293 results match your criteria reference pakistani


Indirect determination of serum creatinine reference intervals in a Pakistani pediatric population using big data analytics.

World J Clin Pediatr 2021 Jul 9;10(4):72-78. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Aga Khan University, Karachi 74800, Sindh, Pakistan.

Background: The indirect methods of reference intervals (RI) establishment based on data mining are utilized to overcome the ethical, practical challenges and the cost associated with the conventional direct approach.

Aim: To generate RIs for serum creatinine in children and adolescents using an indirect statistical tool.

Methods: Data mining of the laboratory information system was performed for serum creatinine analyzed from birth to 17 years for both genders. Read More

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Profiling and identification of novel rpoB mutations in rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from Pakistan.

J Infect Chemother 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Microbiology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Introduction: Rifampicin (RIF) is one of the most effective anti-tuberculosis first-line drugs prescribed along with isoniazid. However, the emergence of RIF resistance Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates is a major issue towards tuberculosis (TB) control program in high MDR TB-burdened countries including Pakistan. Molecular data behind phenotypic resistance is essential for better management of RIF resistance which has been linked with mutations in rpoB gene. Read More

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Assessing Health-Related Quality of Life, Morbidity, and Survival Status for Individuals With Down Syndrome in Pakistan (DS-Pak): Protocol for a Web-Based Collaborative Registry.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Jun 3;10(6):e24901. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder, with a global incidence of 1 in 700 live births. However, the true prevalence, associated morbidities, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of these individuals and their families are not well documented, especially in low- and middle-income countries such as Pakistan. Disease-specific documentation in the form of a collaborative registry is required to better understand this condition and the associated health outcomes. Read More

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Application of High-Resolution Melting (HRM) Technique towards the Detection of Asymptomatic Malaria in a Malaria Endemic Area of Southeastern Iran under Elimination Program.

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2020 Dec 31;14(4):353-362. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

Background: Asymptomatic malaria, which usually exists in low parasitemia, acts as the Plasmodium species reservoirs contributing towards malaria transmission. This situation hinders malaria elimination programs in endemic areas, thus necessitating an active case detection with a high sensitive method and treatment of cases. This is why we used a High Resolution Melting (HRM) assay to monitor the trend of asymptomatic malaria in a malaria endemic area of Iran which is under elimination program. Read More

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December 2020

Determination of reference interval (RI) of spot urinary oxalate to creatinine ratio in children of pakistani origin under six years of age: A cross-sectional study.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 Apr 30;64:102251. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Section of Chemical Pathology, Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Aga Khan University, Pakistan.

Background: The gold standard screening method of hyperoxaluria in children is using 24-hour urine collection. Urine collection may be cumbersome and challenging for children. Reference intervals (RI) of oxalate for the Pakistani population are not readily available. Read More

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Whole genome comparison of Pakistani Corona virus with Chinese and US Strains along with its predictive severity of COVID-19.

Gene Rep 2021 Jun 15;23:101139. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Out Patients Department-Pulmonology, Gulab Devi Chest Hospital, Ferozepur Road, Lahore, Pakistan.

Initially submitted 784 SARS-nCoV2 whole genome sequences on NCBI Virus database were selected for phylogenetic analysis to look into their similarities with two of Pakistani sequenced coronavirus strains having accessions of MT240479 and MT262993. The MT240479 named (Gilgit1-Pak) was found in close proximity to MT184913 named (CruiseA-USA), while MT262993 named (Manga-Pak) was in neighboring to MT039887 named (WI-USA) strain, which were further chosen for variant calling analysis along with reference genome NC_045512 as out-group to construct concluding cladogram and looked for evolutionary distance with PAUP software in this article. Aforementioned Pakistani strains each of having 29,836 bases were compared with MT263429 (WI-USA) of 29,889 bases and MT259229 (Wuhan-P. Read More

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Antihyaluronidase and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) Activities of Medicinal Plants to Combat Venom-Induced Toxicities.

Biomed Res Int 2021 16;2021:6618349. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, 22060 KPK, Pakistan.

Snakebite is one of the most neglected diseases of developing countries. Deaths due to snakebite envenoming are quite high in Pakistan, and many deaths are caused by envenomation. Traditional use of medicinal plants against snakebites is a common practice in Pakistan due to countless benefits. Read More

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Analysis of treatment cost and persistence among migraineurs: A two-year retrospective cohort study in Pakistan.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(3):e0248761. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Food and Feed Safety Laboratory, Food and Marine Resources Research Centre, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Shahrah-e-Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.

