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A ventromedial prefrontal dysrhythmia in obsessive-compulsive disorder is attenuated by nucleus accumbens deep brain stimulation.

Brain Stimul 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Laboratory for Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Biomedical Technology, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.

Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has consistently been linked to abnormal frontostriatal activity. The electrophysiological disruption in this circuit, however, remains to be characterized.

Objective/hypothesispabst: The primary goal of this study was to investigate the neuronal synchronization in OCD patients. Read More

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Losartan protects endothelium-dependent relaxation in vivo in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 10:174133. Epub 2021 May 10.

Centre of Musculoskeletal Science, Institute for Biomedical and Environmental Health Research, School of Health and Life Sciences, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Angiotensin II-type 1 receptor stimulation is recognised to promote inflammation, a state central to the development and maintenance of rheumatoid arthritis. Herein we examined the use of losartan, an angiotensin II-type 1 receptor antagonist, on vascular reactivity, knee joint diameter and behavioural assessment of pain in a Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) mouse model of joint inflammation. Monoarthritis was induced via FCA in the presence or absence of losartan with naive mice serving as controls. Read More

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Studies of involvement of G-protein coupled receptor-3 in cannabidiol effects on inflammatory responses of mouse primary astrocytes and microglia.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251677. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kentucky Lions Eye Center, University of Louisville, School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, United States of America.

Cannabidiol (CBD) exhibits anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties and is suggested to be effective in the pre-clinical and clinical treatment of illnesses of the central nervous system (CNS). Two major types of CNS glial cells, astrocytes and microglia, play critical roles in the development and pathogenesis of CNS diseases. However, the mechanisms by which CBD plays an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective role for these glial cells have not been fully elucidated. Read More

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Compartmentalization of cerebrospinal fluid inflammation across the spectrum of untreated HIV-1 infection, central nervous system injury and viral suppression.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0250987. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States of America.

Objective: To characterize the evolution of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation in HIV-1 infection applying a panel of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory biomarkers to grouped subjects representing a broad spectrum of systemic HIV-1 immune suppression, CNS injury and viral control.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of archived CSF and blood samples, assessing concentrations of 10 functionally diverse soluble inflammatory biomarkers by immunoassays in 143 HIV-1-infected subjects divided into 8 groups: untreated primary HIV-1 infection (PHI); four untreated groups defined by their blood CD4+ T lymphocyte counts; untreated patients presenting with subacute HIV-associated dementia (HAD); antiretroviral-treated subjects with ≥1 years of plasma viral suppression; and untreated elite controllers. Twenty HIV-1-uninfected controls were included for comparison. Read More

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Physiological and Proteomic Studies of the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Acclimated to Desiccation Stress.

Curr Microbiol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Centre for Conservation and Utilization of BGA, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, 110012, India.

Agricultural productivity is threatened by increasing incidence of drought and the drought tolerant cyanobacteria offer a better solution in the restoration of soil fertility and productivity. The present study describes the comparative physiological response of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. acclimated and un-acclimated to desiccation stress induced by polyethylene glycol (10% PEG). Read More

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In Situ, Atomic-Resolution Observation of Lithiation and Sodiation of WS Nanoflakes: Implications for Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

Small 2021 May 13:e2100637. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, 60208, USA.

WS nanoflakes have great potential as electrode materials of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) because of their unique 2D structure, which facilitates the reversible intercalation and extraction of alkali metal ions. However, a fundamental understanding of the electrochemical lithiation/sodiation dynamics of WS nanoflakes especially at the nanoscale level, remains elusive. Here, by combining battery electrochemical measurements, density functional theory calculations, and in situ transmission electron microscopy, the electrochemical-reaction kinetics and mechanism for both lithiation and sodiation of WS nanoflakes are investigated at the atomic scale. Read More

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Serial assessments of anterior pituitary hormones in a case of mixed histiocytosis representing Langerhans cell histiocytosis overlapping with Erdheim-Chester disease.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2021 May 1;2021. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tsukuba University Hospital Mito Clinical Education and Training Center, Mito Kyodo General Hospital, Miyamachi, Mito-shi, Ibaraki, Japan.

