78 results match your criteria reduce serotype-specific

Safety and Immunogenicity of a 20-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Healthy Infants in the United States.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Oct;40(10):944-951

Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer Inc, Collegeville, Pennsylvania.

Background: The development and widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) substantially reduced the global burden of pneumococcal disease. Expanding the serotypes covered by PCVs may further reduce disease burden. A 20-valent PCV (PCV20) has been developed to add coverage for 7 additional serotypes (8, 10A, 11A, 12F, 15B, 22F and 33F) to those in the existing 13-valent PCV (PCV13). Read More

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October 2021

Repeated systemic dosing of AAV vectors in immunocompetent mice after blockade of T-cell costimulatory pathways.

Hum Gene Ther 2021 Sep 5. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

East China University of Science and Technology, 47860, School of Pharmacy, Shanghai, Shanghai, China;

Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) strongly limit adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector transduction and repeated administration. Previous studies have shown that NAbs induced by AAVs are associated with T and B cell activation and that the B7/CD28 and CD40/CD40L costimulation signaling pathways are involved. CTLA4 and CD40 are vital molecules that participate in the costimulatory pathway. Read More

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September 2021

-Specific Immune Profiles Induced after Parenteral Immunization or Oral Challenge with Either Shigella flexneri 2a or Shigella sonnei.

mSphere 2021 Aug 14;6(4):e0012221. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Diarrheal Disease Research, Bacterial Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.

spp. are a leading cause of diarrhea-associated global morbidity and mortality. Development and widespread implementation of an efficacious vaccine remain the best option to reduce -specific morbidity. Read More

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Environment, vector, or host? Using machine learning to untangle the mechanisms driving arbovirus outbreaks.

Ecol Appl 2021 Jul 10:e02407. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

VISAVET Health Surveillance Centre and Animal Health Department, Veterinary School, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, 28040, Spain.

Climatic, landscape, and host features are critical components in shaping outbreaks of vector-borne diseases. However, the relationship between the outbreaks of vector-borne pathogens and their environmental drivers is typically complicated, nonlinear, and may vary by taxonomic units below the species level (e.g. Read More

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The clinical relevance of IgM and IgA anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide ELISA assays in patients with suspected antibody deficiency.

Clin Exp Immunol 2021 Aug 1;205(2):213-221. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Tranzo, Tilburg University, Tilburg, the Netherlands.

Unlike immunoglobulin (Ig)G pneumococcal polysaccharide (PnPS)-antibodies, PnPS IgA and IgM-antibodies are not routinely determined for the assessment of immunocompetence. It is not yet known whether an isolated inability to mount a normal IgM or IgA-PnPS response should be considered a relevant primary antibody deficiency (PAD). We studied the clinical relevance of anti-PnPS IgM and IgA-assays in patients with suspected primary immunodeficiency in a large teaching hospital in 's-Hertogenbosch, the Netherlands. Read More

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The Evolution and Distribution of Pneumococcal Serotypes in Adults Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Spain Using a Serotype-Specific Urinary Antigen Detection Test: The CAPA Study, 2011-2018.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Sep;73(6):1075-1085

Pfizer Vaccines, Collegeville, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Spain introduced the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in the childhood National Immunization Program in 2015-2016 with coverage of 3 doses of 94.8% in 2018. We assessed the evolution of all pneumococcal, PCV13 vaccine type (VT), and experimental PCV20-VT (PCV13 + serotypes 8, 10A, 11A, 12F, 15B, 22F, 33F) hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults in Spain from 2011-2018. Read More

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September 2021

Probabilistic seasonal dengue forecasting in Vietnam: A modelling study using superensembles.

PLoS Med 2021 03 4;18(3):e1003542. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Centre for the Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Background: With enough advanced notice, dengue outbreaks can be mitigated. As a climate-sensitive disease, environmental conditions and past patterns of dengue can be used to make predictions about future outbreak risk. These predictions improve public health planning and decision-making to ultimately reduce the burden of disease. Read More

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A randomized phase 1/2 study of the safety and immunogenicity of a multivalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in healthy adults 50 through 85 years of age.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Aug 4;17(8):2691-2699. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Vaccine Clinical Research and Development, Pfizer Inc, Collegeville, PA, USA.

Pneumococcal disease can be serious and debilitating in older adults. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), such as the 13-valent PCV (PCV13), reduce pneumococcal disease rates caused by vaccine serotypes. Development of PCVs offering additional coverage against serotypes not contained in PCV13 can reduce disease burden further. Read More

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Hypothetical emergence of poliovirus in 2020: part 2. exploration of the potential role of vaccines in control and eradication.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2021 04 5;20(4):449-460. Epub 2021 May 5.

