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Decoding the microstructural properties of white matter using realistic models.

Neuroimage 2021 May 5:118138. Epub 2021 May 5.

Radboud University, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, Netherlands.

Multi-echo gradient echo (ME-GRE) magnetic resonance signal evolution in white matter has a strong dependence on the orientation of myelinated axons with respect to the main static field. Although analytical solutions have been able to predict some of the white matter (WM) signal behaviour of the hollow cylinder model, it has been shown that realistic models of WM offer a better description of the signal behaviour observed. In this work, we present a pipeline to (i) generate realistic 2D WM models with their microstructure based on real axon morphology with adjustable fiber volume fraction (FVF) and g-ratio. Read More

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Cultural Stress: The Ubiquitous Stressor Hiding in Plain Sight.

Authors:
Howard Murad

Adv Mind Body Med 2021 Spring;35(2):14-16

While most healthcare providers are generally aware of the role stress plays in disease development, few are attuned to a phenomenon I call "Cultural Stress," which compounds all of life's other stressors. Cultural Stress is the constant, pervasive, ever-increasing stress of modern living. It includes overexposure to technology at the expense of in-person relationships; 24-hour connectivity, which blurs the boundaries between work and personal life; on-demand delivery of goods and services, which severs neighborhood and community relationships and results in long sedentary hours in front of our screens; the pace of technological change, which contributes to professional, economic, and social insecurity; our global economic system, which sows uncertainty as it outsources jobs overseas or to new technologies; environmental contaminants, noise, crowding, and various new sources of radiation; changes to our diet, which has become heavily reliant on a few processed commodities (corn, wheat, sugar, and soy); and changes to our urban development and transportation patterns, which result in less physical activity and more hours spent sitting in long commutes. Read More

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Small Network for Lightweight Task in Computer Vision: A Pruning Method Based on Feature Representation.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 17;2021:5531023. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

College of Computer Science and Technology, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310023, China.

Many current convolutional neural networks are hard to meet the practical application requirement because of the enormous network parameters. For accelerating the inference speed of networks, more and more attention has been paid to network compression. Network pruning is one of the most efficient and simplest ways to compress and speed up the networks. Read More

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Ultrasensitive detection and quantification of viral nucleic acids with raindance droplet digital PCR (ddPCR).

Methods 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

AIDS and Cancer Virus Program, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD, 21702, United States.

Sensitive detection of viral nucleic acids is critically important for diagnosis and monitoring of the progression of infectious diseases such as those caused by SARS-CoV2, HIV-1, and other viruses. In HIV-1 infection cases, assessing the efficacy of treatment interventions that are superimposed on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has benefited tremendously from the development of sensitive HIV-1 DNA and RNA quantitation assays. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of Rhesus macaques is similar in many key aspects to human HIV-1 infection and consequently this non-human primate (NHP) model has and continues to prove instrumental in evaluating HIV prevention, treatment and eradication approaches. Read More

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Electric field control of magnetism through modulating phase separation in (011)-NdSrMnO/PMN-PT heterostructures.

Nanoscale 2021 May;13(17):8030-8037

Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and State Key Laboratory of Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China. and Songshan Lake Materials Laboratory, Dongguan, Guangdong 523808, China.

Large and non-volatile electric field control of magnetization is promising to develop memory devices with reduced energy consumption. Herein, we report the electric field control of magnetization with a non-volatile memory effect in an intermediate band Nd0.5Sr0. Read More

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Different Design Strategies for Metal Sulfide Sorbents to Capture Low Concentrations of Gaseous Hg in Coal-Fired Flue Gas and High Concentrations of Gaseous Hg in Smelting Flue Gas.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Environment and Civil Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, P. R. China.

Capturing gaseous Hg using regenerable metal sulfides is a promising technology to recover gaseous Hg from both coal-fired flue gas (CFG) and smelting flue gas (SFG) for the centralized control. Gaseous Hg concentration in SFG is 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than that in CFG; therefore, the design strategy of metal sulfides for capturing gaseous Hg from CFG is quite different from that from SGF. In this work, the structure-activity relationship of metal sulfides to capture Hg was investigated according to the remarkable difference in MoO loading on sulfureted FeTiO to capture low/high concentrations of gaseous Hg. Read More

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Novel Promotion of Sulfuration for Hg Conversion over VO-MoO/TiO with HCl at Low Temperatures: Hg Adsorption, Hg Oxidation, and Hg Adsorption.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Environment and Civil Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, P. R. China.

