12,445 results match your criteria reflecting differences


Non-invasive adapted N-95 mask sampling captures variation in viral particles expelled by COVID-19 patients: Implications in understanding SARS-CoV2 transmission.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(4):e0249525. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

The Foundation for Medical Research, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Infectious respiratory particles expelled by SARS-CoV-2 positive patients are attributed to be the key driver of COVID-19 transmission. Understanding how and by whom the virus is transmitted can help implement better disease control strategies. Here we have described the use of a noninvasive mask sampling method to detect and quantify SARS-CoV-2 RNA in respiratory particles expelled by COVID-19 patients and discussed its relationship to transmission risk. Read More

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Differential mRNA Expression in Ileal Mucosal Biopsies of Patients With Diarrhea- or Constipation-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 12;12(4):e00329. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research (CENTER), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Introduction: Previous studies in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) showed immune activation, secretion, and barrier dysfunction in duodenal, jejunal, or colorectal mucosa. This study aimed to measure ileal mucosal expression of genes and proteins associated with mucosal functions.

Methods: We measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of 78 genes (reflecting tight junction proteins, chemokines, innate immunity, ion channels, and transmitters) and 5 proteins (barrier, bile acid receptor, and ion exchanger) in terminal ileal mucosa from 11 patients with IBS-diarrhea (IBS-D), 17 patients with IBS-constipation (IBS-C), and 14 healthy controls. Read More

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Extracting Phonetic Features From Natural Classes: A Mismatch Negativity Study of Mandarin Chinese Retroflex Consonants.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 24;15:609898. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Linguistics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

How speech sounds are represented in the brain is not fully understood. The mismatch negativity (MMN) has proven to be a powerful tool in this regard. The MMN event-related potential is elicited by a deviant stimulus embedded within a series of repeating standard stimuli. Read More

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Phenotyping coronavirus disease 2019 during a global health pandemic: lessons learned from the characterization of an early cohort.

J Biomed Inform 2021 Apr 7:103777. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN2525 West End Ave, Suite 1475 Nashville, TN USA 37203.

From the start of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, researchers have looked to electronic health record (EHR) data as a way to study possible risk factors and outcomes. To ensure the validity and accuracy of research using these data, investigators need to be confident that the phenotypes they construct are reliable and accurate, reflecting the healthcare settings from which they are ascertained. We developed a COVID-19 registry at a single academic medical center and used data from March 1 to June 5, 2020 to assess differences in population-level characteristics in pandemic and non-pandemic years respectively. Read More

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Physical Activity, Menstrual History, and Bone Microarchitecture in Female Athletes with Multiple Bone Stress Injuries.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick MA Harvard Medical School, Boston MA Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Cambridge MA Boston Children's Hospital, Boston MA Center for Advanced Orthopedic Studies, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA.

Bone stress injuries (BSIs) occur in up to 20% of runners and military recruits and those with a history of BSI have a 5-fold higher risk for a subsequent BSI. Yet, little is known about prior training, menstrual status and bone structure in runners who experience multiple BSIs.

Purpose: To determine differences in health and physical activity history, bone density, microarchitecture, and strength among female athletes with a history of multiple BSI, athletes with ≤1 BSI, and non-athletes. Read More

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Sex-differences in circulating biomarkers during acute myocardial infarction: An analysis from the SWEDEHEART registry.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249830. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Sex-differences in the pathobiology of myocardial infarction are well established but incompletely understood. Improved knowledge on this topic may help clinicians to improve management of men and women with myocardial infarction.

Methods: In this registry-based cohort study (SWEDEHEART), we analyzed 175 circulating biomarkers reflecting various pathobiological axes in 856 men and 243 women admitted to Swedish coronary care units because of myocardial infarction. Read More

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Regional and interindividual relationships between cerebral perfusion and oxygen metabolism.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Mental Health Center Glostrup, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Quantitative measurements of resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO) show large between-subject and regional variability, but the relationships between CBF and CMRO measurements regionally and globally are not fully established. Here, we investigated the between-subject and regional associations between CBF and CMRO measures with independent and quantitative PET techniques. We included resting CBF and CMRO measurements from 50 healthy volunteers (aged 22-81 years), and calculated the regional and global values of oxygen delivery (DO) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). Read More

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Are radiomics features universally applicable to different organs?

Cancer Imaging 2021 Apr 7;21(1):31. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Center for Neuroscience Imaging Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Suwon, 16419, South Korea.

