3,315 results match your criteria reduction lymphoid

The chromatin remodelling protein LSH/HELLS regulates the amount and distribution of DNA hydroxymethylation in the genome.

Epigenetics 2021 May 7:1-22. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory of Cancer Epigenetics, Faculty of Medicine, ULB-Cancer Research Centre (U-CRC), Université Libre De Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) proteins convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) leading to a dynamic epigenetic state of DNA that can influence transcription and chromatin organization. While TET proteins interact with complexes involved in transcriptional repression and activation, the overall understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in TET-mediated regulation of gene expression still remains limited. Here, we show that TET proteins interact with the chromatin remodelling protein lymphoid-specific helicase (LSH/HELLS) and . Read More

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Wound Fluid from Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Intraoperative Radiotherapy Exhibits an Altered Cytokine Profile and Impairs Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Function.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, 68167 Mannheim, Germany.

Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) displays an increasingly used treatment option for early breast cancer. It exhibits non-inferiority concerning the risk of recurrence compared to conventional external irradiation (EBRT) in suitable patients with early breast cancer. Since most relapses occur in direct proximity of the former tumor site, the reduction of the risk of local recurrence effected by radiotherapy might partially be due to an alteration of the irradiated tumor bed's micromilieu. Read More

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AhR Ligands Modulate the Differentiation of Innate Lymphoid Cells and T Helper Cell Subsets That Control the Severity of a Pulmonary Fungal Infection.

Front Immunol 2021 16;12:630938. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

In agreement with other fungal infections, immunoprotection in pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is mediated by Th1/Th17 cells whereas disease progression by prevalent Th2/Th9 immunity. Treg cells play a dual role, suppressing immunity but also controlling excessive tissue inflammation. Our recent studies have demonstrated that the enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) and the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) play an important role in the immunoregulation of PCM. Read More

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Ketogenic diet alleviates colitis by reduction of colonic group 3 innate lymphoid cells through altering gut microbiome.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 Apr 23;6(1):154. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Accumulating evidence suggests that ketogenic diets (KDs) mediate the rise of circulating ketone bodies and exert a potential anti-inflammatory effect; however, the consequences of this unique diet on colitis remain unknown. We performed a series of systematic studies using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) animal model of inflammatory colitis. Animals were fed with a KD, low-carbohydrate diet (LCD), or normal diet (ND). Read More

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Defective Epstein-Barr Virus Genomes and Atypical Viral Gene Expression in B-Cell Lines Derived from Multiple Myeloma Patients.

J Virol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human γ-herpesvirus that is causally associated with various lymphomas and carcinomas. Although EBV is not typically associated with multiple myeloma (MM), it can be found in some B-cell lines derived from multiple myeloma patients. Here, we analyzed two EBV+ MM-patient derived cell lines IM9 and ARH77 and found defective viral genomes and atypical viral gene expression patterns. Read More

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Stress and immunity in poultry: light management and nanotechnology as effective immune enhancers to fight stress.

Cell Stress Chaperones 2021 May 13;26(3):457-472. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt.

The poultry industry plays a significant role in boosting the economy of several countries, particularly developing countries, and acts as a good, cheap, and affordable source of animal protein. A stress-free environment is the main target in poultry production. There are several stressors, such as cold stress, heat stress, high stocking density, and diseases that can affect birds and cause several deleterious changes. Read More

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Body Weight Loss Before Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Predicts Survival Outcomes in Acute Leukemia Patients.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Apr 9;27(4):340.e1-340.e6. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Division of Hematology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan. Electronic address:

Most acute leukemia patients receive consecutive intensive chemotherapy, which usually takes several months before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Intensive chemotherapy often induces gastrointestinal adverse events. These adverse events leave patients in a state of malnutrition, leading to a reduction in body weight. Read More

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Group-2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Promote Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression via CXCL2-Neutrophil Induced Immunosuppression.

Hepatology 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background & Aims: Due to their inherent characteristics, the function of group-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) varies in a context-dependent manner. ILC2s are involved in certain liver diseases; however, their involvement in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unknown. In the present study, we assessed the role of an HCC-derived ILC2 population in tumor progression. Read More

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The pharmacology of the prostaglandin D receptor 2 (DP) receptor antagonist, fevipiprant.

