 Jul 14;94(1123):20210047. Epub 2021 May 14.

Mid Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Wakefield, UK.

Objectives: Pelvis radiographs are usually acquired supine despite standing imaging reflecting functional anatomy. We compared supine and erect radiographic examinations for anatomical features, radiation dose and image quality.

Methods: 60 patients underwent pelvis radiography in both supine and erect positions at the same examination appointment. Read More

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Examining the influence of perspective and prosody on expected emotional responses to irony: Evidence from event-related brain potentials.

Can J Exp Psychol 2021 Jun 13;75(2):107-113. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Psychology, University of Nottingham.

Ironic language is typically more difficult to process and interpret than a literal equivalent, hence is assumed to serve several social and emotional functions not achieved by literal communication (such as politeness or introducing humor). Several factors may influence emotional responses to irony, such as the perspective from which the utterance is encountered (e.g. Read More

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On the processing of optimal performances: Studying arousal evoked by being correct and fast.

Brain Behav 2021 Jun 7;11(6):e02162. Epub 2021 May 7.

International Psychoanalytic University, Berlin, Germany.

Introduction: Responses are optimal when they are accurate and fast. The present experiment investigated whether optimal responses evoke physiological arousal and whether performance affects the processing and evaluation of subsequent emotional material.

Methods: Participants performed a response-choice task, where feedback was a colored square reflecting performance quality or a face whose expression (happy or angry) did not indicate any aspect of performance. Read More

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Changes in theta and alpha oscillatory signatures of attentional control in older and middle age.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Aston Research Centre for Healthy Ageing, Aston University, Birmingham, UK.

Background: Recent behavioural research has reported age-related changes in the costs of refocusing attention from a temporal (rapid serial visual presentation) to a spatial (visual search) task. Using magnetoencephalography, we have now compared the neural signatures of attention refocusing between three age groups (19-30, 40-49 and 60+ years) and found differences in task-related modulation and cortical localisation of alpha and theta oscillations. Efficient, faster refocusing in the youngest group compared to both middle age and older groups was reflected in parietal theta effects that were significantly reduced in the older groups. Read More

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Auditory thalamus dysfunction and pathophysiology in tinnitus: a predictive network hypothesis.

Brain Struct Funct 2021 Jul 2;226(6):1659-1676. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, University of Maastricht, Universiteitssingel 40, 6229, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Tinnitus is the perception of a 'ringing' sound without an acoustic source. It is generally accepted that tinnitus develops after peripheral hearing loss and is associated with altered auditory processing. The thalamus is a crucial relay in the underlying pathways that actively shapes processing of auditory signals before the respective information reaches the cerebral cortex. Read More

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Quantitative and Qualitative Running Gait Analysis through an Innovative Video-Based Approach.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 23;21(9). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, 37129 Verona, Italy.

Quantitative and qualitative running gait analysis allows the early identification and the longitudinal monitoring of gait abnormalities linked to running-related injuries. A promising calibration- and marker-less video sensor-based technology (i.e. Read More

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A cross-sectional study of the upper limb non-neurogenic physical findings in computer operators and their relation to pain and neurological findings.

Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Hospital South West Jutland, Esbjerg, Denmark (Department of Occupational Medicine).

Objectives: The character of upper limb disorders in computer operators is subject to debate. While nerve involvement is suggested by the presence of pain, paresthesia and subjective weakness, these symptoms are mainly interpreted as related to pathologies outside the nervous system. Findings in a previous study involving computer operators indicated peripheral nerve afflictions with specific locations in symptomatic subjects. Read More

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The coordination of spindle-positioning forces during the asymmetric division of the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote.

EMBO Rep 2021 05 26;22(5):e50770. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

CNRS, IGDR - UMR 6290, University of Rennes, Rennes, France.

In Caenorhabditis elegans zygote, astral microtubules generate forces essential to position the mitotic spindle, by pushing against and pulling from the cortex. Measuring microtubule dynamics there, we revealed the presence of two populations, corresponding to pulling and pushing events. It offers a unique opportunity to study, under physiological conditions, the variations of both spindle-positioning forces along space and time. Read More

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Hemispheric differences in altered reactivity of brain oscillations at rest after posterior lesions.

