47,161 results match your criteria receptors reproduction

Ligand Binding Prolongs Androgen Receptor Protein Half-Life by Reducing its Degradation.

J Endocr Soc 2021 May 5;5(5):bvab035. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.

Androgens are important in female reproduction, but the molecular actions of androgens in female reproductive tissues are not fully understood. We investigated the androgen-responsive transcriptome in human and mouse granulosa cells (GCs) and surprisingly found that the gene-regulation activity of androgen receptor (AR) in these cells is negligible. We then investigated extranuclear actions of AR and found that in human and mouse GCs, as well as in prostate cancer cells, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) dramatically increases the half-life of its own receptor protein. Read More

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Characterization of Nuclear Progesterone Receptor Isoforms in the Term Equine Placenta.

Front Vet Sci 2021 1;8:660177. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States.

In equine parturition, the role of progestins along with the nuclear progesterone receptor (nPR) signaling pathway in the placenta is not completely clarified. The progestins play an integral role in maintaining myometrial quiescence during the late stage of pregnancy via acting on nPR isoforms (PRA and PRB; PRB is more active than PRA). The current study aimed to determine the PRA and PRB expressions in the term equine placenta at the gene and protein levels. Read More

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Melatonin Modulates Lipid Metabolism in Porcine Cumulus-Oocyte Complex via Its Receptors.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 1;9:648209. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics Improvement, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China.

Lipid is a crucial energy resource for mammalian oocyte. Melatonin could benefit the maturation of porcine oocyte , but the related mechanism is not elucidated yet. In the current study, methods to monitor lipid metabolism in single live oocytes were firstly established using probes (Lipi-Blue and Lipi-Green). Read More

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Cloprostenol, a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin F2α induces functional regression in cultured luteal cells of felids†.

Biol Reprod 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Department of Reproduction Biology, 10315 Berlin, Germany.

In the present study, we investigated the effect of the synthetic analogue of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α)-cloprostenol-on cultured steroidogenic luteal cells of selected felid species over a two day culture period. The changes induced by cloprostenol were measured based on progesterone concentration and mRNA expression analysis of selected genes. Cloprostenol significantly reduced concentration of progesterone in cell culture medium of small luteal cells isolated from domestic cat corpora lutea (CL) at the development/maintenance stage (p < 0. Read More

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Molecular dissection of perithecial mating line development in , a species with a nontypical mating system featured by plus-to-minus switch and plus-minus mediated sexual enhancement.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas and College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province, 712100, China.

The genetic regulation of (Glomerella) sexual reproduction does not strictly adhere to the Ascomycota paradigm and remains poorly understood. Morphologically different but sexually compatible strain types termed 'plus' and 'minus' have been recognized but the biological and molecular distinctions between these strain types remain elusive. In this study, we characterized the sexual behaviors of a pair of plus and minus strains of with the aid of live cell nuclear-localized fluorescent protein labeling, gene expression and gene mutation analyses. Read More

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Juvenile hormone in spiders. Is this the solution to a mystery?

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 Apr 13:113781. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

University of Silesia in Katowice, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, Bankowa 9, 40007 Katowice, Poland.

The juvenile hormone (JH) plays a crucial role in arthropod physiological processes, e.g., the regulation of metamorphosis, development, and reproduction (the vitellogenesis, the development of gonads, egg production). Read More

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Transcription factors regulated by cAMP in smooth muscle of the myometrium at human parturition.

Biochem Soc Trans 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Division of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Imperial College London, London SW10 9NH, U.K.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) contributes to maintenance of a quiescent (relaxed) state in the myometrium (i.e. uterine smooth muscle) during pregnancy, which most commonly has been attributed to activation of protein kinase A (PKA). Read More

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Cannabidiol attenuates pulmonary arterial hypertension by improving vascular smooth muscle cells mitochondrial function.

Theranostics 2021 11;11(11):5267-5278. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic disease associated with enhanced proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and dysfunctional mitochondria, and the clinical therapeutic option for PAH is very limited. Recent studies showed that cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabinoids, possessed antioxidant effect towards several cardiovascular diseases, whereas the mechanistic effect of CBD in PAH is unknown. In this study, the effects of CBD in PAH were determined by analyzing its preventive and therapeutic actions in PAH rodent models in vivo and PASMCs' proliferation test in vitro. Read More

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Estrogen regulation of the molecular phenotype and active translatome of AVPV kisspeptin neurons.