In this work, the commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst VO-MoO/TiO was sulfureted with HS to improve both its capability for elemental mercury (Hg) removal at low temperatures and its resistance to SO and HO. Hg removal over both VO-MoO/TiO and sulfureted VO-MoO/TiO involved the catalytic oxidation of Hg to HgCl and the chemical adsorption of gaseous Hg; therefore, the effect of sulfuration on Hg chemical adsorption and the catalytic oxidation of Hg to HgCl over VO-MoO/TiO and its resistance to SO and HO were investigated using Hg balance analysis. Kinetic analysis showed that the rates of the chemical adsorption and oxidation of Hg were both in direct proportion to the concentration of physically adsorbed Hg. Read More

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Roles of cation efflux pump in biomineralization of cadmium into quantum dots in Escherichia coli.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 28;412:125248. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) is a typical and widely present toxic heavy metals in environments. Biomineralization of Cd ions could alleviate the toxicity and produce valuable products in certain waste streams containing selenite. However, the impact of the intrinsic Cd(II) efflux system on the biotransformation process remains unrevealed. Read More

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Bladder management in children with transverse myelitis.

J Pediatr Urol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Pediatric Urology, Children's Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with transverse myelitis (TM) often present with urinary retention. While many recover their bladder function, some have persistent voiding dysfunction, and both intermediate and long-term outcomes are variable.

Objective: In patients who develop urinary retention requiring clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) at onset of TM, we sought to assess factors associated with improved voiding function and the risk of requiring persistent CIC over time. Read More

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Personality traits predict regression of pelvic girdle pain after pregnancy: a longitudinal follow-up study.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 May 4;21(1):353. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Orthopaedic, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical College, Beijing, 100853, China.

Background: Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is a multifactorial condition with a partly unknown etiology. This condition can be mentally and physically compromising both during and after pregnancy. To provide all-around preventive measures to improve the recovery from PGP, it is a necessity for obstetricians and orthopaedists to develop predictive studies about the worse prognosis for this condition. Read More

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Antibiofouling Ultrathin Poly(amidoxime) Membrane for Enhanced U(VI) Recovery from Wastewater and Seawater.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

State Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Utilization in South China Sea, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, P. R. China.

Although eco-friendly amidoxime-based adsorbents own an excellent uranium (U)-adsorption capacity, their U-adsorption efficiency is commonly reduced and even damaged by the biological adhesion from bacteria/microorganisms in an aqueous environment. Herein, we present an antibiofouling ultrathin poly(amidoxime) membrane (AUPM) with highly enhanced U-adsorption performance, through dispersing the quaternized chitosan (Q-CS) and poly(amidoxime) in a cross-linked sulfonated cellulose nanocrystals (S-CNC) network. The cross-linked S-CNC not only can elevate the hydrophilicity to improve the U-adsorption efficiency of AUPM but also can enhance the mechanical strength to form a self-supporting ultrathin membrane (17. Read More

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Sustainable recovery of neodymium and dysprosium from waters through seaweeds: Influence of operational parameters.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 16;280:130600. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal; LAQV-REQUIMTE - Associated Laboratory for Green Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal; LCA - Central Laboratory of Analysis, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.

The high demand for greener energy and technological innovation require some crucial elements, such as the rare earths Nd and Dy. Being considered two of the most critical elements (high supply risk), it is vital to recover them from wastes/wastewaters, for later reuse. Here, the influence of operational parameters, such as biosorbent stock density (0. Read More

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Cervical screening during the COVID-19 pandemic: optimising recovery strategies.

Lancet Public Health 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Centre for Health Policy and Management, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Disruptions to cancer screening services have been experienced in most settings as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Ideally, programmes would resolve backlogs by temporarily expanding capacity; however, in practice, this is often not possible. We aim to inform the deliberations of decision makers in high-income settings regarding their cervical cancer screening policy response. Read More

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Photoacoustic Tomography Image Restoration with Measured Spatially Variant Point Spread Functions.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2021 May 3;PP. Epub 2021 May 3.

The spatial resolution of photoacoustic tomography (PAT) can be characterized by the point spread function (PSF) of the imaging system. Due to the tomographic detection geometry, the PAT image degradation model could be generally described by using spatially variant PSFs. Deconvolution of the PAT image with these PSFs could restore image resolution and recover object details. Read More

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Transient dynamics during kelp forest recovery from fishing across multiple trophic levels.

Ecol Appl 2021 May 3:e2367. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California Davis, Davis.

Outcomes of management efforts to recover or restore populations of harvested species can be highly dependent on environmental and community context. Predator-prey interactions can alter recovery trajectories, and the timing of management actions within multi-trophic level harvest scenarios may influence the dynamics of recovery and lead to management trade-offs. Recent work using a generalist predator-prey model suggests that management promoting synchronized recovery of predators and prey leads to faster and less variable recovery trajectories than sequential recovery (predator- or prey-first). Read More

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Unbiased interrogation of memory B cells from convalescent COVID-19 patients reveals a broad antiviral humoral response targeting SARS-CoV-2 antigens beyond the spike protein.