Brain Struct Funct 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Centre for Studies and Research in Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Bologna, Via Rasi e Spinelli 176, 47521, Cesena, Italy.

A variety of evidence supports the dominance of the right hemisphere in perceptual and visuo-spatial processing. Although growing evidence shows a strong link between alpha oscillations and the functionality of the visual system, asymmetries in alpha oscillatory patterns still need to be investigated. Converging findings indicate that the typical alpha desynchronization occurring in the transition from the eyes-closed to the eyes-open resting state might represent an index of reactivity of the visual system. Read More

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Distinguishing Voluntarily Upregulation of Localized Central Alpha from Widespread Posterior Alpha.

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 2021 06;46(2):183-194

Queen Elizabeth National Spinal Injuries Unit, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, UK.

Neurofeedback (NF) training based on alpha upregulation has been widely used on patient and healthy populations. However, active voluntary modulation of central or widespread posterior alpha in response to central alpha feedback is still ambiguous. The objective of this study is to confirm whether patients learn to truly increase alpha power and to determine if patients modulate central or widespread alpha power when alpha feedback is provided from central brain region. Read More

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Incentive sensitization in binge behaviors: A mini review on electrophysiological evidence.

Addict Behav Rep 2021 Jun 16;13:100344. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

University of Tuebingen, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Schleichstrasse 4, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany.

Introduction: Binge behavior not only refers to the consumption of substances such as alcohol or food, but is also used in relation to gaming, watching and gambling. Dependent on context it makes for a widespread, benign recreational activity or can pose a serious mental health problem with deleterious consequences. Incentive sensitization theory describes the attribution of salience towards stimuli strongly associated with dopamine-mediated reward as a result of repeated consumption. Read More

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Structural Plastic Changes of Cortical Gray Matter Revealed by Voxel-Based Morphometry and Histological Analyses in a Monkey Model of Central Post-Stroke Pain.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Human Informatics and Interaction Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki 305-8568, Japan.

Central post-stroke pain (CPSP) is a chronic pain caused by stroke lesions of somatosensory pathways. Several brain imaging studies among patients with CPSP demonstrate that the pathophysiological mechanism underlying this condition is the maladaptive plasticity of pain-related brain regions. However, the temporal profile of the regional plastic changes, as suggested by brain imaging of CPSP patients, as well as their cellular basis, is unknown. Read More

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Functional Connectivity Networks and Their Recruitment During Working Memory Tasks in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors.

Brain Connect 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Assessments of functional connectivity of default mode network (DMN) and positive task-related networks (TRNs) using independent component analysis (ICA) may help describe long-term effects of childhood brain tumors and adjuvant treatments. Aiming to identify potential neuronal markers that may aid in prognosis and inform interventions to optimize outcomes, this study used ICA to evaluate the presence of functional connectivity networks and their recruitment during a letter n-back task in 23 adult survivors of childhood posterior fossa tumors (9 low grade, 14 high grade) at least 5 years past diagnosis compared with 40 age- and sex-matched healthy peers. DMN components generally demonstrated increasing disengagement as task difficulty increased, and relationships between effective DMN disengagement and improved performance were observed in healthy controls (HCs). Read More

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Modality-Dependent Brain Activation Changes Induced by Acquiring a Second Language Abroad.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 26;15:631957. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Basic Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

The dynamic nature of cortical activation changes during language acquisition, including second-language learning, has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we administered two sets of reading and listening tests (Pre and Post) to participants who had begun to learn Japanese abroad. The two sets were separated by an interval of about 2 months of Japanese language training. Read More

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Evidence of Age-Related Hemodynamic and Functional Connectivity Impairment: A Resting State fMRI Study.

Front Neurol 2021 23;12:633500. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Greece.

To assess age-related changes in intrinsic functional brain connectivity and hemodynamics during adulthood in the context of the retrogenesis hypothesis, which states that the rate of age-related changes is higher in late-myelinating (prefrontal, lateral-posterior temporal) cerebrocortical areas as compared to early myelinating (parietal, occipital) regions. In addition, to examine the dependence of age-related changes upon concurrent subclinical depression symptoms which are common even in healthy aging. Sixty-four healthy adults (28 men) aged 23-79 years (mean 45. Read More

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Object recognition and visual object agnosia.