Background: Many studies have successfully identified radiomics features reflecting macroscale tumor features and tumor microenvironment for various organs. There is an increased interest in applying these radiomics features found in a given organ to other organs. Here, we explored whether common radiomics features could be identified over target organs in vastly different environments. Read More

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Children and Telehealth in Mental Healthcare: What We Have Learned From COVID-19 and 40,000+ Sessions.

Psychiatr Res Clin Pract 2021 Jan 27. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Achieve Behavioral Health Monsey NY.

Objective: Of the many impacts of COVID-19 on contemporary healthcare is the rapid and overwhelming shift to remote telehealth (TH) service. The precise effect of TH on treatment is yet unknown, and the possible child/adult differences are an essential point of clarification for the utility of TH services and efforts to improve upon them.

Methods: The current study considers data reflecting pre-, during-, and post-COVID-19 lockdown over the first six months of 2020. Read More

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January 2021

A candidate biomarker of glial fibrillary acidic protein in CSF and blood in differentiating multiple sclerosis and its subtypes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Feb 25;51:102870. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Neurology, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Cuiyingmen 82, Chengguan District, Lanzhou 730030, Gansu, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a monomeric intermediate filament protein. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed regarding a candidate biomarker for astrocytic damage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood GFAP levels in differentiating multiple sclerosis and its subtypes. Read More

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February 2021

Pandemic Leadership: Sex Differences and Their Evolutionary-Developmental Origins.

Front Psychol 2021 15;12:633862. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global societal, economic, and social upheaval unseen in living memory. There have been substantial cross-national differences in the kinds of policies implemented by political decision-makers to prevent the spread of the virus, to test the population, and to manage infected patients. Among other factors, these policies vary with politicians' sex: early findings indicate that, on average, female leaders seem more focused on minimizing direct human suffering caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, while male leaders implement riskier short-term decisions, possibly aiming to minimize economic disruptions. Read More

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A cross cultural meat paradox: A qualitative study of Australia and India.

Appetite 2021 Apr 1:105227. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Psychology and Public Health La Trobe University 133 McKoy Street, Wodonga, Victoria, 3690, Australia. Electronic address:

The 'meat paradox' is the psychological conflict between people's enjoyment of meat and their moral discomfort in relation to animal suffering. To date, most studies on the meat paradox have been in Western contexts where meat-eating is a cultural norm. In comparison, little is known about how the meat paradox is experienced in emerging economies such as India, where the longstanding cultural commitment to vegetarianism is under challenge. Read More

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Gender Differences in Risk Factor Profile and Clinical Characteristics in 89 Consecutive Cases of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 30;10(7). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Neurology, University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Sciences and Technology Targu Mures, 540136 Targu Mures, Romania.

Gender has been shown to be an important variable in cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) risk and significantly influences its clinical manifestations and outcome. The aim of our study was to investigate the gender-specific risk factor profile and clinical picture of this rare cerebrovascular disorder.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 89 consecutive cases of CVT at a tertiary neurology clinic in Târgu Mures, Romania, between June 2009 and January 2021 to analyze the gender-related differences in etiology, clinical presentation, and outcome. Read More

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Antennal Transcriptome Analysis and Identification of Candidate Chemosensory Genes of the Harlequin Ladybird Beetle, (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

Insects 2021 Mar 2;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Institute of Ecology and Environmental Sciences of Paris, iEES-Paris, INRAE, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, IRD, UPEC, Université Paris Diderot, 75013 Versailles, France.

In predatory ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), antennae are important for chemosensory reception used during food and mate location, and for finding a suitable oviposition habitat. Based on NextSeq 550 Illumina sequencing, we assembled the antennal transcriptome of mated (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) males and females and described the first chemosensory gene repertoire expressed in this species. We annotated candidate chemosensory sequences encoding 26 odorant receptors (including the coreceptor, Orco), 17 gustatory receptors, 27 ionotropic receptors, 31 odorant-binding proteins, 12 chemosensory proteins, and 4 sensory neuron membrane proteins. Read More

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Strengthening individual and family resilience against leprosy-related discrimination: A pilot intervention study.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 2;15(4):e0009329. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

The Hopkins Centre, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Leprosy and leprosy-related stigma can have a major impact on psychosocial wellbeing of persons affected and their family members. Resilience is a process that incorporates many of the core skills and abilities which may enable people to address stigma and discrimination. The current study aimed to develop and pilot an intervention to strengthen individual and family resilience against leprosy-related discrimination. Read More

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Signal quality as Achilles' heel of graph theory in functional magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 1;11(1):7376. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Center For Neurosciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.