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2021 Apr 4;68:102030. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, 1 Health Plaza, East Hanover, NJ, 07936, USA.

Fevipiprant is an oral, non-steroidal, highly selective, reversible antagonist of the prostaglandin D (DP) receptor. The DP receptor is a mediator of inflammation expressed on the membrane of key inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, Th2 cells, type 2 innate lymphoid cells, CD8 cytotoxic T cells, basophils and monocytes, as well as airway smooth muscle and epithelial cells. The DP receptor pathway regulates the allergic and non-allergic asthma inflammatory cascade and is activated by the binding of prostaglandin D. Read More

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Fascin inhibitor increases intratumoral dendritic cell activation and anti-cancer immunity.

Cell Rep 2021 Apr;35(1):108948

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA; Sandra and Edward Meyer Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medicine of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Fascin protein is the main actin-bundling protein in filopodia and invadopodia, which are critical for tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Small-molecule fascin inhibitors block tumor invasion and metastasis and increase the overall survival of tumor-bearing mice. Here, we report a finding that fascin blockade additionally reinvigorates anti-tumor immune response in syngeneic mouse models of various cancers. Read More

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CD169+ Subcapsular Macrophage Role in Antigen Adjuvant Activity.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:624197. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States.

Vaccines have played a pivotal role in improving public health, however, many infectious diseases lack an effective vaccine. Controlling the spread of infectious diseases requires continuing studies to develop new and improved vaccines. Our laboratory has been investigating the immune enhancing mechanisms of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand-based adjuvants, including the TLR2 ligand Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein, PorB. Read More

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The Potential Equivalents of Mutations.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 24;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Hematology, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 400012 Cluj Napoca, Romania.

TET2 is a dioxygenase dependent on Fe and α-ketoglutarate which oxidizes 5-methylcytosine (5meC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmeC). TET proteins successively oxidize 5mC to yield 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Among these oxidized methylcytosines, 5fC and 5caC are directly excised by thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) and ultimately replaced with unmethylated cytosine. Read More

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Inbred Strain Characteristics Impact the NKT Cell Repertoire.

Immunohorizons 2021 Mar 31;5(3):147-156. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201; and

NKT cells are primed lymphocytes that rapidly secrete cytokines and can directly kill cancerous cells. Given the critical role NKT cells play in cancer immune surveillance, we sought to investigate the effect of mutations in Brca1, specifically a conditional deletion of exon 11, on type I invariant NKT cell development. We observed a significant reduction in invariant NKT cells in both primary lymphoid and peripheral organs in Brca1 mutant mice compared with wild-type C57BL/6. Read More

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Chronic Opioid Administration is Associated with Prevotella-dominated Dysbiosis in SIVmac251 Infected, cART-treated Macaques.

J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA.

People living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an elevated risk of opioid misuse due to both prescriptions for HIV-associated chronic pain and because injection drug use remains a primary mode of HIV transmission. HIV pathogenesis is characterized by chronic immune activation and microbial dysbiosis, and translocation across the gut barrier exacerbating inflammation. Despite the high rate of co-occurrence, little is known about the microbiome during chronic opioid use in the context of HIV and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Read More

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Stem Cell Factor Neutralization Protects From Severe Anaphylaxis in a Murine Model of Food Allergy.

Front Immunol 2021 9;12:604192. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Pathology, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.

Food allergy is a growing public health problem with ~15 million people affected in the United States. In allergic food disease, IgE on mast cells bind to ingested antigens leading to the activation and degranulation of mast cells. Stem cell factor (SCF) is mast cell growth and activation factor that is required for peripheral tissue mast cells. Read More

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High Levels of Interferon-Alpha Expressing Macrophages in Human Breast Milk During SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Case Report.

Breastfeed Med 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Oral Biology and Diagnostic Sciences, Dental College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, Georgia, USA.