Kid Risk, Inc., Orlando, FL, USA.

Objectives: The emergence of human pathogens with pandemic potential motivates rapid vaccine development. We explore the role of vaccines in control and eradication of a novel emerging pathogen.

Methods: We hypothetically simulate emergence of a novel wild poliovirus (nWPV) in 2020 assuming an immunologically naïve population. Read More

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A randomized phase 1 study of the safety and immunogenicity of 2 novel pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in healthy Japanese adults in the United States.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 07 5;17(7):2249-2256. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer Inc, Collegeville, PA, USA.

Expanding serotype coverage of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) to target prevailing disease-causing serotypes could further reduce disease burden. To address this need, 2 different PCVs have been investigated: a 20-valent PCV (PCV20; includes the 13 serotypes in the 13-valent PCV [PCV13] plus 7 additional serotypes [8, 10A, 11A, 12F, 15B, 22F, 33F]) and a complementary 7-valent PCV (cPCV7; contains only the 7 additional serotypes). This phase 1b, randomized, controlled, double-blind study evaluated PCV20 and cPCV7 safety and immunogenicity in healthy Japanese adults 18-49 years of age residing in the United States for ≤5 years. Read More

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Optimal vaccination strategy for dengue transmission in Kupang city, Indonesia.

Heliyon 2020 Nov 4;6(11):e05345. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Computer Science, The University of Nusa Cendana, Kupang-NTT, Indonesia.

Dengue is a public health problem with around 390 million cases annually and is caused by four distinct serotypes. Infection by one of the serotypes provides lifelong immunity to that serotype but have a higher chance of attracting the more dangerous forms of dengue in subsequent infections. Therefore, a perfect strategy against dengue is required. Read More

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November 2020

Divergent serotype replacement trends and increasing diversity in pneumococcal disease in high income settings reduce the benefit of expanding vaccine valency.

Sci Rep 2020 11 4;10(1):18977. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College, London, UK.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a significant cause of otitis media, pneumonia, and meningitis. Only seven of the approximately 100 serotypes were initially included in the pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (PCV) in 2000 before it was expanded in subsequent years. Although the invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence due to vaccine serotypes (VT) has declined, partial replacement by non-vaccine serotypes (NVT) was observed following widespread vaccine uptake. Read More

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November 2020

Pneumococcal disease in Thailand.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jan 29;102:429-436. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Pfizer (Thailand) Limited, Head Office, Floor 36, United Center Building, 323 Silom Road, Silom, Bangrak, Bangkok 10500, Thailand. Electronic address:

This review examines the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease, serotype prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and national vaccination recommendations in Thailand. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and annualized hospitalization rates for pneumococcal bacteremia in Thailand were highest in children aged <5years and the elderly. The most prevalent serotype is serotype 6B, which is included in both the 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV10 [also known as PHiD-CV] and PCV13, respectively) registered in Thailand. Read More

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January 2021

Novel Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine Platform: Formulations for Safe and DIVA-Compatible FMD Vaccines With Improved Potency.

Front Vet Sci 2020 25;7:554305. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Services, USDA, Greenport, NY, United States.

Inactivated, wild-type foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccines are currently used to control FMD around the world. These traditional FMD vaccines are produced using large quantities of infectious, virulent, wild-type FMD viruses, with the associated risk of virus escape from manufacturing facilities or incomplete inactivation during the vaccine formulation process. While higher quality vaccines produced from wild-type FMDV are processed to reduce non-structural antigens, there is still a risk that small amounts of non-structural proteins may be present in the final product. Read More

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September 2020

Serotype Patterns of Pneumococcal Disease in Adults Are Correlated With Carriage Patterns in Older Children.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 06;72(11):e768-e775

Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Background: The importance of specific serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) differs by age. Data on pneumococcal carriage in different age groups, along with data on serotype-specific invasiveness, could help explain these age-related patterns and their implications for vaccination.

Methods: Using pneumococcal carriage and disease data from Israel, we evaluated the association between serotype-specific IPD in adults and serotype-specific carriage prevalence among children in different age categories, while adjusting for serotype-specific invasiveness. Read More

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Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of a 20-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV20) in Adults 60 to 64 Years of Age.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jul 27. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer Inc, Collegeville, PA, USA.