Endocrinology 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Dept. of OBGYN and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

In females, ovarian estradiol (E2) exerts both negative and positive feedback regulation on the neural circuits governing reproductive hormone secretion, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this remain poorly understood. In rodents, ERα-expressing kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular region (AVPV) are prime candidates to mediate E2 positive feedback induction of preovulatory GnRH and LH surges. E2 stimulates AVPV Kiss1 expression, but the full extent of estrogen effects in these neurons is unknown; whether E2 stimulates or inhibits other genes in AVPV Kiss1 cells has not been determined. Read More

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In silico approach to understand the epigenetic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 and its impact on the environment.

Virusdisease 2021 Apr 5:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Computer Science, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 110025 India.

The novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has led to the apex pandemic in 2020, responsible for the recent sequential spread. The 2019-nCoV has been discerned to be a Beta-BAT-SARS-CoV-2 lineage. The gene ontology (GO) identifies the virus to be localized in the Golgi apparatus with a vital molecular function of and viral progression. Read More

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Genetic Association of Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphism with Milk Production Traits in Italian Mediterranean Buffalo.

Biomed Res Int 2021 18;2021:3653157. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China.

gene plays an important role in the activation of various important hormone receptors and transcriptional factors involved in the regulation of adaptive thermogenesis, gluconeogenesis, fiber-type switching in skeletal muscle, mitochondrial biogenesis, and adipogenesis, regulating the reproduction and proposed as a candidate gene for milk-related traits in cattle. This study identified polymorphisms in the gene in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes and their associations to milk production and quality traits (lactation length, peak milk yield, fat and protein yield, and percentage). As a result, a total of seven SNPs (g. Read More

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Research progress on the mechanism of orexin in pain regulation in different brain regions.

Open Life Sci 2021 20;16(1):46-52. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, No. 84 Huaihai West Road, Quanshan District, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province 221002, People's Republic of China.

Orexin is a neuropeptide that is primarily synthesized and secreted by the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and includes two substances derived from the same precursor (orexin A [OXA] and orexin B [OXB]). Studies have shown that orexin is not only involved in the regulation of eating, the sleep-wake cycle, and energy metabolism, but also closely associated with various physiological functions, such as cardiovascular control, reproduction, stress, reward, addiction, and the modulation of pain transmission. At present, studies that have been performed both domestically and abroad have confirmed that orexin and its receptors are closely associated with pain regulation. Read More

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January 2021

Possible Role of Activin in the Adiponectin Paradox-Induced Progress of Alzheimer's Disease.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Division of Neuroscience, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Accumulating evidence suggests that the adiponectin (APN) paradox might be involved in promoting aging-associated chronic diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In human brain, APN regulation of the evolvability of amyloidogenic proteins (APs), including amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau, in developmental/reproductive stages, might be paradoxically manifest as APN stimulation of AD through antagonistic pleiotropy in aging. The unique mechanisms underlying APN activity remain unclear, a better understanding of which might provide clues for AD therapy. Read More

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Interleukins as Mediators of the Tumor Cell-Bone Cell Crosstalk during the Initiation of Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 12;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Molecular Skeletal Biology Laboratory, Department of Trauma and Orthopedic Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

Patients with advanced breast cancer are at high risk of developing bone metastasis. Despite treatment advances for primary breast cancer, metastatic bone disease remains incurable with a low relative survival. Hence, new therapeutic approaches are required to improve survival and treatment outcome for these patients. Read More

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Analysis of PI3K Pathway Associated Molecules Reveals Dysregulated Innate and Adaptive Functions of B Cells in Early Diffuse Cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 12;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Clinical Center, Department of Immunology and Biotechnology, University of Pécs Medical School, H-7624 Pécs, Hungary.

B cell activation is an early event in the development of systemic sclerosis (SSc). The classical activation of B cells downstream of the B-cell receptor (BCR) involves the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway that integrates the effects of multiple co-stimulatory receptors. Our analysis of PI3K pathway associated molecules in peripheral blood B cells of early diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc) patients showed altered mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) homolog CD180, TLR4, complement component 3, IL-4 receptor and secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1). Read More

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Androgen and Estrogen Receptor Expression in Different Types of Perianal Gland Tumors in Male Dogs.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 19;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department and Clinic of Animal Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 20-612 Lublin, Poland.

