84,228 results match your criteria reduction fungi

The role of disinfectants and sanitizers during COVID-19 pandemic: advantages and deleterious effects on humans and the environment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Medical Research Unit, School of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, 23111, Indonesia.

Disinfectants and sanitizers are essential preventive agents against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic; however, the pandemic crisis was marred by undue hype, which led to the indiscriminate use of disinfectants and sanitizers. Despite demonstrating a beneficial role in the control and prevention of COVID-19, there are crucial concerns regarding the large-scale use of disinfectants and sanitizers, including the side effects on human and animal health along with harmful impacts exerted on the environment and ecological balance. This article discusses the roles of disinfectants and sanitizers in the control and prevention of the current pandemic and highlights updated disinfection techniques against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Read More

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Antifungal Azoles as Tetracycline Resistance-Modifiers in .

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Clinical Microbiology & Antimicrobial Research Laboratory, CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology, Sector 39-A, Chandigarh-160036, India

has developed resistance to antimicrobials since its first use. The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) efflux pump Tet(K) contributes to resistance to tetracyclines. The efflux pump diminishes antibiotic accumulation, and biofilm hampers the diffusion of antibiotics. Read More

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Foliar architecture and physio-biochemical plasticity determines survival of Typha domingensis pers. Ecotypes in nickel and salt affected soil.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 7;286:117316. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Botany, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Six ecotypes of Typha domingensis Pers. Jahlar (E), Sheikhupura (E), Sahianwala (E), Gatwala (E), Treemu (E) and Knotti (E) from different ecological regions were collected to evaluate the leaf anatomical and biochemical attributes under different levels of salinity and nickel stress viz; L (control), L (100 mM + 50 mg kg), L (200 mM + 100 mg kg) and L (300 mM + 150 mg kg). Presence of salt and Ni in rooting medium consistently affected growth, anatomical and physio-biochemical attributes in all Typha ecotypes. Read More

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Characterization of Bacillus nealsonii strain KBH10 capable of reducing aqueous mercury in laboratory-scale reactor.

Water Sci Technol 2021 May;83(9):2287-2295

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan E-mail:

The environmental release of mercury is continuously increasing with high degree of mobility, transformation and amplified toxicity. Improving remediation strategies is becoming increasingly important to achieve more stringent environmental safety standards. This study develops a laboratory-scale reactor for bioremediation of aqueous mercury using a biofilm-producing bacterial strain, KBH10, isolated from mercury-polluted soil. Read More

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Evaluation of ELISA and PCR in parallel to single intradermal cervical tuberculin test (SICT) for diagnosis of tuberculosis in buffaloes.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 May 14;53(2):322. Epub 2021 May 14.

Division of Animal Health, ICAR-Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar, Rajasthan, India.

Bovine tuberculosis is an economically important disease with very high zoonotic potential. Single intradermal cervical tuberculin test (SICT) is considered a gold standard assay for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. However, bovines especially buffaloes may produce a false negative result when the animal becomes cell-mediated immune (CMI) anergic in the advanced stage of the disease. Read More

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In situ approaches show the limitation of the spoilage potential of Juniperus phoenicea L. essential oil against cold-tolerant Pseudomonas fluorescens KM24.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Food Technology of Plant Origin, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 31, PL-60-624, Poznan, Poland.

The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of juniper essential oil (EO), α-pinene, and sabinene on the quorum-sensing (QS)-mediated proteolytic and lipolytic properties of Pseudomonas fluorescens KM24. These activities were verified under in situ conditions, in which sub-MICs of the agents altered the morphology of KM24 cells. RNA-Seq studies revealed key coding sequences (CDSs)/genes related to QS and the proteolytic/lipolytic activities of pseudomonads. Read More

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Effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with red led and methylene blue on the reduction of halitosis: controlled microbiological clinical trial.

Lasers Med Sci 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Postgraduation Program in Biophotonics Applied to Health Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho, Vergueiro Street, 235/249, Liberdade, São Paulo, SP, ZIP 01504-001, Brazil.

To determine the effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) using a red light-emitting diode (LED) on the reduction of halitosis and microbiological levels in the tongue coating immediately after irradiation, 7, 14, and 30 days after treatment. Forty-five young adults diagnosed with halitosis were allocated to three groups: G1, aPDT with 0.005% methylene blue and red LED (660 nm, four irradiation points, 90 s per point, power of 400 mW, 36 J per point, radiant exposure of 95 J/cm, continuous wave); G2, tongue scraping; and G3, tongue scraping and aPDT. Read More

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Mitigation of yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions from irrigated rice through Azolla, Blue-green algae, and plant growth-promoting bacteria.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Division of Microbiology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, 110012, India.