Objectives: The persistence pattern of anti-migraine drugs' use among migraineurs is very low in the United States and different European countries. However, the cost and persistence of antimigraine drugs in Asian countries have not been well-studied. Hence, the present study aimed to evaluate the treatment cost and persistence among migraineurs in Pakistan. Read More

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Giant Juvenile Fibroadenoma of the breast in a 13-year-old Pakistani girl with excellent cosmetic outcome after subareolar enucleation - A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Feb 28;79:450-454. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Section of Breast Surgery, Department of Surgery, The Aga Khan University, P.O. Box 3500, Stadium Road, Karachi, 74800, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Introduction: Fibroadenoma is the most common benign lesion of breast in young women, characterized by an aberrant proliferation of both epithelial and mesenchymal elements. It is termed giant fibroadenoma when it is larger than 5 cm or weighs more than 500 g with an incidence of 0.5-2% of all fibroadenomas. Read More

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February 2021

Comprehensive analysis of fatty acids in human milk of four Asian countries.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Jun 6;104(6):6496-6507. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea. Electronic address:

Human milk lipids provide not only energy but also indispensable bioactive components such as essential fatty acids. To establish the recommended daily intake value and guidelines for infant formula, a reference library of fatty acid composition has been generated from 4 Asian countries (South Korea, China, Vietnam, and Pakistan). Regardless of country, palmitic acid (C16:0), linoleic acid (C18:1), and linolenic acid (C18:2) were the 3 most abundant fatty acids in human milk and account for more than 75% of total fatty acids (total FA). Read More

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New insights into carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency from 23 cases: Management challenges and potential therapeutic approaches.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2021 Jul 29;44(4):903-915. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Metabolic Genetics, Sydney Children's Hospitals' Network NSW, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Carnitine acyl-carnitine translocase deficiency (CACTD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of mitochondrial long-chain fatty-acid transport. Most patients present in the first 2 days of life, with hypoketotic hypoglycaemia, hyperammonaemia, cardiomyopathy or arrhythmia, hepatomegaly and elevated liver enzymes. Multi-centre international retrospective chart review of clinical presentation, biochemistry, treatment modalities including diet, subsequent complications, and mode of death of all patients. Read More

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Prenatal and Postpartum Maternal Iodide Intake from Diet and Supplements, Urinary Iodine and Thyroid Hormone Concentrations in a Region of the United Kingdom with Mild-to-Moderate Iodine Deficiency.

Nutrients 2021 Jan 14;13(1). Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular & Metabolic Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.

Iodine is essential for normal thyroid function, supporting healthy fetal and child development. Iodine requirements increase in pregnancy, but many women in regions without salt iodization have insufficient intakes. We explored associations between iodide intake and urinary iodine concentration (UIC), urinary iodine/creatinine ratio (I/Cr), thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine and palpable goiter in a region of mild-to-moderate iodine insufficiency. Read More

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January 2021

Can Religiosity and Social Support Explain Effects of Trait Emotional Intelligence on Health-Related Quality of Life: A Cross-Cultural Study.

J Relig Health 2021 Jan 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Psychology (Biological Psychology, Clinical Psychology, and Psychotherapy), University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Religion and social support along with trait emotional intelligence (EI) help individuals to reduce stress caused by difficult situations. Their implications may vary across cultures in reference to predicting health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A convenience sample of N = 200 chronic heart failure (CHF) patients was recruited at cardiology centers in Germany (n = 100) and Pakistan (n = 100). Read More

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January 2021

Association of interleukin-17 gene polymorphisms with the onset of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Immunobiology 2021 01 3;226(1):152045. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Cell and Molecular Biology Lab, Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder where multiple cytokines including IL-17A and IL-17F produced by T helper cell 17 (Th17), contribute to its pathogenesis. By initiating inflammatory responses in joints Th17 act as pathogenic driver leading to bone and cartilage destruction in RA patients. Hence, the planned study was aimed to estimate IL-17 gene polymorphism association with RA susceptibility in Pakistani population. Read More

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January 2021

A Near-Chromosome Level Genome Assembly of .

Front Genet 2020 16;11:565626. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Institute of Bioinformatics and Applied Biotechnology, Bangalore, India.

