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A pilot randomized controlled trial of smartphone-assisted mindfulness-based intervention with contingency management for smokers with mood disorders.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

School of Nursing.

Cigarette smoking disproportionately affects individuals with mood disorders, but smoking cessation interventions have modest effects in this population. Home mindfulness practice during abstinence incentivized via contingency management (CM) may help those in affective distress quit smoking.

Method: Adult smokers receiving outpatient psychiatric treatment for mood disorders were randomized to receive a smartphone-assisted mindfulness-based smoking cessation intervention with contingency management (SMI-CM, = 25) or enhanced standard treatment (EST, = 24) with noncontingent rewards. Read More

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A natively flexible 32-bit Arm microprocessor.

Nature 2021 07 21;595(7868):532-536. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

PragmatIC Semiconductor Ltd, Cambridge, UK.

Nearly 50 years ago, Intel created the world's first commercially produced microprocessor-the 4004 (ref. ), a modest 4-bit CPU (central processing unit) with 2,300 transistors fabricated using 10 μm process technology in silicon and capable only of simple arithmetic calculations. Since this ground-breaking achievement, there has been continuous technological development with increasing sophistication to the stage where state-of-the-art silicon 64-bit microprocessors now have 30 billion transistors (for example, the AWS Graviton2 (ref. Read More

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Distributed Energy IoT-Based Real-Time Virtual Energy Prosumer Business Model for Distributed Power Resource.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 1;21(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Intelligent Energy and Industry, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea.

Smart energy technologies, services, and business models are being developed to reduce energy consumption and emissions of CO and greenhouse gases and to build a sustainable environment. Renewable energy is being actively developed throughout the world, and many intelligent service models related to renewable energy are being proposed. One of the representative service models is the energy prosumer. Read More

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Aqueous extract of large cardamom inhibits vascular damage, oxidative stress, and metabolic changes in fructose-fed hypertensive rats.

Clin Exp Hypertens 2021 Jul 19:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Pharmacology, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala, India.

Purpose: Since metabolic abnormalities such as elevated glucose level and imbalanced lipid profiles increase the risk for hypertension and cause endothelial dysfunction, we evaluated the effect of aqueous extract of large cardamom (AELC) on fructose-induced metabolic hypertension and oxidative stress.

Methods: The male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups with 5 rats in each group, and each group was fed with 10% fructose in drinking water for 8 weeks. Starting from week 5, animals were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day AELC or Losartan (10 mg/kg/day). Read More

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Characterisation of in-hospital complications associated with COVID-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK: a prospective, multicentre cohort study.

Lancet 2021 07;398(10296):223-237

Centre for Medical Informatics, Usher Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Background: COVID-19 is a multisystem disease and patients who survive might have in-hospital complications. These complications are likely to have important short-term and long-term consequences for patients, health-care utilisation, health-care system preparedness, and society amidst the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Our aim was to characterise the extent and effect of COVID-19 complications, particularly in those who survive, using the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infections Consortium WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK. Read More

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Self-management for chronic widespread pain including fibromyalgia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(7):e0254642. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Primary Care Research Centre, School of Primary Care, Population Sciences and Medical Education [PPM], Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Background: Chronic widespread pain (CWP) including fibromyalgia has a prevalence of up to 15% and is associated with substantial morbidity. Supporting psychosocial and behavioural self-management is increasingly important for CWP, as pharmacological interventions show limited benefit. We systematically reviewed the effectiveness of interventions applying self-management principles for CWP including fibromyalgia. Read More

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First-Line Chemo-Immunotherapy for Extensive-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A United States-Based Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

Front Oncol 2021 29;11:699781. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Pharmacy, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of two recently approved first-line chemo-immunotherapies [atezolizumab combined with etoposide and platinum (AEP) and durvalumab combined with etoposide and platinum (DEP)] for patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) in the United States.

Material And Methods: A Markov model was built to compare the cost and effectiveness of AEP, DEP, and etoposide plus platinum (EP) over a 10-year time horizon. Clinical efficacy and safety data were extracted from the IMpower 133 and CASPIAN trials. Read More

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Proof of concept: digital clock drawing behaviors prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement may predict length of hospital stay and cost of care.