Summary: A 61-year-old man developed central diabetes insipidus caused by mixed histiocytosis (MH) representing Langerhans cell histiocytosis overlapping with Erdheim-Chester disease. Bone, skin, vascular, and retroperitoneal involvements were also observed. Dynamic hormonal testing showed normal responses for anterior pituitary hormones, except for impaired secretion of growth hormone (GH). Read More

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Effect of Difelikefalin, a Selective Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist, on Respiratory Depression: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Cara Therapeutics, Stamford, CT, USA.

Difelikefalin, a selective kappa opioid receptor agonist designed to limit central nervous system (CNS) penetration, is under development for the treatment of pruritus. Its hydrophilic, small-peptidic structure limits CNS entry, minimizing potential CNS-mediated adverse events (AEs). This study assessed the effect of difelikefalin on key relevant measures of respiratory depression in healthy volunteers. Read More

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Inhibition of exosome release augments neuroinflammation following intracerebral hemorrhage.

FASEB J 2021 Jun;35(6):e21617

Department of Neurology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a severe stroke subtype without effective pharmacological treatment. Following ICH, peripheral leukocytes infiltrate into the brain and contribute to neuroinflammation and brain edema. However, the intercellular machinery controlling the initiation and propagation of leukocyte infiltration remains elusive. Read More

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Long-term effect of human mini-dystrophin in transgenic mdx mice improves muscle physiological function.

FASEB J 2021 Jun;35(6):e21628

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal genetic muscle disorder caused by recessive mutations in dystrophin gene, affecting 1/3000 males. Gene therapy has been proven to ameliorate dystrophic pathology. To investigate therapeutic benefits from long-term effect of human mini-dystrophin and functional outcomes, transgenic mdx mice (Tg-mdx) containing a single copy of human mini-dystrophin (∆hDys3849) gene, five rods (Rods1-2, Rods22-24), and two hinges (H1 and H4) driven by a truncated creatine-kinase promoter (dMCK) in a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV) backbone, were generated and used to determine gene expression and improvement of muscle function. Read More

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Exercise training in dialysis patients: impact on cardiovascular and skeletal muscle health.

Clin Kidney J 2021 Apr 11;14(Suppl 2):ii25-ii33. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Dialysis patients show a high rate of reduced functional capacity, morbidity and mortality. Cardiovascular disorders, muscle atrophy and malnutrition play an essential role among the aetiological factors. Sedentary lifestyle characterizes them and contributes to the aggravation of the disorders. Read More

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Blind Visualization of Task-Related Networks From Visual Oddball Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Data: Spectral or Spatiospectral Model?

Front Neurol 2021 26;12:644874. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Division of Clinical Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States.

Various disease conditions can alter EEG event-related responses and fMRI-BOLD signals. We hypothesized that event-related responses and their clinical alterations are imprinted in the EEG spectral domain as event-related (spatio)spectral patterns (ERSPat). We tested four EEG-fMRI fusion models utilizing EEG power spectra fluctuations (i. Read More

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ERR and dPECR Suggest a Link Between Neuroprotection and the Regulation of Ethanol Consumption Preference.

Front Psychiatry 2021 26;12:655816. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Institute of Zoology, University of Köln, Köln, Germany.

Reconsumption of ethanol after withdrawal is a hallmark for relapse in recovering patients with alcohol use disorders. We show that the preference of to reconsume ethanol after abstinence shares mechanistic similarities to human behavior by feeding the antirelapse drug acamprosate to flies and reducing the ethanol consumption preference. The cellular stress mutant also reduced ethanol consumption preference. Read More

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Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography following Scleral Buckling Surgery.

Nepal J Ophthalmol 2021 Jan;13(25):165-170

Guru Nanak Eye Centre, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India.

Introduction: The retinal changes following scleral buckling surgery (SBS) for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) have been rarely evaluated with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).

Methods: A 40 years old male presented with subtotal RD involving the macula and had best corrected visual acuity of logmar 2.3 in the affected right eye. Read More

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January 2021

[Survey of the effect of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak on the job training members with high exercise intensity: Analysis of the factors causing infection spread and the effectiveness of the prevention measures].

Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Health Management, Central Office, Aichi Police, Aichi, Japan.

Objectives: Immediately before the state of emergency was declared, there was an outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among special training participants with severe physical stress. For promoting the optimization of infection prevention measures by identifying acts and situations with high risk of infection, we conducted a survey and analysis to understand the detailed process of infection spread in these cases.