Graph-theoretical analysis is a novel tool to understand the organisation of the brain.We assessed whether altered graph theoretical parameters, as observed in multiple sclerosis (MS), reflect pathology-induced restructuring of the brain's functioning or result from a reduced signal quality in functional MRI (fMRI). In a cohort of 49 people with MS and a matched group of 25 healthy subjects (HS), we performed a cognitive evaluation and acquired fMRI. Read More

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Tissue-specific signatures of metabolites and proteins in asparagus roots and exudates.

Hortic Res 2021 Apr 1;8(1):86. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Leibniz Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops, Theodor-Echtermeyer-Weg 1, 14979, Großbeeren, Germany.

Comprehensive untargeted and targeted analysis of root exudate composition has advanced our understanding of rhizosphere processes. However, little is known about exudate spatial distribution and regulation. We studied the specific metabolite signatures of asparagus root exudates, root outer (epidermis and exodermis), and root inner tissues (cortex and vasculature). Read More

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Multimethods study comparing the experiences of medical clinical academics with nurses, midwives and allied health professionals pursuing a clinical academic career.

BMJ Open 2021 Apr 1;11(4):e043270. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

College of Life Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

Objectives: This study aimed to compare experiences of medical clinical academics (MCAs) with those of nurses, midwives and allied health professionals (NMAHPs) pursuing a clinical academic career.

Design: A multimethods approach was used to elicit qualitative data. Both sets of participants completed similar online surveys followed by in-depth interviews to explore emerging themes. Read More

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Socioeconomic determinants of global distribution of multiple sclerosis: an ecological investigation based on Global Burden of Disease data.

BMC Neurol 2021 Apr 1;21(1):145. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran.

Background: Socioeconomic factors may be involved in risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), either indirectly or as confounding factors. In this study two comprehensive indicators reflecting socioeconomic differences, including the Human Development Index (HDI) and Prosperity Index (PI), were used to assess the impact of these factors on the worldwide distribution of MS.

Methods: The data for this global ecological study were obtained from three comprehensive databases including the Global Burden of Disease (as the source of MS indices), United Nations Development Programme (source for HDI) and the Legatum Institute Database for PI. Read More

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Comparison of macaque and human L- and M-cone driven electroretinograms.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Mar 29;206:108556. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Vision Sciences, College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

Purpose: The macaque retina is often used as a model for the human retina. However, there are only a handful of direct in vivo comparisons of the retinal physiology in humans and macaques. In the current study, ERG responses to luminance, L-cone isolating and M-cone isolating stimuli with sinusoidal, sawtooth and square wave temporal profiles were measured. Read More

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Variation in HIV care and treatment outcomes by facility in South Africa, 2011-2015: A cohort study.

PLoS Med 2021 Mar 31;18(3):e1003479. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Global Health, Boston University School of Public Health, BA, United States of America.

Background: Despite widespread availability of HIV treatment, patient outcomes differ across facilities. We propose and evaluate an approach to measure quality of HIV care at health facilities in South Africa's national HIV program using routine laboratory data.

Methods And Findings: Data were extracted from South Africa's National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) Corporate Data Warehouse. Read More

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Does Patient-specific Functional Pelvic Tilt Affect Joint Contact Pressure in Hip Dysplasia? A Finite-element Analysis Study.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 03 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

K. Kitamura, M. Fujii, S. Ikemura, S. Hamai, G. Motomura, Y. Nakashima, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Background: Although individual and postural variations in the physiologic pelvic tilt affect the acetabular orientation and coverage in patients with hip dysplasia, their effect on the mechanical environment in the hip has not been fully understood. Individual-specific, finite-element analyses that account for physiologic pelvic tilt may provide valuable insight into the contact mechanics of dysplastic hips, which can lead to further understanding of the pathogenesis and improved treatment of this patient population.

Question/purpose: We used finite-element analysis to ask whether there are differences between patients with hip dysplasia and patients without dysplasia in terms of (1) physiologic pelvic tilt, (2) the pelvic position and joint contact pressure, and (3) the morphologic factors associated with joint contact pressure. Read More

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White matter tract signatures of fiber density and morphology in ADHD.