Explor Med 2021 30;2:110-121. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

Aims: Reduced pre-operative cognitive functioning in older adults is a risk factor for postoperative complications, but it is unknown if preoperative digitally-acquired clock drawing test (CDT) cognitive screening variables, which allow for more nuanced examination of patient performance, may predict lengthier hospital stay and greater cost of hospital care. This issue is particularly relevant for older adults undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), as this surgical procedure is chosen for intermediate-risk older adults needing aortic replacement. This proof of concept research explored if specific latency and graphomotor variables indicative of planning from digitally-acquired command and copy clock drawing would predict post-TAVR duration and cost of hospitalization, over and above age, education, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification score, and frailty. Read More

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Prostacyclin is an endosteal bone marrow niche component and its clinical analog iloprost protects hematopoietic stem cell potential during stress.

Stem Cells 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Stem Cell and Cancer Group.

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with superior reconstitution potential are reported to be enriched in the endosteal compared to central bone marrow (BM) region. To investigate whether specific factors at the endosteum may contribute to HSC potency, we screened for candidate HSC niche factors enriched in the endosteal compared to central BM regions. Together with key known HSC supporting factors Kitl and Cxcl12, we report that prostacyclin/prostaglandin I (PGI ) synthase (Ptgis) was one of the most highly enriched mRNAs (>10-fold) in endosteal compared to central BM. Read More

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Negative effects of nitrogen override positive effects of phosphorus on grassland legumes worldwide.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul;118(28)

National Centre for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bengaluru 560065, Karnataka, India.

Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment is driving global biodiversity decline and modifying ecosystem functions. Theory suggests that plant functional types that fix atmospheric nitrogen have a competitive advantage in nitrogen-poor soils, but lose this advantage with increasing nitrogen supply. By contrast, the addition of phosphorus, potassium, and other nutrients may benefit such species in low-nutrient environments by enhancing their nitrogen-fixing capacity. Read More

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Hypoxic Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Maintenance and Regeneration: A Systematic Review.

Front Physiol 2021 23;12:684899. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Experimental Surgery and Regenerative Medicine, Department of General, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Munich University Hospital, Munich, Germany.

In skeletal muscle tissue, oxygen (O) plays a pivotal role in both metabolism and the regulation of several intercellular pathways, which can modify proliferation, differentiation and survival of cells within the myogenic lineage. The concentration of oxygen in muscle tissue is reduced during embryogenesis and pathological conditions. Myogenic progenitor cells, namely satellite cells, are necessary for muscular regeneration in adults and are localized in a hypoxic microenvironment under the basal lamina, suggesting that the O level could affect their function. Read More

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Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Perceptions, and Disparities in Children and Adolescents.

J Nutr Educ Behav 2021 Jul;53(7):553-563

Department of Human Ecology, University of California Davis, Davis, CA. Electronic address:

Objective: To examine the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) perceptions-knowledge, attitudes, and norms and media literacy-and beverage consumption, and to identify differences in beverage consumption and SSB perceptions by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

Design: Cross-sectional.

Setting: Diverse California school district. Read More

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Slovakians' adversarial attitude towards consumption of functional food.

Cent Eur J Public Health 2021 Jun;29(2):122-129

2nd Surgical Clinic, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovak Republic.

Objectives: The aim of the article is to present the behaviour of Slovak consumers in terms of consumption in the field of functional food.

Methods: The survey was initiated in all regions of Slovakia. The sample involved 1,373 families which consisted of respondents aged 18-92 years. Read More

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Cost-Based Price Calculation of Mexiletine for Nondystrophic Myotonia.

Value Health 2021 Jul 10;24(7):925-929. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Medicine for Society, Platform at Amsterdam UMC - University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Amsterdam UMC - University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: Mexiletine is a long-known drug used for the treatment of arrhythmias and repurposed in the 1980s for patients with nondystrophic myotonia (NDM). Recently, the price of mexiletine in Europe increased significantly after registration as an orphan drug for NDM. This led to international discussions on affordability and willingness to reimburse mexiletine in the absence of background information that would justify such a price. Read More

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Mortality and health care burden of Budd Chiari syndrome in the United States: A nationwide analysis (1998-2017).

World J Hepatol 2021 Jun;13(6):686-698

Institute of Digestive Health and Liver Diseases, Mercy Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21202, United States.

Background: The Budd Chiari syndrome (BCS) is a rare and potentially fatal disease, but there is a paucity of data on the in- hospital mortality as well its economic burden on the health care system.

Aim: To evaluate trends in mortality, length of hospital stays and resource utilization among inpatients with BCS.

