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The epidemiological impact of the NHS COVID-19 App.

Nature 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery, Nuffield Department for Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

The COVID-19 pandemic has seen digital contact tracing emerge around the world to help prevent spread of the disease. A mobile phone app records proximity events between app users, and when a user tests positive for COVID-19, their recent contacts can be notified instantly. Theoretical evidence has supported this new public health intervention, but its epidemiological impact has remained uncertain. Read More

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Causal structural covariance network revealing atrophy progression in Alzheimer's disease continuum.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

The structural covariance network (SCN) has provided a perspective on the large-scale brain organization impairment in the Alzheimer's Disease (AD) continuum. However, the successive structural impairment across brain regions, which may underlie the disrupted SCN in the AD continuum, is not well understood. In the current study, we enrolled 446 subjects with AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or normal aging (NA) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. Read More

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Supervised machine learning-based prediction for in-hospital pressure injury development using electronic health records: A retrospective observational cohort study in a university hospital in Japan.

Int J Nurs Stud 2021 Mar 26;119:103932. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Building 5, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033, Japan; Global Nursing Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: In hospitals, nurses are responsible for pressure injury risk assessment using several kinds of risk assessment scales. However, their predictive validity is insufficient to initiate targeted preventive strategy for each patient. The use of electronic health records with machine learning technique is a promising strategy to provide automated clinical decision-making aid. Read More

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Ambient Heat and Stillbirth in Northern and Central Florida.

Environ Res 2021 May 8:111262. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Epidemiology College of Public Health and Health Professions & College of Medicine University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Background: Elevated temperature is well-recognized as a health hazard, and may be particularly harmful to pregnant women, including increasing risk of stillbirth. We conducted a study in Northern and Central Florida, an area prone to periodic extreme heat but with significant seasonal variation, focusing on the most socioeconomically vulnerable populations least able to mitigate the impact of heat.

Methods: We obtained electronic health records data from the OneFlorida Data Trust for the period 2012-2017, with 1,876 stillbirths included in the analysis. Read More

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Electronic Health Records As a Platform for Audiological Research: Data Validity, Patient Characteristics, and Hearing-Aid Use Persistence Among 731,213 U.S. Veterans.

Ear Hear 2020 Dec 16. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

1Manchester Centre for Audiology and Deafness, School of Health Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom; 2VA Rehabilitation R&D, National Center for Rehabilitative Auditory Research, Portland, Oregon, USA; 3Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA 4Division of Clinical Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Objectives: This article presents a summary of audiological, general health, and hearing aid (HA) outcome data in a large sample of U.S. Veterans receiving HAs. Read More

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December 2020

Breast Augmentation with Microtextured Anatomical Implants in 653 Women: Indications and Risk of Rotation.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

From the Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns Treatment, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet; and Amalieklinikken.

Background: Anatomical implants provide a wide range of options in terms of implant dimensions for breast augmentation. Nevertheless, many surgeons choose not to use anatomical implants due to the risk of rotation malposition and because their advantages over round implants are not clearly defined.

Methods: A retrospective review of medical records was performed on all women who underwent breast augmentation or implant exchange with microtextured anatomical implants from 2012 to 2019 in a single private clinic. Read More

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The Use of Head-Worn Displays for Vital Sign Monitoring in Critical and Acute Care: Systematic Review.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 May 11;9(5):e27165. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, Australia.

Background: Continuous monitoring of patient vital signs may improve patient outcomes. Head-worn displays (HWDs) can provide hands-free access to continuous vital sign information of patients in critical and acute care contexts and thus may reduce instances of unrecognized patient deterioration.

Objective: The purpose of the study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature to evaluate clinical, surrogate, and process outcomes when clinicians use HWDs for continuous patient vital sign monitoring. Read More

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Treatment of epilepsy for people with Alzheimer's disease.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 May 11;5:CD011922. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Geriatric Neurology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Any type of seizure can be observed in Alzheimer's disease. Antiepileptic drugs seem to prevent the recurrence of epileptic seizures in most people with Alzheimer's disease. There are pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for epilepsy in people with Alzheimer's disease, however there are no current systematic reviews to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of these treatments. Read More

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Clinical Decision Support Systems in Orthodontics: A Narrative Review of Data Science Approaches.