Methods: A structured interview was conducted for the special training participants on their health status, changes in symptoms, training methods, and behavior history in their private lives. Read More

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Association between HIV infection and hypertension: a global systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies.

BMC Med 2021 May 13;19(1):105. Epub 2021 May 13.

MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, St Mary's Campus, Imperial College London, London, W2 1PG, UK.

Background: Improved access to effective antiretroviral therapy has meant that people living with HIV (PLHIV) are surviving to older ages. However, PLHIV may be ageing differently to HIV-negative individuals, with dissimilar burdens of non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension. While some observational studies have reported a higher risk of prevalent hypertension among PLHIV compared to HIV-negative individuals, others have found a reduced burden. Read More

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Sufentanil EC50 for endotracheal intubation with aerosol inhalation of carbonated lidocaine by ultrasonic atomizer.

BMC Anesthesiol 2021 May 12;21(1):144. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Anesthesiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jie Fang Avenue, Wuhan, 430030, Hubei, China.

Background: Nebulized lidocaine reduced stress response for endotracheal intubation. However, the impact of novel lidocaine aerosol inhalation for intubation by ultrasonic atomizer was unclear. Hence, we designed aerosol inhalation of lidocaine by ultrasonic atomizer, to seek whether the dosage of sufentanil for intubation could be less or not. Read More

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Impairments in brain perfusion, executive control network, topological characteristics, and neurocognition in adult patients with asymptomatic Moyamoya disease.

BMC Neurosci 2021 May 12;22(1):35. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 119 South 4th Ring West Road, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100070, People's Republic of China.

Background: Asymptomatic Moyamoya disease (MMD) impairs hemodynamic and cognitive function. The relationship between these changes, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and network connectivity remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to increase understanding of the relationship between CBF, functional networks, and neurocognition in adults with asymptomatic MMD. Read More

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Chromium and cerium co-doped magnetite/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as a potent antibacterial agent against S. aureus.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 15;274:129988. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran. Electronic address:

The development of innovative antibacterial samples with high efficacy has received a great deal of interest. Herein, we synthesized magnetite modified by Cr and co-modified by Cr and Ce, along with their reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based nanocomposites via facile hydrothermal and co-precipitation methods. The rGO-based samples showed proper magnetic behavior, high porosity, and vast specific surface area. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of Xiyanping injection in the treatment of COVID-19: A multicenter, prospective, open-label and randomized controlled trial.

Phytother Res 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Respiratory Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Xiyanping (XYP) is a Chinese herbal medicine used in the clinic to treat respiratory infection and pneumonia. Recent evidence identified XYP as a potential inhibitor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, implying XYP as a possible treatment for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we conducted a prospective, multicenter, open-label and randomized controlled trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of XYP injection in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Read More

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LncRNA NEAT1 Regulates Infantile Pneumonia by Sponging miR-146b.

Mol Biotechnol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Shangdong Provincial Western Hospital, No. 4 Duanxing West Road, Huaiyin District, Jinan, 252022, Shandong Province, China.

This study designed to investigate the potential role of lncRNA NEAT1/miR-146b in infantile pneumonia. In this study, 58 children with pneumonia and 58 healthy children collected for routine examination from December 2016 to January 2019. The lncRNA NEAT1 and miR-146b expression levels were detected by qPCR in both groups. Read More

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Spatial distribution of PM-bound elements in eighteen cities over China: policy implication and health risk assessment.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Key Laboratory of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics (KLACP), Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an, 710061, China.

In this study, 30 elements in fine particulate matter (PM) were measured in 18 Chinese cities in 2013. Elemental pollution in northern, southwest, and central China were severe, attributing to excessive coal and biomass combustion in these regions. The concentrations of S, Cl, and K in these areas were 8. Read More

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Nickel-Cobalt Hydroxides with Tunable Thin-Layer Nanosheets for High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrode.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 May 12;16(1):83. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, China.