Methods: Data on all adult patients with a diagnosis of BCS were extracted from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 1998 to 2017. Read More

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[Simultaneous determination of pentostatin and 2'-amino-2'-deoxyadenosine in fermentation broth by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

Se Pu 2021 Jul;39(7):744-749

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Food Biotechnology, College of Biotechnology and Food Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134, China.

An analytical method was established for the simultaneously determination the pentostatin and 2'-amino-2'-deoxyadenosine contents in fermentation broth by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). After high-speed centrifugation, aqueous solution dilution, vortex shock, and microfiltration, the fermentation broth samples were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. The samples were separated on a Waters Atlantis T3 column (100 mm×2. Read More

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Public Response on Social Media to a Social Marketing Campaign for Influencing Attitudes towards Boating Safety.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 16;18(12). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

BC Injury Research and Prevention Unit, BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, BC V6H 3V4, Canada.

The purpose of this research paper is to assess the response on Facebook to a social marketing campaign for recreational boating safety. The campaign ran for the 2018 and 2019 boating seasons in British Columbia, Canada. Messages related to boating safety were delivered in multi-media formats, including ten Facebook posts. Read More

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Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in a Portuguese Immigrant Community in the Central Valley of California.

Nutrients 2021 Jun 9;13(6). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Hospitality Management, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA.

The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is a healthy eating pattern associated with a better quality of life among older adults and reduced risk of non-communicable diseases. Little is known about the MedDiet in immigrant communities from countries in which the MedDiet is a settled cultural heritage. Thus, we examined MedDiet adherence and perceived knowledge, benefits, and barriers to the MedDiet in a Portuguese immigrant community in Turlock, California. Read More

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Adolescent-Reported Food Insecurity: Correlates of Dietary Intake and School Lunch Behavior.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 21;18(12). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Health, Duke Center for Childhood Obesity Research, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University School of Medicine, Box 3675 Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Much of what is known about food insecurity (FI) experiences for young people is based on caregiver report. As such, our understanding of relationships between youth FI and dietary intake (DI) may be limited, particularly among adolescents who often eat away from home. This study examined relationships between youth-reported past-month FI, past-week DI, and school lunch behavior. Read More

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The Cost-Effectiveness of Expanding Vaccination with a Cell-Based Influenza Vaccine to Low Risk Adults Aged 50 to 64 Years in the United Kingdom.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Jun 4;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 718 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Background: In response to COVID-19, the UK National Health Service (NHS) extended influenza vaccination in 50- to 64-year-olds from at-risk only to all in this age group for the 2020/21 season. The objective of this research is to determine the cost-effectiveness of continuing to vaccinate all with a quadrivalent cell-based vaccine (QIVc) compared to returning to an at-risk only policy after the pandemic resolves.

Methods: A dynamic transmission model, calibrated to match infection data from the UK, was used to estimate the clinical and economic impact of vaccination across 10 influenza seasons. Read More

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Efficiency analysis for quantitative MRI of T1 and T2 relaxometry methods.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

King's College London, London, UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND.

This study presents a comparison of quantitative MRI methods based on an efficiency metric that quantifies their intrinsic ability to extract information about tissue parameters. Under a regime of unbiased parameter estimates, an intrinsic efficiency metric η was derived for fully-sampled experiments which can be used to both optimize and compare sequences. Here we optimize and compare several steady-state and transient gradient-echo based qMRI methods, such as magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF), for joint T1 and T2 mapping. Read More

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The Frontline Health Care Workers in Schools: Health Equity, the Distribution of School Nurses, and Student Access.

J Sch Nurs 2021 Jun 30:10598405211024277. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

The extent to which observed disparities in access to primary pediatric care are mirrored in student access to school nursing services is unknown. Using school employment records, we linked 1,346 nurses to school districts serving 1,141,495 students in Washington state. The percentage of students who are Black is negatively associated with the student-to-nurse ratio, while the percentage of students eligible for free-or-reduced-price lunch is positively associated, and relative to urban districts, rural districts have higher student-to-nurse ratios. Read More

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Chitosan/Cellulose-Based Porous Nanofilm Delivering C-Phycocyanin: A Novel Platform for the Production of Cost-Effective Cultured Meat.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 29;13(27):32193-32204. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, College of Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea.