In addition to hand washing and wearing masks, social distancing and reducing exposure time to <15 minutes are the most effective measures against the spread of COVID-19. Unfortunately, three of these guidelines are very difficult, if not impossible, for nursing babies: they cannot wear masks, stay six feet away from the lactating breasts, nor consistently finish within 15 minutes while nursing. We report a case of a nursing mother with SARS-CoV-2 infection, documenting changes of immune cells and cytokines in breast milk with and without the infection. Read More

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-Allylmercaptocysteine improves alcoholic liver disease partly through a direct modulation of insulin receptor signaling.

Acta Pharm Sin B 2021 Mar 13;11(3):668-679. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Clinical Medicine Research Institute, the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China.

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) causes insulin resistance, lipid metabolism dysfunction, and inflammation. We investigated the protective effects and direct regulating target of -allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) from aged garlic on liver cell injury. A chronic ethanol-fed ALD model (the NIAAA model) was used to test the protective functions of SAMC. Read More

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Stage IV Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma-type Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder in a Pediatric Liver Transplant Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Departments of Pediatrics Surgery Pathology Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine Seoul National University Cancer Research Institute, Seoul Wide River Institute of Immunology, Hongcheon-gun, Republic of Korea.

Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a heterogeneous group of diseases with abnormal proliferation of lymphoid tissue and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) type PTLD is a very rare subtype. We describe a successfully diagnosed and treated CHL-PTLD stage IV pediatric patient, 8 years after liver transplantation. The patient was treated with standard CHL (Children's Cancer Group 5942 group 3) chemotherapy, rituximab and reduction of immunosuppressant. Read More

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Effect of Selenium on Quantitative Structural Changes in Dexamethasone-Induced Immunodeficiency Rat Models.

Iran J Med Sci 2021 Mar;46(2):128-135

Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: One of the major indices of immunodeficiency is lymphoid organ atrophy. Some trace elements are candidates for the treatment of this defect. These conditions may induce structural changes in the sub-components of lymphoid organs. Read More

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Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation increases the efficacy of exercise- and diet-induced obesity treatment and induces immunometabolic changes in female mice and women.

FASEB J 2021 Apr;35(4):e21312

INSERM, C3M, Université Côte d'Azur, Nice, France.

The decrease in the regulatory T cells (Tregs) population is highly involved in adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity. Tregs depend on fatty acids via β-oxidation for immunosuppressive function adapting their antioxidant systems to allow survival to oxidative stress. In this study, we have hypothesized that a dietary supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), a powerful antioxidant, would improve immunometabolism when added to the classical strategy of obesity treatment. Read More

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Differentiation of Hodgkin lymphoma cells by reactive oxygen species and regulation by heme oxygenase-1 through HIF-1α.

Cancer Sci 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Divison of Hematology, Department of Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Japan.

We previously indicated that Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cells contain a small side population (SP) that differentiate into a large major population (MP) with giant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (H and RS)-like cells. However, its molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we found that intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are low in the SP compared to the MP. Read More

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Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr)-dependent Il-22 expression by type 3 innate lymphoid cells control of acute joint inflammation.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 18;25(10):4721-4731. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Laboratoire d'ImmunoRhumatologie Moléculaire, Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM) UMR_S 1109, Institut thématique interdisciplinaire (ITI) de Médecine de Précision de Strasbourg, Transplantex NG, Faculté de Médecine, Fédération Hospitalo-Universitaire OMICARE, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg (FMTS), Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) controls several inflammatory and metabolic pathways involved in various diseases, including the development of arthritis. Here, we investigated the role of AHR activation in IL-22-dependent acute arthritis using the K/BxN serum transfer model. We observed an overall reduction of cytokine expression in Ahr-deficient mice, along with decreased signs of joint inflammation. Read More

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CD52-targeted depletion by Alemtuzumab ameliorates allergic airway hyperreactivity and lung inflammation.

Mucosal Immunol 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with airway hyperreactivity (AHR) whose global prevalence is increasing at an alarming rate. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and T helper 2 (T2) cells are producers of type 2 cytokines, which may contribute to development of AHR. In this study, we explore the potential of CD52-targeted depletion of type 2 immune cells for treating allergic AHR. Read More

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Imaging meningeal inflammation in CNS autoimmunity identifies a therapeutic role for BTK inhibition.