Malaria remains a major healthcare risk to growing economies like India, and a chromosome-level reference genome of is critical for successful vector management and understanding of vector evolution using comparative genomics. We report chromosome-level assemblies of an Indian strain, STE2, and a Pakistani strain SDA-500 by combining draft genomes of the two strains using a homology-based iterative approach. The resulting assembly IndV3/PakV3 with L50 of 9/12 and N50 6. Read More

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November 2020

Population demographic history and population structure for Pakistani Nili-Ravi breeding bulls based on SNP genotyping to identify genomic regions associated with male effects for milk yield and body weight.

PLoS One 2020 24;15(11):e0242500. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.

The domestic Nili-Ravi water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is the best dairy animal contributing 68% to total milk production in Pakistan. In this study, we identified genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate various population genetic parameters such as diversity, pairwise population differentiation, linkage disequilibrium (LD) distribution and for genome-wide association study for milk yield and body weight traits in the Nili-Ravi dairy bulls that they may pass on to their daughters who are retained for milking purposes. The genotyping by sequencing approach revealed 13,039 reference genome-anchored SNPs with minor allele frequency of 0. Read More

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January 2021

Morphometric localisation of pterion for lateral neurosurgical planning and approach.

J Pak Med Assoc 2020 Oct;70(10):1779-1783

Department of Anatomy, Fazaia Medical College, Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Objective: To localise pterion, as a safe landmark, on dry skulls, for performing various neurosurgical procedures. To analyse the variation in the type and location of pterion among Pakistani male population.

Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted form August 2018 to May 2019 on 50 dry skulls obtained from The anatomy departments of different medical colleges of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Read More

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October 2020

Are there ethnic and religious variations in uptake of bowel cancer screening? A retrospective cohort study among 1.7 million people in Scotland.

BMJ Open 2020 10 7;10(10):e037011. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Usher Institute, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Objective: Cancer screening should be equitably accessed by all populations. Uptake of colorectal cancer screening was examined using the Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Study that links the Scottish Census 2001 to health data by individual-level self-reported ethnicity and religion.

Setting: Data on 1. Read More

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October 2020

Determination of high sensitive cardiac troponin I 99th percentile upper reference limits in a healthy Pakistani population.

Pak J Med Sci 2020 Sep-Oct;36(6):1303-1307

Aftab Alam, MBBS, FCPS. Assistant Professor of Cardiology Department, Rehman Medical Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan.

Objective: This study aims to establish the 99 percentile upper reference limits of high sensitive cardiac troponin I in a healthy Pakistani population.

Methods: It was an Observational cohort study carried out in Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology Rehman Medical Institute Peshawar, over the period of one year (January 2019- December 2019). Total 299 cardio-healthy males and females were interviewed and taken past medical history. Read More

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September 2020

Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic groups in England are at increased risk of death from COVID-19: indirect standardisation of NHS mortality data.

Wellcome Open Res 2020 24;5:88. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

UCL Collaborative Centre for Inclusion Health, Institute of Epidemiology and Health Care, UCL, London, WC1E 7HB, UK.

: International and UK data suggest that Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups are at increased risk of infection and death from COVID-19. We aimed to explore the risk of death in minority ethnic groups in England using data reported by NHS England. : We used NHS data on patients with a positive COVID-19 test who died in hospitals in England published on 28th April, with deaths by ethnicity available from 1st March 2020 up to 5pm on 21 April 2020. Read More

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Social Capital and Mental Health Among Black and Minority Ethnic Groups in the UK.

J Immigr Minor Health 2021 Jun;23(3):502-510

Bamford Centre for Mental Health & Wellbeing, Ulster University, Coleraine, UK.

Black and minority ethnic communities are at higher risk of mental health problems. We explore differences in mental health and the influence of social capital among ethnic minority groups in Great Britain. Cross-sectional linear and logistic regression analysis of data from Wave 6 (2014-2016) of the Understanding Society databases. Read More

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Developing waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio percentile curves for Pakistani children and adolescents aged 2-18 years using Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Civil Hospital Sahiwal Medical College, Sahiwal, Pakistan.

Objectives Children from different countries and with different ethnic backgrounds have a distinct pattern of central fat deposition. Therefore, it is essential to develop population-specific percentiles of waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist-to-height ratio exponent (WHtR (exp)) for the evaluation of central obesity. The objective of this study was to develop age-and-gender-specific smoothed WC and WHtR percentile curves for the Pakistani children and adolescents aged 2-18 years. Read More

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Establishing body mass index growth charts for Pakistani children and adolescents using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) and quantile regression method.