Handb Clin Neurol 2021 ;178:155-173

Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The term visual agnosia is used to refer to recognition disorders that are confined to the visual modality, that are not due to an impairment in sensory functions, and that cannot be explained by other cognitive deficits or by general reduction in intellectual ability. Here, we describe the different types of visual agnosia that have been reported (form agnosia, integrative agnosia, associative agnosia, transformational and orientation agnosia as well as category-specific impairments such as pure alexia and prosopagnosia) and how they relate to the current understanding of visual object recognition. Together with related disorders such as simultanagnosia, texture agnosia, aphantasia, and optic aphasia, these visual perceptual impairments can have severe consequences for those affected. Read More

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January 2021

North American musculoskeletal ultrasound scanning protocol of the hip, knee, ankle, and foot: update of a Delphi consensus study.

Clin Rheumatol 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

John Muir Hospital, Walnut Creek, CA, USA.

Background/objective: A North American rheumatology consensus on tiered-mastery designation for anatomic views was developed in 2011 for course and fellowship teaching. This study updates the lower extremity joint scanning protocols aiming to inform musculoskeletal ultrasound curriculum development for the American College of Rheumatology affiliated Fellowship Programs.

Methods: Three Delphi rounds were conducted to reach consensus for tiered-level mastery designation for hip, knee, ankle, and foot scanning views. Read More

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Cerebellar lesions disrupt spatial and temporal visual attention.

Cortex 2021 Jun 4;139:27-42. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Psychology, MacEwan University, Edmonton, AB, Canada; Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

The current study represents the first comprehensive examination of spatial, temporal and sustained attention following cerebellar damage. Results indicated that, compared to controls, cerebellar damage resulted in a larger cueing effect at the longest SOA - possibly reflecting a slowed the onset of inhibition of return (IOR) during a reflexive covert attention task, and reduced the ability to detect successive targets during an attentional blink task. However, there was little evidence to support the notion that cerebellar damage disrupted voluntary covert attention or the sustained attention to response task (SART). Read More

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Conscious perception and perceptual echoes: a binocular rivalry study.

Neurosci Conscious 2021 30;2021(1):niab007. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition (CerCo) - Place du Docteur Baylac Pavillon Baudot 31059 Toulouse, France.

Alpha rhythms (∼10Hz) in the human brain are classically associated with idling activities, being predominantly observed during quiet restfulness with closed eyes. However, recent studies demonstrated that alpha (∼10Hz) rhythms can directly relate to visual stimulation, resulting in oscillations, which can last for as long as one second. This alpha reverberation, dubbed perceptual echoes (PE), suggests that the visual system actively samples and processes visual information within the alpha-band frequency. Read More

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Maxillomandibular advancement effectively treats obstructive sleep apnea in adolescents at short-term follow-up.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) surgery for the treatment of malocclusion and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in an adolescent population.

Study Design: A retrospective cohort study was designed using electronic medical record chart review.

Results: Fifteen patients aged 20 years or younger (range, 14-20) were included. Read More

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February 2021

Introducing Adam's Scale of Posterior Stroke (ASPOS): A Novel Validated Tool to Assess and Predict Posterior Circulation Strokes.

Brain Sci 2021 Mar 26;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Neurological and Neurosurgical Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, 85-821 Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Background: Assessing the severity of posterior circulation strokes, due to the variety of symptoms, is a significant clinical problem. Current clinimetric scales show lower accuracy in the measurement of posterior stroke severity, compared with that of anterior strokes. The aim of the study was to design a validated tool, termed Adam's Scale of Posterior Stroke (ASPOS), for better assessment and prediction of posterior stroke. Read More

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Delay discounting and neurocognitive correlates among inner city adolescents with and without family history of substance use disorder.

Dev Cogn Neurosci 2021 Apr 11;48:100942. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, United States; Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States.

Adolescents with a family history (FH+) of substance use disorder (SUD) are at a greater risk for SUD, suggested to be partly due to the transmission of behavioral impulsivity. We used a delay discounting task to compare impulsivity in decision-making and its associated brain functioning among FH+ and FH - minority adolescents. Participants chose between Smaller Sooner (SS) and Larger Later (LL) rewards. Read More

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