Brain 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Leptomeningeal inflammation in multiple sclerosis is associated with worse clinical outcomes and greater cortical pathology. Despite progress in identifying this process in multiple sclerosis patients using post-contrast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging, early trials attempting to target meningeal inflammation have been unsuccessful. There is a lack of appropriate model systems to screen potential therapeutic agents targeting meningeal inflammation. Read More

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The energy sensor AMPK orchestrates metabolic and translational adaptation in expanding T helper cells.

FASEB J 2021 Apr;35(4):e21217

Institute of Immunology, Center of Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

The importance of cellular metabolic adaptation in inducing robust T cell responses is well established. However, the mechanism by which T cells link information regarding nutrient supply to clonal expansion and effector function is still enigmatic. Herein, we report that the metabolic sensor adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a critical link between cellular energy demand and translational activity and, thus, orchestrates optimal expansion of T cells in vivo. Read More

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Identification of CXCL13/CXCR5 axis's crucial and complex effect in human lung adenocarcinoma.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 3;94:107416. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China. Electronic address:

Immune escape and low response to immunotherapy are crucial challenges in present lung cancer treatment. In this study, we constructed a new immune-related classifier based on CXCL13/CXCR5, an important tumor microenvironment component and strongly related with the formation of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs) in tumor microenvironment. With the classifier, we divided patients into two main clusters and each cluster was further divided into subcluster (A1, A2, B1, B2, B3). Read More

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Group 2 innate lymphoid cells support hematopoietic recovery under stress conditions.

J Exp Med 2021 May;218(5)

Department of Immunology and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine and Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.

The cell-cycle status of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) becomes activated following chemotherapy-induced stress, promoting bone marrow (BM) regeneration; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that BM-resident group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) support the recovery of HSPCs from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced stress by secreting granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Mechanistically, IL-33 released from chemo-sensitive B cell progenitors activates MyD88-mediated secretion of GM-CSF in ILC2, suggesting the existence of a B cell-ILC2 axis for maintaining hematopoietic homeostasis. Read More

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Granzyme A inhibition reduces inflammation and increases survival during abdominal sepsis.

Theranostics 2021 30;11(8):3781-3795. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Instituto de Carboquímica ICB-CSIC, 50018, Zaragoza, Spain.

Peritonitis is one of the most common causes of sepsis, a serious syndrome characterized by a dysregulated systemic inflammatory response. Recent evidence suggests that Granzyme A (GzmA), a serine protease mainly expressed by NK and T cells, could act as a proinflammatory mediator and could play an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. This work aims to analyze the role and the therapeutic potential of GzmA in the pathogenesis of peritoneal sepsis. Read More

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January 2021

Reduction in the resident intestinal myelomonocytic cell population occurs during mouse intestinal tumorigenesis.

Oncol Lett 2021 Apr 8;21(4):263. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Section of Molecular Gastroenterology, Leeds Institute of Medical Research, University of Leeds, St. James's University Hospital, Leeds, Yorkshire LS9 7TF, UK.

With its significant contribution to cancer mortality globally, advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) requires new treatment strategies. However, despite recent good results for mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient CRC and other malignancies, such as melanoma, the vast majority of MMR-proficient CRCs are resistant to checkpoint inhibitor (CKI) therapy. MMR-proficient CRCs commonly develop from precursor adenomas with enhanced Wnt-signalling due to adenomatous polyposis coli () mutations. Read More

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Acral vascular syndrome Lennert type T cell lymphoma-a case report.

J Egypt Natl Canc Inst 2021 Mar 4;33(1). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Geriatric Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Room no. 3095A, New Delhi, 110029, India.

Background: Acral vascular syndrome clinically presents as digital ischemia with Raynaud's phenomenon and erythromelalgia but can be rarely seen in the malignant condition. Patients may present pain, permanent digital blanching or cyanosis, and desquamation or ulceration of the fingers. Acral vascular syndrome is rarely associated with lymphoid neoplasm and is associated with smoking, autoimmune connective tissue diseases, and vasculitis. Read More

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