Orthod Craniofac Res 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.

Advancements in technology and data collection generated immense amounts of information from various sources such as health records, clinical examination, imaging, medical devices, as well as experimental and biological data. Proper management and analysis of these data via high-end computing solutions, artificial intelligence and machine learning approaches can assist in extracting meaningful information that enhances population health and well-being. Furthermore, the extracted knowledge can provide new avenues for modern healthcare delivery via clinical decision support systems. Read More

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Concordance Between Clinical and Pathological Response Assessment After Neo-Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients With Invasive Lobular Carcinoma.

Cureus 2021 Apr 7;13(4):e14341. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Radiology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, PAK.

Background Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is frequently administered in breast carcinoma patients. The clinical response to NAC guides further treatment. The pathological response is not only an independent prognostic factor, but it also guides further treatment and prognosis. Read More

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Development and Validation of Machine Learning Models to Predict Admission From Emergency Department to Inpatient and Intensive Care Units.

Ann Emerg Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC. Electronic address:

Study Objective: This study aimed to develop and validate 2 machine learning models that use historical and current-visit patient data from electronic health records to predict the probability of patient admission to either an inpatient unit or ICU at each hour (up to 24 hours) of an emergency department (ED) encounter. The secondary goal was to provide a framework for the operational implementation of these machine learning models.

Methods: Data were curated from 468,167 adult patient encounters in 3 EDs (1 academic and 2 community-based EDs) of a large academic health system from August 1, 2015, to October 31, 2018. Read More

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Risk of Infection after Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery with Externalization and Local-Field Potential Recordings: Twelve-Year Experience from a Single Institution.

Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2021 May 10:1-9. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neurology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Introduction: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been an established surgical procedure in the field of functional neurosurgery for many years. The experimental electrophysiological method of local field potential (LFP) recordings in postsurgically externalized patients has made substantial contributions to the better understanding of pathophysiologies underlying movement disorders. As interest in LFP recordings for the development of improved stimulation strategies increases, this study's aim was to provide evidence concerning safety of this research method, in a major DBS center. Read More

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Pneumonia severity indices predict prognosis in coronavirus disease-2019.

Respir Med Res 2021 Apr 27;79:100826. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey.

Background: Early recognition of the severe illness is critical in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) to provide best care and optimize the use of limited resources.

Objectives: We aimed to determine the predictive properties of common community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity scores and COVID-19 specific indices.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort, COVID-19 patients hospitalized in a teaching hospital between 18 March-20 May 2020 were included. Read More

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Artificial Intelligence for Adult Spinal Deformity: Current State and Future Directions.

Spine J 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

As we experience a technological revolution unlike any other time in history, neurosurgery as a discipline is poised to undergo a dramatic transformation. As enormous amounts of data become digitized and more readily available, medical professionals approach a critical juncture with respect to how advanced computational techniques may be incorporated into clinical practices. Within neurosurgery, spinal disorders in particular, represent a complex and heterogeneous disease entity that can vary dramatically in its clinical presentation and how it may impact patients' lives. Read More

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Public availability of results of ClinicalTrials.gov-registered expanded access studies.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Laboratory of Bacteriophages, Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla Str. 12, 53-114, Wrocław, Poland.

Aim: Expanded access is the use of investigational treatments outside of clinical trials. Results of expanded access studies provide insights into how investigational treatments work in real-world settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate public availability of results of expanded access studies. Read More

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HonestChain: Consortium blockchain for protected data sharing in health information systems.

Peer Peer Netw Appl 2021 May 3:1-17. Epub 2021 May 3.

University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO USA.

Healthcare innovations are increasingly becoming reliant on high variety and standards-compliant (e.g., HIPAA, common data model) distributed data sets that enable predictive analytics. Read More

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Blood pressure control in Australian general practice: analysis using general practice records of 1.2 million patients from the MedicineInsight database.

J Hypertens 2021 Jun;39(6):1134-1142

Discipline of General Practice, Adelaide Medical School, The University of Adelaide.