Vaccine X 2021 Apr 24:100098. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Immunome, Inc. 665 Stockton Drive, Suite 300, Exton, PA 19341, U.S.A.

Patients who recover from SARS-CoV-2 infections produce antibodies and antigen-specific T cells against multiple viral proteins. Here, an unbiased interrogation of the anti-viral memory B cell repertoire of convalescent patients has been performed by generating large, stable hybridoma libraries and screening thousands of monoclonal antibodies to identify specific, high-affinity immunoglobulins (Igs) directed at distinct viral components. As expected, a significant number of antibodies were directed at the Spike (S) protein, a majority of which recognized the full-length protein. Read More

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Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia as Treatment Option for Pancreatic Cancer Cells and Pancreatic Cancer Organoids.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 23;16:2965-2981. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Aachen, Germany.

Introduction: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a cancer with a meager prognosis due to its chemotherapy resistance. A new treatment method may be magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). Magnetoliposomes (ML), consisting of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) stabilized with a phospholipid-bilayer, are exposed to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) to generate heat. Read More

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Performance Validity Testing in Patients Presenting to a Specialty Clinic With a Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

J Head Trauma Rehabil 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Drs Sherry, Ernst, French, and Collins); and Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Drs Sherry, French, Eagle, Collins, and Kontos).

Objective: To evaluate predictors of performance validity testing (PVT) and clinical outcome in patients presenting to a specialty clinic with a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).

Setting: An outpatient mTBI specialty clinic.

Participants: Seventy-six (47% female) patients aged 16 to 66 (mean = 40. Read More

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A novel surface imprinted resin for the selective removal of metal-complexed dyes from aqueous solution in batch experiments: ACB GGN as a representative contaminant.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 27;280:130611. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Municipal Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096, China.

Metal-complexed dyes are harmful to the environment and human health because they contain heavy metals and complex organic ligands. It is difficult to separate and recover these dyes from wastewater owing to their complex components and poor selectivity of common adsorbents. In this study, a novel surface molecularly imprinted polymer (SMIP) was prepared using 4-vinyl pyridine as the functional monomer and polystyrene resin as the carrier. Read More

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Capacity of an ecologically key urchin to recover from extreme events: Physiological impacts of heatwaves and the road to recovery.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 23;785:147281. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

The Swire Institute of Marine Science and School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR, China. Electronic address:

Heatwaves are increasing in frequency and intensity, with substantial impacts on ecosystems and species which maintain their function. Whether or not species are harmed by heatwave conditions by being pushed beyond their physiological bounds can depend on whether energy replacement is sufficient to enable recovery from acute stress. We exposed an ecologically important sea urchin, Heliocidaris erythrogramma, to experimental marine heatwave scenarios in context with recent summer heat anomalies in moderate (25 °C), and strong heatwave (26 °C) conditions for 10 days, followed by a 10-day recovery period at normal summer temperature (23 °C). Read More

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A dual-functional biomimetic-mineralized nanoplatform for glucose detection and therapy with cancer cells .

J Mater Chem B 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Key Laboratory of Cluster Science of Ministry of Education, Beijing Key Laboratory of Photoelectronic/Electrophotonic Conversion Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, P. R. China.

Glucose detection is a crucial topic in the diagnosis of numerous diseases, such as hypoglycemia or diabetes mellitus. Research indicates that people with diabetes mellitus are at a higher risk of developing various types of cancer. A nanoplatform that combines both diabetes diagnosis and cancer therapy might be regarded as a more effective way to solve the above-mentioned problem. Read More

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Deep Learning Enables Fast and Accurate Imputation of Gene Expression.

Front Genet 2021 13;12:624128. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

A question of fundamental biological significance is to what extent the expression of a subset of genes can be used to recover the full transcriptome, with important implications for biological discovery and clinical application. To address this challenge, we propose two novel deep learning methods, PMI and GAIN-GTEx, for gene expression imputation. In order to increase the applicability of our approach, we leverage data from GTEx v8, a reference resource that has generated a comprehensive collection of transcriptomes from a diverse set of human tissues. Read More

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Supercritical CO Extraction as a Tool to Isolate Anti-Inflammatory Sesquiterpene Lactones from L. Roots.

Molecules 2021 Apr 28;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

iBET, Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica, Apartado 12, 2781-901 Oeiras, Portugal.