Layered double hydroxides as typical supercapacitor electrode materials can exhibit superior energy storage performance if their structures are well regulated. In this work, a simple one-step hydrothermal method is used to prepare diverse nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxides (NiCo-LDHs), in which the different contents of urea are used to regulate the different nanostructures of NiCo-LDHs. The results show that the decrease in urea content can effectively improve the dispersibility, adjust the thickness and optimize the internal pore structures of NiCo-LDHs, thereby enhancing their capacitance performance. Read More

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Maternal exposures and the infant gut microbiome: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-30

Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales (NSW), Australia.

Early life, including the establishment of the intestinal microbiome, represents a critical window of growth and development. Postnatal factors affecting the microbiome, including mode of delivery, feeding type, and antibiotic exposure have been widely investigated, but questions remain regarding the influence of exposures on infant gut microbiome assembly. This systematic review aimed to synthesize evidence on exposures before birth, which affect the early intestinal microbiome. Read More

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Access to Mental Healthcare in the 21st Century: An Evolutionary Concept Analysis.

J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc 2021 May 12:10783903211011672. Epub 2021 May 12.

Donna Felber Neff, PhD, RN, FNAP, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA.

Background: One of the most important aspects of receiving medical care is access to that care. For people with mental illness who have greater healthcare needs and are at risk for poor health outcomes, reduced access to care constitutes a crisis. While the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic continues to affect the United States, specifying what it means to have access to mental healthcare is more critical than ever. Read More

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Imaging of Allografted Glial-Restricted Progenitor Cell Survival and Hydrogel Scaffold Biodegradation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of MR Research, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, United States.

Transplanted glial-restricted progenitor (GRP) cells have potential to focally replace defunct astrocytes and produce remyelinating oligodendrocytes to avert neuronal death and dysfunction. However, most central nervous system cell therapeutic paradigms are hampered by high initial cell death and a host anti-graft immune response. We show here that composite hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels of tunable mechanical strengths can significantly improve transplanted GRP survival and differentiation. Read More

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Silencing of long noncoding INHBA antisense RNA1 suppresses proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix deposition in human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts via regulating microRNA-141-3p/myeloid cell leukemia 1 axis.

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):1663-1675

National Clinical Research Center of Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan Universtiy, Chengdu, Sichuan, P.R. China.

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play vital roles in the progression of hypertrophic scar (HS). We aimed to explore the effect of lncRNA INHBA Antisense RNA1 (INHBA-AS1) in the formation of HS and identify the potential mechanisms. INHBA-AS1 and microRNA (miR)-141-3p expression in human HS fibroblasts (hHSFs) was determined using RT-qPCR. Read More

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December 2021

The Effects of Language Contact on Non-Native Vowel Sequences in Lexical Borrowings: The Case of Media Lengua.

Lang Speech 2021 May 12:238309211014911. Epub 2021 May 12.

University of Saskatchewan, Canada.

Media Lengua (ML), a mixed language derived from Quichua and Spanish, exhibits a phonological system that largely conforms to that of Quichua acoustically. Yet, it incorporates a large number of vowel sequences from Spanish which do not occur in the Quichua system. This includes the use of mid-vowels, which are phonetically realized in ML as largely overlapping with the high-vowels in acoustic space. Read More

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Deletion of in Preosteoblasts Reveals a Role for the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Complex in Dietary-Induced Changes to Bone Mass and Glucose Homeostasis in Female Mice.

JBMR Plus 2021 May 24;5(5):e10486. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Adelaide Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medical Science University of Adelaide Adelaide South Australia Australia.

The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) complex is the major nutrient sensor in mammalian cells that responds to amino acids, energy levels, growth factors, and hormones, such as insulin, to control anabolic and catabolic processes. We have recently shown that suppression of the mTORC1 complex in bone-forming osteoblasts (OBs) improved glucose handling in male mice fed a normal or obesogenic diet. Mechanistically, this occurs, at least in part, by increasing OB insulin sensitivity leading to upregulation of glucose uptake and glycolysis. Read More

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Auto-brewery syndrome caused by oral fungi and periodontal disease bacteria.

Acute Med Surg 2021 Jan-Dec;8(1):e652. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Central Clinical Laboratory Iwate Medical University Hospital Morioka Japan.

Background: Auto-brewery syndrome (ABS) is often caused by fungi in the intestinal tract. We describe a rare case of alcohol production by and periodontal disease bacteria in the oral cavity.

Case Presentation: A man aged in his 60s had a car accident, and alcohol was detected on his breath. Read More

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