Cultured meat is artificial meat produced via the mass culture of cells without slaughtering livestock. In the production process of cultured meat, the mass proliferation for preparing abundant cells is a strenuous and time-consuming procedure requiring expensive and excess serum. Herein, C-phycocyanin (C-PC) extracted from blue algae was selected as a substitute for animal-derived serum and a polysaccharide film-based platform was developed to effectively deliver C-PC to myoblast while reducing the cost of cell medium. Read More

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Rapid RNase inhibitor production to enable low-cost, on-demand cell-free protein synthesis biosensor use in human body fluids.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA.

Human body fluids contain biomarkers which are used extensively for prognostication, diagnosis, monitoring, and evaluation of different treatments for a variety of diseases and disorders. The application of biosensors based on cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) offers numerous advantages including on-demand and at-home use for fast, accurate detection of a variety of biomarkers in human fluids at an affordable price. However, current CFPS-based biosensors use commercial RNase inhibitors to inhibit different RNases present in human fluids and this reagent is approximately 90% of the expense of these biosensors. Read More

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Using crowd-sourced data for real-time monitoring of food prices during the COVID-19 pandemic: Insights from a pilot project in northern Nigeria.

Glob Food Sec 2021 Jun;29:100523

European Commission Joint Research Center (EC-JRC), Sevilla, Spain.

The COVID-19 pandemic and related lockdown measures have disrupted food supply chains globally and caused threats to food security, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Yet detailed, localized, and timely data on food security threats are rarely available to guide targeted policy interventions. Based on real-time evidence from a pilot project in northern Nigeria, where food insecurity is severe, we illustrate how a digital crowdsourcing platform can provide validated real-time, high frequency, and spatially rich information on the evolution of commodity prices. Read More

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Molecular Diagnosis of Yeast Infections.

Curr Fungal Infect Rep 2021 Jun 18:1-14. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Mycology Reference Laboratory, Public Health Wales, Microbiology Cardiff, UHW, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF14 4XW UK.

Purpose Of Review: The use of molecular tests to aid the diagnosis of invasive yeast infection, in particular invasive candidosis, has been described for over two decades, yet widespread application is limited, and diagnosis remains heavily dependent on classical microbiology. This article will review developments from the past decade in attempt to build on existing knowledge. It will highlight clinical performance and limitations while reviewing developments on recognized procedures; it will also provide insight into novel approaches incorporated in response to clinical demand (e. Read More

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Inter, intra-examiner reliability and validity of inertial sensors to measure the active cervical range of motion in patients with primary headache.

EXCLI J 2021 10;20:879-893. Epub 2021 May 10.

Departamento de Fisioterapia, Centro Superior de Estudios Universitarios La Salle, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. 28023 Madrid (Spain).

We analyzed the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of Werium inertial sensors and the cervical range of motion (CROM) instrument for the measurement of active CROM (AcROM) in patients with primary headache. Another objective is to analyze the validity of the inertial sensors (Werium). The literature has reported symptomatology features in patients diagnosed with primary headache similar to that of patients with cervicogenic headache. Read More

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Japan's voluntary lockdown: further evidence based on age-specific mobile location data.

Jpn Econ Rev (Oxf) 2021 Jun 21:1-38. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Faculty of Business and Commerce, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan.

Changes in people's behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic can be regarded as the result of two types of effects: the "intervention effect" (changes resulting from government orders for people to change their behavior) and the "information effect" (voluntary changes in people's behavior based on information about the pandemic). Using age-specific mobile location data, we examine how the intervention and information effects differ across age groups. Our main findings are as follows. Read More

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Stopping continuing long-term mepolizumab treatment in severe eosinophilic asthma (COMET study).

Eur Respir J 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Divisions of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins Asthma and Allergy Center, Baltimore, MD, USA.

The long-term efficacy and safety of mepolizumab for treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma are well established. Here, we examine the clinical impact of stopping mepolizumab after long-term use.COMET (NCT02555371) was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter study. Read More

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Antihypertensive Prescribing for Uncomplicated, Incident Hypertension: Opportunities for Cost Savings.

CJC Open 2021 Jun 20;3(6):703-713. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Background: A range of first-line similarly effective medications ranging in price are recommended for treating uncomplicated hypertension. Considering drug costs alone, thiazides and thiazide-like diuretics are the most cost-efficient option. We determined incident prescribing of thiazides for newly diagnosed hypertension as first-line treatment in Alberta, factors that predicted receiving thiazides vs more costly medications, and how much could be saved if more patients were prescribed thiazides. Read More

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