Introduction: Hypertension is mostly managed in primary care. This study investigated the prevalence of diagnosed hypertension in Australian general practice and whether hypertension control is influenced by sociodemographic characteristics, duration since diagnosis or prescription of antihypertensive medications.

Methods: Cross-sectional study using a large national database of electronic medical records of patients attending general practice in 2017 (MedicineInsight). Read More

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[Allogeneic transplantation for myelodysplastic syndromes: analyses of the Japanese registry data].

Authors:
Ken Ishiyama

Rinsho Ketsueki 2021 ;62(4):289-298

Department of Hematology, Kanazawa University Hospital.

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is characterized by its frequent appearance in elderly patients, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative therapy for MDS. However, the availability of HSCT depends on various factors, and it is possible that the HSCT outcomes may differ when compared on a country-by-country basis. Comparison of nationwide registry data from the US and Japan revealed that the two countries share a common trend of increasing the number of HSCT procedures from HLA-haploidentical relatives. Read More

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A descriptive study on reasons for prolonged hospital stay in a tertiary hospital in Singapore.

J Nurs Manag 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Nursing Division, Singapore General Hospital, 31 Third Hospital Avenue, Bowyer Block B, Level 2, 168753, Singapore.

Background: Our healthcare is facing with the challenges of bed crunch and increasing number of patients with prolonged hospital stay.

Aims: This study aimed to determine factors contributing to the prolonged hospital stay in a tertiary hospital in Singapore.

Methods: A random sample of 600 medical records of patients' staying in hospital for more than 21 days were retrieved. Read More

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Building the Sierra Leone Ebola Database: organization and characteristics of data systematically collected during 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic.

Ann Epidemiol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States.

Background: During the 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation (MoHS), the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and responding partners under the coordination of the National Ebola Response Center (NERC) and the MoHS's Emergency Operation Center (EOC) systematically recorded information from the 117 Call Center system and district alert phone lines, case investigations, laboratory sample testing, clinical management, and safe and dignified burial records. Since 2017, CDC assisted MoHS in building and managing the Sierra Leone Ebola Database (SLED) to consolidate these major data sources. The primary objectives of the project were helping families to identify the location of graves of their loved ones who died at the time of the Ebola epidemic through the SLED Family Reunification Program and creating a data source for epidemiological research. Read More

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Genus Triplaris (Polygonaceae): A review on traditional medicinal use, phytochemistry and biological activities.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 6:114188. Epub 2021 May 6.

Laboratório de Farmacognosia e Fitoterapia (LFF) - Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, PE, Brazil; Rede Nordeste de Biotecnologia (RENORBIO) - Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The genus Triplaris (Polygonaceae) comprises approximately 25 species distributed throughout South and Central America. Some species have been used in folk medicine, mainly, to treat malaria, leishmaniasis, diarrheia, dysenteria, pain and inflammation.

Aim Of The Study: The purpose of this review is to provide information on the traditional uses, phytochemistry and known biological activities of Triplaris, an important genus for South America research groups on medicinal plants, in order to explore its therapeutic potential to direct future research in the search for new bioactive molecules. Read More

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Assessing multiproxy approaches (Sr/Ca, U/Ca, Li/Mg, and B/Mg) to reconstruct sea surface temperature from coral skeletons throughout the Great Barrier Reef.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 29;786:147393. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB No 3, Townsville MC, Qld 4810, Australia.

Due to the increasing concerns of global warming and short instrumental records of sea surface temperature (SST), coral-based proxies, such as δO, Sr/Ca, U/Ca, and Li/Mg have been developed and applied to reconstruct SST in paleoclimate studies. However, these proxies are not universally applicable in different environments, because they are affected by coral physiology and various environmental factors. In this study, seven long-lived Porites corals were collected from the southern sector of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) off the coast of Gladstone and the central sector of the GBR within the Whitsunday Islands in 2017 and 2018. Read More

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Post-mortem persistence of SARS-CoV-2: a preliminary study.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Section of Legal Medicine, Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine, Bari Policlinico Hospital, University of Bari, 70124, Bari, Italy.