Background: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have significantly decreased pneumococcal disease worldwide; however, expanding serotype coverage may further reduce disease burden. A 20-valent PCV (PCV20) containing capsular polysaccharide conjugates of serotypes present in the 13-valent PCV (PCV13) and 7 new serotypes (8, 10A, 11A, 12F, 15B, 22F, and 33F) is currently in development. This phase 2 study evaluated safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of PCV20 in adults without prior pneumococcal vaccination. Read More

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Comparison of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) cellular immune responses after primary and booster doses of vaccine.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 12 13;16(12):3201-3207. Epub 2020 May 13.

Center for Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Rochester General Hospital Research Institute , Rochester, NY, USA.

Since their widespread use, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have proven effective at reducing both invasive and noninvasive pneumococcal diseases and nasopharyngeal carriage of (). To establish this level of protection, a three-dose schedule with a single booster (3 + 1) was the immunization regime in the USA. Alternatively, WHO-approved schedules of 3 + 0 and 2 + 1 are now becoming adopted in many countries to reduce the cost of vaccination. Read More

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December 2020

Inhibition of invasive salmonella by orally administered IgA and IgG monoclonal antibodies.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 03 23;14(3):e0007803. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University at Albany School of Public Health, Albany, New York, United States of America.

Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica strains, including serovar Typhimurium (STm), are an emerging cause of invasive disease among children and the immunocompromised, especially in regions of sub-Saharan Africa. STm invades the intestinal mucosa through Peyer's patch tissues before disseminating systemically. While vaccine development efforts are ongoing, the emergence of multidrug resistant strains of STm affirms the need to seek alternative strategies to protect high-risk individuals from infection. Read More

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Focusing on Good Responders to Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccination in General Hospital Patients Suspected for Immunodeficiency. A Decision Tree Based on the 23-Valent Pneumococcal IgG Assay.

Front Immunol 2019 5;10:2496. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Department of Tranzo, Tilburg University, Tilburg, Netherlands.

Recently, the 23-valent IgG-assay was suggested as screening assay to identify responders to pneumococcal polysaccharide (PnPS)-vaccination with the serotype-specific assay as a second-line test. However, in a low pre-test probability general hospital setting predicting responders could be more valuable to reduce the number of samples needing serotyping. Serotype-specific PnPS antibody-assays were performed for suspected immunodeficiency in two Dutch general hospitals (Jeroen Bosch Hospital, 's-Hertogenbosch; Elisabeth Tweesteden Hospital, Tilburg). Read More

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November 2020

Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Rapid Detection of Dengue Virus (DENV) NS1 and Differentiation of DENV Serotypes during Early Infection.

J Clin Microbiol 2019 07 25;57(7). Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Institute of Preventive Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei City, Taiwan

Dengue fever, caused by infections with the dengue virus (DENV), affects nearly 400 million people globally every year. Early diagnosis and management can reduce the morbidity and mortality rates of severe forms of dengue disease as well as decrease the risk of wider outbreaks. Although the early diagnosis of dengue can be achieved using a number of commercial NS1 detection kits, none of these can differentiate among the four dengue virus serotypes. Read More

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Is It Time To Review The Vaccination Strategy To Protect Adults Against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease?

Ir Med J 2019 03 14;112(3):894. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

The Irish Pneumococcal Reference Laboratory, Irish Meningitis and Sepsis Reference Laboratory, Temple Street Children’s University Hospital, Temple Street, Dublin 1, Ireland.

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have reduced the predominant serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We assessed the impact of the paediatric 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7 and PCV13) among older adults. We compared serotype-specific incidence rates from 2007/08 to 2016/17, expressed as incidence rate ratios (IRR). Read More

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Pneumococcal vaccines.

Indian J Med Microbiol 2018 Oct-Dec;36(4):465-474

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Streptococcus pneumoniae continues to take a heavy toll on childhood mortality and morbidity across the developing world. An estimated 10.6 million invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) occur every year, with nearly 1 million deaths in children under 5 years of age. Read More

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Minor groove binder modification of widely used TaqMan hydrolysis probe for detection of dengue virus reduces risk of false-negative real-time PCR results for serotype 4.

J Virol Methods 2019 06 11;268:17-23. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Clinical Virology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom; National Transfusion Microbiology Laboratories, NHS Blood and Transplant, London, United Kingdom.

Dengue is a vector-transmitted viral infection that is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide, with over 50 million apparent cases and a fatality rate of 2.5 % of 0.5 million severe cases per annum in recent years. Read More

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Immunogenicity and Reactogenicity of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Among Infants, Toddlers, and Children in Western Burkina Faso: Results From a Clinical Trial of Alternative Immunization Schedules.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Nov;8(5):422-432

Agence de Médecine Préventive, Paris, France.