Irrigated transplanted flooded rice is a major source of methane (CH) emission. We carried out experiments for 2 years in irrigated flooded rice to study if interventions like methane-utilizing bacteria, Blue-green algae (BGA), and Azolla could mitigate the emission of CH and nitrous oxide (NO) and lower the yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP). The experiment included nine treatments: T (120 kg N ha urea), T (90 kg N ha urea + 30 kg N ha fresh Azolla), T (90 kg N ha urea + 30 kg N ha Blue-green algae (BGA), T (60 kg N ha urea + 30 kg N ha BGA + 30 kg N ha Azolla, T (120 kg N ha urea + Hyphomicrobium facile MaAL69), T (120 kg N ha by urea + Burkholderia vietnamiensis AAAr40), T (120 kg N ha by urea + Methylobacteruim oryzae MNL7), T (120 kg N ha urea + combination of Burkholderia AAAr40, Hyphomicrobium facile MaAL69, Methylobacteruim oryzae MNL7), and T (no N fertilizer). Read More

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Antigen-specific antibody and polyfunctional T cells generated by respiratory immunization with protective Burkholderia ΔtonB Δhcp1 live attenuated vaccines.

NPJ Vaccines 2021 May 13;6(1):72. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.

Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bpm), lacks a vaccine. We identify the immune correlates of protection induced by B. mallei ΔtonB Δhcp1 (CLH001) and Bpm ΔtonB Δhcp1 (PBK001) vaccines against inhalational melioidosis. Read More

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Pre-existing immune status associated with response to combination of sipuleucel-T and ipilimumab in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

Department Hematology/Oncology, School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA

Background: Sipuleucel-T is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved autologous cellular immunotherapy that improves survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We examined whether administering ipilimumab after sipuleucel-T could modify immune and/or clinical responses to this treatment.

Methods: A total of 50 patients with mCRPC were enrolled into a clinical trial (NCT01804465, ClinicalTrials. Read More

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Therapeutic effects of an aspalathin-rich green rooibos extract, pioglitazone and atorvastatin combination therapy in diabetic db/db mice.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251069. Epub 2021 May 13.

Biomedical Research and Innovation Platform (BRIP), South African Medical Research Council (MRC), Tygerberg, South Africa.

Oral therapeutics used to treat type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease often fail to prevent the progression of disease and their comorbidities. Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis), an endemic South African plant used as an herbal tea, has demonstrated positive effects on glycemia and hypercholesterolemia. However, the treatment efficacy of rooibos extract in combination with conventional hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic medications on blood glucose and lipid profiles has not been established. Read More

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Ectomycorrhiza resilience and recovery to extreme flood events in Tuber aestivum and Quercus robur.

P W Thomas

Mycorrhiza 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK.

Very little is known about the impact of flooding and ground saturation on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcM) and increasing flood events are expected with predicted climate change. To explore this, seedlings inoculated with the EcM species Tuber aestivum were exposed to a range of flood durations. Oak seedlings inoculated with T. Read More

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Seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and predictors of seropositivity among employees of a teaching hospital in New Delhi, India.

Osong Public Health Res Perspect 2021 Apr 29;12(2):88-95. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Community Medicine, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India.

Objective: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at a high risk of contracting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) due to the increased likelihood of clinical exposure during patient management. The study objective was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and its predictors among hospital employees.

Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at a teaching hospital from August 2020 to September 2020 among 1,401 employees, including 1,217 HCWs, in New Delhi, India. Read More

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Glyphosate inhibits melanization and increases susceptibility to infection in insects.

PLoS Biol 2021 May 12;19(5):e3001182. Epub 2021 May 12.

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Melanin, a black-brown pigment found throughout all kingdoms of life, has diverse biological functions including UV protection, thermoregulation, oxidant scavenging, arthropod immunity, and microbial virulence. Given melanin's broad roles in the biosphere, particularly in insect immune defenses, it is important to understand how exposure to ubiquitous environmental contaminants affects melanization. Glyphosate-the most widely used herbicide globally-inhibits melanin production, which could have wide-ranging implications in the health of many organisms, including insects. Read More

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Restriction Factors expression decreases in HIV-1 patients after cART.