Since the beginning of March 2020, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has been the cause of millions of deaths worldwide. The need to better define the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 19 (Covid-19) as well as to provide the correct statistical records concerning deaths related to this virus, inevitably involves the role of forensic pathology and routine autopsy practice. Currently, some data on macroscopic and microscopic features in autopsies performed in suspected Covid-19 cases are reported in the literature. Read More

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Tuberculosis vaccine BCG: the magical effect of the old vaccine in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic.

Int Rev Immunol 2021 May 7:1-14. Epub 2021 May 7.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a live attenuated vaccine that was developed about 100 years ago by Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin. Many countries have been using the vaccine for decades against tuberculosis (TB). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a single dose of BCG for infants in TB endemic as well as leprosy high risk countries, and globally almost 130 million infants are vaccinated yearly. Read More

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Cleft Lip and/or Palate in Infants Prenatally Exposed to Opioids.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2021 May 7:10556656211013687. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA.

Objective: To determine the prevalence and odds ratios for cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) among infants prenatally exposed to opioids with or without neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS).

Design: This study represents an exploratory, retrospective cohort study design of newborn medical health records from 2011 to 2016.

Setting: Records were drawn from a regional health system located in South Central Appalachia. Read More

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Leprosy in Elderly and Children among New Cases - A 3-Year Retrospective Study.

Indian Dermatol Online J 2021 Mar-Apr;12(2):294-297. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Dermatology, Navodaya Medical College, Raichur, Karnataka, India.

Background: Leprosy occurs in all age groups, with adults constituting the majority. However, leprosy in children always drew the attention of epidemiologists as a guide to transmission of leprosy. With increasing life expectancy and decreasing prevalence of leprosy, there is going to be a significant rise of leprosy among elderly in India. Read More

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Actinomycetoma by : Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of 47 Cases.

Indian Dermatol Online J 2021 Mar-Apr;12(2):285-289. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Ecology of Pathogen Agents, Hospital Manuel Gea González, Mexico City, Mexico.

Context: Mycetoma is a chronic, granulomatous disease caused by fungi (eumycetoma) or aerobic filamentous actinomycetes (actinomycetoma). is one of the most frequent actinomycetes.

Aim: The study aims to provide an update on clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic, and outcome data for patients with actinomycetoma in a single center in Mexico. Read More

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February 2021

Threatened Neotropical seasonally dry tropical forest: evidence of biodiversity loss in sap-sucking herbivores over 75 years.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 10;8(3):201370. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Departamento de Botánica y Zoología, CUCBA, Universidad de Guadalajara, Km 15.5 carretera Guadalajara-Nogales, Camino Ramón Padilla Sánchez No. 2100, C.P. 45200, Apdo. Postal 139, Las Agujas, Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico.

Tropical forests cover 7% of the earth's surface and hold 50% of known terrestrial arthropod species. Alarming insect declines resulting from human activities have recently been documented in temperate and tropical ecosystems worldwide, but reliable data from tropical forests remain sparse. The sap-sucking tribe Athysanini is one herbivore group sensitive to anthropogenic perturbation and the largest within the diverse insect family Cicadellidae distributed in America's tropical forests. Read More

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Revision of the Afrotropical genus Zumpt, 1958, with notes on the morphology of Rhiniidae subfamilies (Diptera, Oestroidea).

Zookeys 2021 22;1033:127-157. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Alicante, Carretera San Vicente del Raspeig s/n, Aptdo 99 E-03080, San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante, Spain Universidad de Alicante Alicante Spain.

The taxonomy and diversity of Zumpt, 1958, an exclusive Afrotropical genus, had not been reviewed recently. The genus included six nominal species, but the status of several of them was debated. Identification of most species depends on characters of the male terminalia; females are poorly known and, in several cases, are not adequately diagnosed. Read More

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Investigation of the Amathillopsidae (Amphipoda, Crustacea), including the description of a new species, reveals a clinging lifestyle in the deep sea worldwide.

Zookeys 2021 14;1031:19-39. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK National Oceanography Centre Southampton United Kingdom.

Amathillopsidae is a widely distributed, but rarely sampled family of deep-sea amphipods. During a recent expedition to the North Atlantic, specimens were filmed clinging to a polychaete tube in situ at abyssal depths by a Remote Operated Vehicle and then sampled for further study. The species was new to science and is described in detail herein. Read More

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