Perianal gland tumors are modified sebaceous glands present in the skin of the perianal region in the dog. Hormonal stimulation may induce hyperplasia of the perianal glands or their neoplastic progression. The presence of androgen (AR) and estrogen (ER) receptors have been demonstrated both in normal perianal glands as well as in perianal tumors. Read More

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Post-Transcriptional Regulation of : A Checkpoint for Metabolic Control of Female Reproduction.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 24;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA.

The proper expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRHRs) by pituitary gonadotropes is critical for maintaining maximum reproductive capacity. GnRH receptor expression must be tightly regulated in order to maintain the normal pattern of expression through the estrous cycle in rodents, which is believed to be important for interpreting the finely tuned pulses of GnRH from the hypothalamus. Much work has shown that expression is heavily regulated at the level of transcription. Read More

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Cannabinoid Signalling in Immune-Reproductive Crosstalk during Human Pregnancy.

Biomedicines 2021 Mar 7;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Department of Pediatrics and the Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5, Canada.

Despite the intricate involvement of the endocannabinoid system in various physiological processes, it remains one of the most under-studied biological systems of the human body. The scope of endocannabinoid signalling is widespread, ranging from modulation of immune responses in innate and adaptive immunity to gestational processes in female physiology. Cannabinoid receptors are ubiquitously distributed in reproductive tissues and are thought to play a role in regulating the immune-reproductive interactions required for successful pregnancy, specifically among uterine natural killer cells and placental extravillous trophoblasts. Read More

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A novel role for milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 protein (MFGE8) in the mediation of mouse sperm-extracellular vesicle interactions.

Proteomics 2021 Mar 31:e2000079. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Priority Research Centre for Reproductive Science, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, Discipline of Biological Sciences, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.

Spermatozoa transition to functional maturity as they are conveyed through the epididymis, a highly specialized region of the male excurrent duct system. Owing to their transcriptionally and translationally inert state, this transformation into fertilization competent cells is driven by complex mechanisms of intercellular communication with the secretory epithelium that delineates the epididymal tubule. Chief among these mechanisms are the release of extracellular vesicles (EV), which have been implicated in the exchange of varied macromolecular cargo with spermatozoa. Read More

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[Activation Mechanism of Prostanoid Receptors -X-ray Crystallography of EP3 Receptor].

Kazushi Morimoto

Yakugaku Zasshi 2021 ;141(4):473-479

Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University.

Prostanoids [prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxanes (TXs)] are a series of bioactive lipid metabolites that function in an autacoid manner via activation of cognate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The nine subtypes of prostanoid receptors (DP1, DP2, EP1, EP2, EP3, EP4, FP, IP, TP) are involved in a wide range of functions, including inflammation, immune response, reproduction, and homeostasis of the intestinal mucosa and cardiovascular system. Among the prostanoid receptors, the structure of antagonist-bound DP2, which belongs to the chemoattractant receptor family, was previously determined. Read More

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January 2021

Male pheromones modulate synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction in a sexually dimorphic manner.

Elife 2021 Mar 31;10. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, China.

The development of functional synapses in the nervous system is important for animal physiology and behaviors, and its disturbance has been linked with many neurodevelopmental disorders. The synaptic transmission efficacy can be modulated by the environment to accommodate external changes, which is crucial for animal reproduction and survival. However, the underlying plasticity of synaptic transmission remains poorly understood. Read More

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NKG2D as a Cell Surface Marker on γδ-T Cells for Predicting Pregnancy Outcomes in Patients With Unexplained Repeated Implantation Failure.

Front Immunol 2021 10;12:631077. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Maternal immune tolerance to semi-allogeneic fetus is essential for a successful implantation and pregnancy. Growing evidence indicated that low cytotoxic activity of γδ-T cells, which is mediated by activation and inhibitory receptors, is important for establishment of maternal immune tolerant microenvironment. However, the correlation between receptors on peripheral blood γδ-T cells, such as NKG2D, CD158a, and CD158b, and pregnancy outcome in patients with unexplained repeated implantation failure (uRIF) remains unclear. Read More

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Management strategies and clinical follow-up of pregnant women with intracranial meningioma.

J Med Life 2021 Jan-Mar;14(1):2-6

Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Clinical Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology "Filantropia", Bucharest, Romania.