Minerva Pediatr 2020 Jun 5. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Statistics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

Background: Assessment of growth and nutritional status is an essential part of clinical evaluation and care in pediatrics. We therefore, aimed to establish age and gender specific smoothed BMI growth reference charts of Pakistani children and adolescents aged 2-18 years and to compare our LMS median percentile values with WHO 2007 international references and with references from other foreign studies.

Methods: A representative cross-sectional sample of 10,668 healthy Pakistani subjects aged 2 to 18 years was studied. Read More

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Influence of Rifampicin Pre-treatment on the In vivo Pharmacokinetics of Metoclopramide in Pakistani Healthy Volunteers Following Concurrent Oral Administration.

Curr Drug Metab 2020 ;21(4):301-306

Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.

Background: Metoclopramide is metabolized by various cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes such as CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19. Rifampicin is a non-selective inducer of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and CYP enzymes such as CYP3A4 and others.

Objective: This study was aimed at the evaluation of rifampicin's enzyme induction effect on the pharmacokinetic parameters of orally administered metoclopramide. Read More

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Characterization and synthetic biology of lipase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain.

Arch Microbiol 2020 Aug 26;202(6):1497-1506. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Institute of Biological Sciences, Sarhad University of Science & Information Technology, Hayatabad Link Landi-Akhun Ahmad. Ring Road, Peshawar, 2500, Pakistan.

Lipases with high tolerance to temperature play a significant role in industry from food manufacturing to waste management systems. Thus, there is a need to investigate these enzymes from different geographical areas to look out for a more thermo-stable one. Characterization of lipases through experimental approaches is time consuming process and sometimes the results are ambiguous due to errors. Read More

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Ethnic variations in falls and road traffic injuries resulting in hospitalisation or death in Scotland: the Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Study.

Public Health 2020 May 6;182:32-38. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Usher Institute for Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Objectives: To investigate ethnic differences in falls and road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Scotland.

Study Design: A retrospective cohort of 4.62 million people, linking the Scottish Census 2001, with self-reported ethnicity, to hospitalisation and death records for 2001-2013. Read More

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Genomic Characterization of Antibiotic Resistant Isolated From Domestic Chickens in Pakistan.

Front Microbiol 2019 17;10:3052. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

The Edison Family Center for Genome Sciences & Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States.

Poultry husbandry is important for the economic health of Pakistan, but the Pakistani poultry industry is negatively impacted by infections from . We performed Illumina whole genome sequencing on 92 isolates obtained from the livers of deceased chickens originating in five Pakistani geographical regions. Our analysis indicates that the isolates are predominantly from the B1 and A clade and harbor a diverse number of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes, with no linkage between phylogeny and antibiotic resistance gene presence but some association between phylogeny and virulence gene and SNP presence for the B1 and E phylogroups. Read More

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January 2020

Is there a healthy migrant effect in relation to oral health among adults in England?

Public Health 2020 Apr 13;181:53-58. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Faculty of Dentistry, Oral & Craniofacial Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.

Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the healthy migrant effect in relation to oral health among adults in England.

Study Design: This is a secondary data analysis of a nationally representative survey.

Methods: Data from 13,373 adults of Irish, black Caribbean, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Chinese ethnicity, who participated in the Health Survey for England, were analysed. Read More

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Establishment of Reference Intervals for Alkaline Phosphatase in Pakistani Children Using a Data Mining Approach.

Lab Med 2020 Sep;51(5):484-490

Section of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objective: To establish reference intervals (RIs) for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in Pakistani children using an indirect data mining approach.

Methods: ALP levels analyzed on a Siemens Advia 1800 analyzer using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry's photometric method for both inpatients and outpatients aged 1 to 17 years between January 2013 and December 2017, including patients from intensive care units and specialty units, were retrieved. RIs were calculated using a previously validated indirect algorithm developed by the German Society of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine's Working Group on Guide Limits. Read More

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September 2020

Population reference and healthy standard blood pressure range charts in pregnancy: findings from the Born in Bradford cohort study.

Sci Rep 2019 12 11;9(1):18847. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Bradford Institute for Health Research, Temple Bank House, Bradford Royal Infirmary, Duckworth Lane, Bradford, BD9 6RJ, UK.

Women who develop gestational hypertension are at increased risk of adverse perinatal and longer-term outcomes. Reference charts may aid early detection of raised blood pressure (BP) and in doing so reduce adverse outcome risk. We used repeated BP measurements to produce 'reference' (whole population) and 'standard' (healthy pregnancies only) gestational-age-specific BP charts for all pregnant women (irrespective of ethnicity) and for White British (WB) and Pakistani (P) women. Read More

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December 2019