Cortex 2021 Mar 3;138:329-340. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, School of Psychology, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia; Developmental Imaging, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, Australia.

Previous studies investigating white matter organization in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have adopted diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). However, attempts to derive pathophysiological models from this research have had limited success, possibly reflecting limitations of the DTI method. This study investigated the organization of white matter tracts in ADHD using fixel based analysis (FBA), a fiber specific analysis framework that is well placed to provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of ADHD. Read More

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Applying a hierarchical clustering on principal components approach to identify different patterns of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic across Italian regions.

Sci Rep 2021 03 29;11(1):7082. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies "GF Ingrassia", University of Catania, 95123, Catania, Italy.

Italy has experienced the epidemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, which spread at different times and with different intensities throughout its territory. We aimed to identify clusters with similar epidemic patterns across Italian regions. To do that, we defined a set of regional indicators reflecting different domains and employed a hierarchical clustering on principal component approach to obtain an optimal cluster solution. Read More

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DNA methylation architecture of the ACE2 gene in nasal cells of children.

Sci Rep 2021 03 29;11(1):7107. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Division of Chronic Disease Research Across the Lifecourse, Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 enters cells via angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, highly expressed in nasal epithelium with parallel high infectivity. The nasal epigenome is in direct contact with the environment and could explain COVID-19 disparities by reflecting social and environmental influences on ACE2 regulation. Read More

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Reliability assessment of temporal discounting measures in virtual reality environments.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 29;11(1):7015. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Psychology, Biological Psychology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

In recent years the emergence of high-performance virtual reality (VR) technology has opened up new possibilities for the examination of context effects in psychological studies. The opportunity to create ecologically valid stimulation in a highly controlled lab environment is especially relevant for studies of psychiatric disorders, where it can be problematic to confront participants with certain stimuli in real life. However, before VR can be confidently applied widely it is important to establish that commonly used behavioral tasks generate reliable data within a VR surrounding. Read More

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Viscoelastic properties of white and gray matter-derived microglia differentiate upon treatment with lipopolysaccharide but not upon treatment with myelin.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Mar 29;18(1):83. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Anatomy & Neurosciences, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1108, 1081, HZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: The biomechanical properties of the brain have increasingly been shown to relate to brain pathology in neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Inflammation and demyelination in MS induce significant changes in brain stiffness which can be linked to the relative abundance of glial cells in lesions. We hypothesize that the biomechanical, in addition to biochemical, properties of white (WM) and gray matter (GM)-derived microglia may contribute to the differential microglial phenotypes as seen in MS WM and GM lesions. Read More

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Microplastic ingestion in reared aquaculture fish: Biological responses to low-density polyethylene controlled diets in Sparus aurata.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 17;280:116960. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Centro Oceanográfico de Baleares, Muelle de Poniente s/n, 07015, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.

During the last years, ingestion of microplastics (MPs) has been quantified in marine species both with an ecological and commercial interest at sea and under experimental conditions, highlighting the importance to assess MP ingestion in commercially and aquaculture important species such as gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fish. In order to study the ingestion of MPs in a commercially valuable species, gilthead seabreams were exposed to an enriched diet with virgin and weathered low-density polyethylene (LDPE) pellets for three months followed by a detoxification period of one month of no exposure to MP enriched diets. Our results indicate that MP ingestion in these fishes increased with exposure time, and differences were found between treatments, showing the highest ingestion values after three months of exposure to MP enriched diets and in the weathered treatment. Read More

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Assessment of chronic disease management mode (CDMM) on participants with primary hypertension.

Trop Med Int Health 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Shandong Shenghua Electronic New Materials Co., Ltd, Laiyang City, China.

Objective: Hypertension requires continuous and long-term care to prevent associated complications. Chronic disease management mode (CDMM) was developed to improve patients' self-management. We aimed to evaluate quality of care and clinical outcomes of CDMM versus routine care. Read More

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Pregnant again? Perspectives of adolescent and young mothers who and do not experience a repeat pregnancy in adolescence.

Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being 2021 Dec;16(1):1898317

Center for Reproductive Medicine and Comprehensive Attention of Adolescents (Centro de Medicina Reproductiva y Desarrollo Integral del Adolescente CEMERA), Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile (Universidad de Chile), Santiago de Chile, Chile.

: Teen pregnancy remains a major social and public health issue in developing countries. Each additional child compromises the development of both the mother and children. Scarce studies have been performed in Latin America. Read More

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December 2021