Meningiomas are common primary tumors of the central nervous system. The incidence at the age of fertility is low, although there are some hormonal mechanisms involved. Growth in size was observed during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, which could lead to developing new symptoms during pregnancy or worsening of the already existing ones. Read More

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The molecular assembly of the marsupial γμ T cell receptor defines a third T cell lineage.

Science 2021 03;371(6536):1383-1388

Infection and Immunity Program and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

αβ and γδ T cell receptors (TCRs) are highly diverse antigen receptors that define two evolutionarily conserved T cell lineages. We describe a population of γμTCRs found exclusively in non-eutherian mammals that consist of a two-domain (Vγ-Cγ) γ-chain paired to a three-domain (Vμ-Vμj-Cμ) μ-chain. γμTCRs were characterized by restricted diversity in the Vγ and Vμj domains and a highly diverse unpaired Vμ domain. Read More

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Unusual T cell receptor in opossum.

Science 2021 03;371(6536):1308-1309

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

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REV-ERB in GABAergic neurons controls diurnal hepatic insulin sensitivity.

Nature 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Systemic insulin sensitivity shows a diurnal rhythm with a peak upon waking. The molecular mechanism that underlies this temporal pattern is unclear. Here we show that the nuclear receptors REV-ERB-α and REV-ERB-β (referred to here as 'REV-ERB') in the GABAergic (γ-aminobutyric acid-producing) neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) (SCN neurons) control the diurnal rhythm of insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production in mice, without affecting diurnal eating or locomotor behaviours during regular light-dark cycles. Read More

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Estrogen receptor beta and neural development.

Vitam Horm 2021 9;116:313-326. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, University of Houston, Houston, TX, United States.

The female sex hormone estradiol (E2, 17β-estradiol) has important functions in the developing brain. In addition to regulating sexual differentiation of the brain, E2 participates in the development of brain areas involved in functions unrelated to reproduction, such as cognition. E2 signals mainly thorough two estrogen receptors; estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ). Read More

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Equine early pregnancy endocrine profiles and ipsilateral endometrial immune cell, gene expression and protein localisation response.

Reprod Fertil Dev 2021 Apr;33(6):410-426

Laboratory of Animal Endocrinology and Metabolism, Veterinary Faculty, Montevideo, Uruguay.

We investigated the early effects of the equine embryo on maternal serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), leptin and adiponectin, uterine immune cells and genes and proteins related to embryo development and the maintenance of pregnancy. Ipsilateral endometrial expression was assessed on Days 7 and 13 after ovulation for the following transcripts: oestrogen receptor ERα (ESR1), progesterone receptor (PGR), progestin and adipoQ receptor family member 5 (PAQR5), oxytocin receptor (OXTR), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), raf-1 proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (RAF1), p21-activated kinase 6 (PAK6), fibroblast growth factor family member 9 (FGF9), IGF1 and its receptor (IGF1R), mucin 1 (MUC1), osteopontin (OPN), leptin receptor (LEPR) and adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2). Ipsilateral endometrial immunological cell infiltration and immunohistochemical protein localisation were evaluated on Days 7, 10 and 13 after ovulation for ERα, PGR, OXTR, PTGS2, IGF1, IGF1R, IGF2 and MUC1. Read More

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Genetic variations in the human immune system influence susceptibility to tegumentary leishmaniasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2021 Apr 20:1-25. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Clinical Analysis and Biomedicine- Laboratory of Leishmaniasis, Universidade Estadual De Maringá, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil.

Objectives: The outcomes of tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) rely on a complex interaction between the host immune system and the parasite. This study assessed the influence of polymorphisms in immune-related genes on TL.

Methods: Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and Embase databases were searched systemically. Read More

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Role of the HLA-G immune checkpoint molecule in pregnancy.

Hum Immunol 2021 May 19;82(5):353-361. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

CEA, DRF-Institut de Biologie François Jacob, Service de Recherches en Hémato-Immunologie, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, France; U976 HIPI Unit, IRSL, Université Paris, Paris, France. Electronic address:

The non-classical HLA class I molecule HLA-G is expressed in trophoblasts where it contributes to maternal-fetal tolerance. HLA-G has been implicated in the control of trophoblast invasion, uterine vascular remodeling, and maintenance of a local immunosuppressive state. Understanding HLA-G biology at the maternal-fetal interface is therefore a critical issue in reproduction. Read More

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