New Microbiol 2021 May 1;44(2). Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Activation of interferon (IFN) mediated responses and the consequent expression of restriction factors (RFs) represent an early line of defense against HIV-1 infection. The levels of viral replication and the antiviral are among the determinants influencing RFs' expression pattern. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating RFs activity and their relationship with viral replication factors might lead to new therapeutic strategies based on the enhancement of immune response against the virus. Read More

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Ultrafast photoreduction dynamics of a new class of CPD photolyases.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Chemistry, Center for Synthetic Microbiology, Philipps University, 35032, Marburg, Germany.

NewPHL is a recently discovered subgroup of ancestral DNA photolyases. Its domain architecture displays pronounced differences from that of canonical photolyases, in particular at the level of the characteristic electron transfer chain, which is limited to merely two tryptophans, instead of the "classical" three or four. Using transient absorption spectroscopy, we show that the dynamics of photoreduction of the oxidized FAD cofactor in the NewPHL begins similarly as that in canonical photolyases, i. Read More

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Carboxylic acid reduction and sulfate-reducing bacteria stabilization combined remediation of Cr (VI)-contaminated soil.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 8;218:112263. Epub 2021 May 8.

Key Laboratory of Environmental and Applied Microbiology, Environmental Microbiology Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Science, Chengdu 610041, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

For controlling heavy metal pollution, the utilization of carboxylic acids (CAs) combined with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) for continuous and stable remediation of Cr (VI)-contaminated soil was comprehensively investigated. At pH 3, citrate and lactate had photocatalysis characteristics that enabled them to reduce high Cr (VI) concentrations. The reduction efficiencies of citrate and lactate were 99. Read More

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Effect of melanin biosynthesis inhibition in the antifungal susceptibility of chromoblastomycosis agents.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Postgraduate Program in Medicine: Medical Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2400 - CEP: 90035-003, Porto Alegre - RS, Brazil.

Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is a chronic subcutaneous infection caused by genera of melanized fungi: , , , and Melanin is a virulence factor known to influence antifungal susceptibility. A specific inhibitor of melanin biosynthesis is tricyclazole. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of melanin inhibition on antifungal susceptibility of chromoblastomycosis agents and describe the susceptibility profile of some unusual CBM agents. Read More

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Evaluation of intravitreal topotecan dose levels, toxicity and efficacy for retinoblastoma vitreous seeds: a preclinical and clinical study.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA

Background: Current melphalan-based intravitreal regimens for retinoblastoma (RB) vitreous seeds cause retinal toxicity. We assessed the efficacy and toxicity of topotecan monotherapy compared with melphalan in our rabbit model and patient cohort.

Methods: Rabbit experiments: empiric pharmacokinetics were determined following topotecan injection. Read More

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Genetic instability and anti-HPV immune response as drivers of infertility associated with HPV infection.

Infect Agent Cancer 2021 May 10;16(1):29. Epub 2021 May 10.

Istituto Nazionale Tumori - IRCCS "Fondazione Pascale", Naples, Italy.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection common among men and women of reproductive age worldwide. HPV viruses are associated with epithelial lesions and cancers. HPV infections have been shown to be significantly associated with many adverse effects in reproductive function. Read More

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Natural family-free genomic distance.

Algorithms Mol Biol 2021 May 10;16(1). Epub 2021 May 10.

Faculty of Technology and Center for Biotechnology (CeBiTec), Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany.

Background: A classical problem in comparative genomics is to compute the rearrangement distance, that is the minimum number of large-scale rearrangements required to transform a given genome into another given genome. The traditional approaches in this area are family-based, i.e. Read More

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The effects of hydraulic/pneumatic fracturing-enhanced remediation (FRAC-IN) at a site contaminated by chlorinated ethenes: A case study.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Apr 16;417:125883. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute for Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Benátská 2, CZ-128 01 Prague 2, Czech Republic; Institute of Microbiology Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Vídeňská 1083, CZ-142 20 Prague 4, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

A low-permeability locality with heterogeneous geology contaminated primarily by tetrachloroethene (PCE) present partially in the free phase in the unsaturated zone was treated on a pilot scale via direct push pneumatic fracturing combined with the hydraulic delivery of a remediation suspension consisting of milled iron, sulphidated nanosized zerovalent iron and sand in guar gum solution. Afterwards, a whey solution was injected into the fractures as a carbon source for bacteria. The unsaturated and saturated zones were treated. Read More

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Longitudinal analysis of humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 Spike in convalescent individuals up to eight months post-symptom onset.