. or chicory plants are a natural source of health-promoting compounds in the form of supplements such as inulin, as well as other bioactive compounds such as sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). After inulin extraction, chicory roots are considered waste, with most SLs not being harnessed. Read More

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Elite Male Volleyball Players Are at Risk of Insufficient Energy and Carbohydrate Intake.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 24;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA), 1007 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Elite volleyball athletes experience significant physical and psychological demands during the competitive season. The aim was to compare the dietary intake of male volleyball athletes with recommendations for sport and health, and to examine the association of physique traits and knee health on eating behaviours and of eating behaviours on reported dietary intake. Using a retrospective cross-sectional design, 22 male athletes from a national indoor volleyball program underwent anthropometric, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and resting metabolic rate testing, 4-day dietary intake and hematological analysis, and also completed the three-factor eating questionnaire-R18 for eating behaviours and the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-patellar tendon (VISA-P) questionnaire for knee health. Read More

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Status, characterization, and quantification of municipal solid waste as a measure towards effective solid waste management: The case of Dilla Town, Southern Ethiopia.

J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Dilla University, P. O. Box 419, Dilla, Ethiopia.

This study aims to assess the status of solid waste management (SWM) practice and to characterize and quantify the municipal solid waste as a measure towards effective management in Dilla town Southern Ethiopia. Formal surveys of household residents and SWM operators using a structured questionnaire were conducted to gather data on the current waste management practices of the inhabitants. Repeated field investigations, on-site waste segregation, characterizations, and quantification were conducted. Read More

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Hydrochemical changes of a spring due to the May 30, 2014 Ms 6.1 Yingjiang earthquake, southwest China.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 17;284:117125. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology & MOE Key Laboratory of Groundwater Circulation and Environmental Evolution, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, 100083, China; School of Water Resources and Environment, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, 100083, China. Electronic address:

Groundwater chemistry can be affected by and related to earthquakes, thus it is crucial to understand the hydrochemical changes and associated processes caused by earthquakes for post-seismic groundwater utilization. Here we reported the major ion concentrations changes of the Ganze Spring in response to the May 30, 2014 Ms 6.1 Yingjiang earthquake, southwest China based on the daily time series (from 1st January 2012 to 20th July 2014) of Ca, Mg and HCO concentrations, as well as data of bulk strain and Peak Ground Velocity (PGV) recorded at a nearby station. Read More

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Transcultural Psychiatry: Cultural Difference, Universalism and Social Psychiatry in the Age of Decolonisation.

Authors:
Ana Antić

Cult Med Psychiatry 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of English, Germanic and Romance Studies, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

In the mid-twentieth century, in the aftermath of WWII and the Nazi atrocities and in the midst of decolonisation, a new discipline of transcultural psychiatry was being established and institutionalised. This was part and parcel of a global political project in the course of which Western psychiatry attempted to leave behind its colonial legacies and entanglements, and lay the foundation for a more inclusive, egalitarian communication between Western and non-Western concepts of mental illness and healing. In this period, the infrastructure of post-colonial global and transcultural psychiatry was set up, and leading psychiatric figures across the world embarked on identifying, debating and sometimes critiquing the universal psychological characteristics and psychopathological mechanisms supposedly shared among all cultures and civilisations. Read More

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Molecular phylogenetics, PCA, and MFA recover a new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from an isolated sandstone massif in northwestern Cambodia.

Zootaxa 2021 Mar 25;4949(2):zootaxa.4949.2.3. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Herpetology Laboratory, Department of Biology, La Sierra University, 4500 Riverwalk Parkway, Riverside, California 92515, USA..

The integrated results of maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses, principal component analyses (PCA), and a multiple factor analysis (MFA) recover a new, widely allopatric species of the Cyrtodactylus intermedius species group. Cyrtodactylus kulenensis sp. nov is endemic to the Phnom Kulen sandstone massif of the Phnom Kulen National Park, Siem Reap Province, in the lowlands of northwestern Cambodia. Read More

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Technologies to recover nitrogen from livestock manure - A review.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 14;784:147098. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Soil and Water Systems, Twin Falls Research and Extension Center, University of Idaho, 315 Falls Avenue, P.O. Box 1827, Twin Falls, ID 83303-1827, United States of America. Electronic address:

Today, the livestock industry is considered to be one of the biggest emitters of ammonia in the world. The nitrogen present in livestock manure has been linked to the contamination of water bodies. Livestock manures contain a significant quantity of recoverable nitrogen. Read More

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Extraction of phenolic compounds: A review.

Curr Res Food Sci 2021 2;4:200-214. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kings University, P.M.B. 555, Odeomu, Osun State, Nigeria.

Phenolic compounds are parts of secondary metabolites mostly found in plant species with enormous structural diversities. They can exist as glycosides or aglycones; matrix or free-bound compounds; and comprising mostly polymerized or monomer structures. Additionally, these compounds are not universally dispensed within plants with varied stability. Read More

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