Background: Many African countries have introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) into their routine immunization program to reduce the burden of morbidity and death that results from Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, yet immunogenicity and reactogenicity data from the region are limited for the 2 available PCV products.

Methods: We conducted a randomized trial of 13-valent PCV (PCV13) in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Infants received 3 doses of PCV at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age or at 6 weeks, 14 weeks, and 9 months of age; toddlers received 2 doses 2 months apart or 1 dose beginning at 12 to 15 months of age; and children received 1 dose between 2 and 4 years of age. Read More

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November 2019

Safety and Immunogenicity of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines in a High-risk Population: A Randomized Controlled Trial of 10-Valent and 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Papua New Guinean Infants.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 04;68(9):1472-1481

Wesfarmers Centre of Vaccines and Infectious Diseases, Telethon Kids Institute and Centre for Child Health Research, University of Western Australia, Perth.

Background: There are little data on the immunogenicity of PCV10 and PCV13 in the same high-risk population.

Methods: PCV10 and PCV13 were studied head-to-head in a randomized controlled trial in Papua New Guinea in which 262 infants received 3 doses of PCV10 or PCV13 at 1, 2, and 3 months of age. Serotype-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations, and pneumococcal and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) carriage were assessed prevaccination and at 4 and 9 months of age. Read More

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Profile of the 2016 dengue outbreak in Nepal.

BMC Res Notes 2018 Jul 3;11(1):423. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Virology Unit, Central Department of Biotechnology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Objective: The objective of this study was to obtain clinical, virological and demographic data detailing the 2016 dengue outbreak in Nepal.

Results: Dengue disease was first reported in Nepal in 2004 and several major outbreaks have occurred since then, with a significant impact on public health. An outbreak of dengue fever occurred in Nepal during June to November 2016, with a peak number of cases reported in September. Read More

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Development and characterization of serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies against the dengue virus-4 (DENV-4) non-structural protein (NS1).

Virol J 2018 02 6;15(1):30. Epub 2018 Feb 6.

Dengue Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Enteric and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), San Juan, PR, USA.

Background: Dengue, caused by one of the four serologically distinct dengue viruses (DENV-1 to - 4), is a mosquito-borne disease of serious global health significance. Reliable and cost-effective diagnostic tests, along with effective vaccines and vector-control strategies, are highly required to reduce dengue morbidity and mortality. Evaluation studies revealed that many commercially available NS1 antigen (Ag) tests have limited sensitivity to DENV-4 serotype compared to the other three serotypes. Read More

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February 2018

Clinical Efficacy, Safety, and Immunogenicity of a Live Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine (CYD-TDV) in Children: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis.

Front Immunol 2017 4;8:863. Epub 2017 Aug 4.

University College London Research & Training Programme, University of Zambia, University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia.

Background: Dengue hemorrhagic fever is the leading cause of hospitalization and death in children living in Asia and Latin America. There is an urgent need for an effective and safe dengue vaccine to reduce morbidity and mortality in this high-risk population given the lack of dengue specific treatment at present. This review aims to determine the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of CYD-TDV vaccine in children. Read More

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The burden of PCV13 serotypes in hospitalized pneumococcal pneumonia in Spain using a novel urinary antigen detection test. CAPA study.

Vaccine 2017 09 18;35(39):5264-5270. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

H. Clinic, Barcelona, Spain; Biomedical Research Center Network for Respiratory Diseases (CIBERES), Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes distribution in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) requiring hospitalization in adults after introduction of PCV13 in children is not well known. Our aim was to evaluate the distribution of serotypes in pneumococcal pneumonia according to risk factors and comorbidity conditions after the introduction of PCV13 in children in 2010.

Methods: A prospective study from 2011 to 2014 was performed in immunocompetent adults hospitalized with CAP in 3 Spanish hospitals. Read More

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September 2017

Th17-Mediated Cross Protection against Pneumococcal Carriage by Vaccination with a Variable Antigen.

Infect Immun 2017 10 20;85(10). Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Laboratory of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

Serotype-specific protection against is an important limitation of the current polysaccharide-based vaccines. To prevent serotype replacement, reduce transmission, and limit the emergence of new variants, it is essential to induce broad protection and restrict pneumococcal colonization. In this study, we used a prototype vaccine formulation consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-detoxified outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from serovar Typhimurium displaying the variable N terminus of PspA (α1α2) for intranasal vaccination, which induced strong Th17 immunity associated with a substantial reduction of pneumococcal colonization. Read More

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October 2017