Cell Rep Med 2021 May 5:100290. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2B4, Canada.

With the recent approval of highly effective COVID-19 vaccines, functional and lasting immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is currently under investigation as antibody levels in plasma were shown to decline during convalescence. Since the absence of antibodies does not equate to absence of immune memory, we evaluate the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific memory B cells in convalescent individuals. Here we report a longitudinal assessment of humoral immune responses on 32 donors up to 8 months post-symptom onset. Read More

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Effect of directly acting antivirals for hepatitis C virus infection on proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 level.

Health Sci Rep 2021 Jun 2;4(2):e273. Epub 2021 May 2.

Infectious Diseases Clinic, Department of Medicine University of Perugia Perugia Italy.

Background And Aims: Eradication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) may affect proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels and cardiovascular risk. However, information regarding PCSK9 level after HCV eradication is lacking. Hence, in this case-control retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate PCSK9 level from pretherapy baseline up to sustained virological response (SVR). Read More

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The Effects of Using Chemicals to Remove Slime from African Giant Land Snails Flesh during Processing on Some Nutritional and Biochemical Parameters.

Int J Food Sci 2021 21;2021:6691609. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 67, Dschang, Cameroon.

The effects of chemicals commonly used in Cameroon to eliminate slime from the flesh of the African giant land snail, , during processing on some nutritional and biochemical parameters were investigated. Groups of snails were processed with these chemicals at three different concentrations. Proximate analysis of all the treated snail groups was carried out, and groups with the highest concentration of each chemical were used to compose diets for experimental rats. Read More

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An Actinobacterium Strain From Soil of Cerrado Promotes Phosphorus Solubilization and Plant Growth in Soybean Plants.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 22;9:579906. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Embrapa Environment, Jaguariúna, Brazil.

The huge biological diversity of the Brazilian Cerrado is an important source of economically interesting microbial agents. The phylum Actinobacteria plays an important role in nutrient cycling, potentially improving their availability to plants. In this study, we isolated an actinobacteria (strain 3AS4) from wheat rhizospheres of crops cultivated in the Cerrado biome. Read More

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A Quest for a Universal Plasma-Derived Antivenom Against All Elapid Neurotoxic Snake Venoms.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:668328. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

This review describes the research aimed at the development of universal antivenom against elapid neurotoxic snake venoms. The antivenoms produced in Thailand in the 1980s were of low potency, especially against the elapid venoms. This was thought to be due to the low immunogenicity of the α-neurotoxins, which are the most lethal toxins in these venoms. Read More

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Host-Specific Serum Factors Control the Development and Survival of .

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:635622. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technical University of Munich (TUM), Munich, Germany.

Introduction: Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by blood-dwelling flatworms which develop from skin-penetrating cercariae, the freely swimming water-borne infective stage of , into adult worms. This natural course of infection can be mimicked in experimental mouse models of schistosomiasis. However, only a maximum of 20-30% of penetrated cercariae mature into fecund adults. Read More

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Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains on the Growth and Aflatoxin Production Potential of , and Their Ability to Bind Aflatoxin B, Ochratoxin A, and Zearalenone .

Front Microbiol 2021 22;12:655386. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Food Engineering, School of Animal Science and Food Engineering, University of São Paulo, Pirassununga, Brazil.

The increased consumption of plant-based foods has intensified the concern related to mycotoxin intoxication. This study aimed to investigate the effect of selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains on the growth of NRRL 2999 and its production of aflatoxin (AF). The ability of the heat-killed (100°C for 1 h) LAB strains to bind aflatoxin M (AFM) in milk and aflatoxin B (AFB), ochratoxin A (OTA), and zearalenone (ZEN) in potassium phosphate buffer (PPB) was also evaluated . Read More

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Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles: Antibacterial and Anticancer Activities, Biocompatibility, and Analyses of Surface-Attached Proteins.

Front Microbiol 2021 22;12:632505. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Microbiology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland.

The increasing number of multi-drug-resistant bacteria and cancer cases, that are a real threat to humankind, forces research world to develop new weapons to deal with it. Biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are considered as a solution to this problem. Biosynthesis of AgNPs is regarded as a green, eco-friendly, low-priced process that provides small and biocompatible nanostructures with antimicrobial and anticancer activities and potential application in medicine. Read More

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