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COVID-19 Preventive Behaviours in Cameroon: A Six-Month Online National Survey.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 4;18(5). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Brain Research Africa Initiative (BRAIN), Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Since March 2020, the Cameroonian government implemented nationwide measures to stall COVID-19 transmission. However, little is known about how well these unprecedented measures are being observed as the pandemic evolves. We conducted a six-month online survey to assess the preventive behaviour of Cameroonian adults during the COVID-19 outbreak. Read More

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Characteristics and Behaviors Associated with Prevalent SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Int J Gen Med 2021 25;14:1063-1067. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Division of Cardiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), has been a serious threat to global health. Previous work has focused primarily on hospitalized patients or on identifying risk factors for disease severity and mortality once the infection has taken place. We sought to leverage the ubiquity of smartphones and mobile applications to study risk factors for Covid-19 infection in a large, geographically heterogenous cohort. Read More

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A Case Report of Acquired Haemophilia following COVID-19 Vaccine.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, King AbdulAziz University Hospital, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Acquires haemophilia A (AHA) is rare bleeding condition commonly associated with malignancy, autoimmune disease, or pregnancy. We report a case of a 69-year-old gentleman who developed bleeding symptoms after receiving COVID-19 vaccine. Laboratory testing showed isolated prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time, and normal Von-Willebrand factor. Read More

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Burden of noninfluenza respiratory viral infections in adults admitted to hospital: analysis of a multiyear Canadian surveillance cohort from 2 centres.

CMAJ 2021 Mar;193(13):E439-E446

Division of Infectious Disease (Lee, Smith, Zapernick, Taylor), Department of Medicine, and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (Zelyas, Tipples), and Division of Nephrology (Klarenbach, So), Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta.; Sunnybrook Research Institute (Bekking, Yip, Mubareka); Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology (Mubareka), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.

Background: Data on the outcomes of noninfluenza respiratory virus (NIRV) infections among hospitalized adults are lacking. We aimed to study the burden, severity and outcomes of NIRV infections in this population.

Methods: We analyzed pooled patient data from 2 hospital-based respiratory virus surveillance cohorts in 2 regions of Canada during 3 consecutive seasons (2015/16, 2016/17, 2017/18; = 2119). Read More

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Examining the association of medical-dental integration with closure of medical care gaps among the elderly population.

J Am Dent Assoc 2021 Apr;152(4):302-308

Background: The integration of medical and dental care in the dental setting offers a unique opportunity to close medical care gaps, such as providing immunizations and laboratory-based tests, compared with traditional nonintegrated settings.

Methods: We used a matched cohort study design among patients 65 years or older (n = 2,578) with an index dental visit to the Kaiser Permanente Northwest medical-dental integration (MDI) program from June 1, 2018, through December 31, 2019. MDI patients were matched 1:1 to non-MDI controls (n = 2,578) on 14 characteristics. Read More

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COVID-19 vaccine intentions in the United States, a social-ecological framework.

Vaccine 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, United States.

Background: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is a major obstacle for pandemic mitigation. As vaccine hesitancy occurs along multiple dimensions, we used a social-ecological framework to guide the examination of COVID-19 vaccine intentions.

Methods: Using an online survey in the US conducted in July 2020, we examined intentions to obtain a COVID-19 vaccine, once available. Read More

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Tralokinumab Does Not Impact Vaccine-induced Immune Responses: Results From a 30-week, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial in Adults With Moderate-to-severe Atopic Dermatitis.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Division of Dermatology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Interleukin (IL)-13, a type 2 cytokine, is key in AD inflammation. Tralokinumab is a first-in-class, fully human, monoclonal antibody that specifically binds with high affinity and neutralizes IL-13 in AD. Read More

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AS03-adjuvanted H7N9 inactivated split virion vaccines induce cross-reactive and protective responses in ferrets.

NPJ Vaccines 2021 Mar 19;6(1):40. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

GSK, Laval, QC, Canada.

Human infections with avian H7N9 subtype influenza viruses are a major public health concern and vaccines against H7N9 are urgently needed for pandemic preparedness. In early 2013, novel H7N9 influenza viruses emerged in China that caused about 1600 human cases of infection with a high associated case fatality rate. In this study, two H7N9 split virion vaccines with or without AS03 adjuvant were tested in the naive ferret model. Read More

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Efficacy of one time per day, single-inhaler indacaterol/glycopyrronium/mometasone in patients with inadequately controlled asthma: post hoc analysis of IRIDIUM study in Asian population.

BMJ Open Respir Res 2021 Mar;8(1)

Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Background And Objective: The 52-week IRIDIUM study demonstrated the efficacy of indacaterol acetate/glycopyrronium bromide/mometasone furoate (IND/GLY/MF) versus IND/MF and salmeterol xinafoate/fluticasone propionate (SAL/FLU) in patients with symptomatic asthma, despite long-acting β-agonist/inhaled corticosteroids (LABA/ICS) medium-dose or high-dose, predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV) <80% and at least one exacerbation in the previous year. Here, we present data from a post hoc analysis of the IRIDIUM study in the Asian subpopulation.

Methods: This post hoc analysis evaluated improvements in lung function, asthma control and reduction in asthma exacerbations with IND/GLY/MF medium- (150/50/80 µg) and high-dose (150/50/160 µg) versus IND/MF medium- (150/160 µg) and high-dose (150/320 µg), all one time per day and SAL/FLU high-dose (50/500 µg) two times per day, in Asian patients from the IRIDIUM study. Read More

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Understanding the Influence of Individual and Systemic Factors on Vaccination Take-Up in European Citizens Aged 55 or Older.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Feb 17;9(2). Epub 2021 Feb 17.

RWI-Leibniz Institute for Economic Research, 45128 Essen, Germany.

High vaccination coverage provides extensive public health benefits. Hence, increasing vaccination rates is an important policy goal within the EU and worldwide. We aim to evaluate individual and systemic parameters associated with vaccination in European Union citizens aged 55 or older, using data from the Special Eurobarometer 488. Read More

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February 2021

Attitudes towards Anti-SARS-CoV2 Vaccination among Healthcare Workers: Results from a National Survey in Italy.

Viruses 2021 02 26;13(3). Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, 00168 Rome, Italy.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has afflicted tens of millions of people, fostering and unprecedent effort in vaccine development and distribution. Healthcare workers (HCW) play a key role in vaccine promotion and patient guidance, and it is likely that hesitancy among this population will have a major impact on the adoption of a successful immunization policy. To investigate HCW attitudes towards anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) vaccination, we developed an anonymous online cross-sectional survey. Read More

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February 2021

Highly pathogenic avian influenza A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016 is immunogenic and induces cross-protection against antigenically divergent H7N9 viruses.

NPJ Vaccines 2021 Feb 26;6(1):30. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Laboratory of Pediatric and Respiratory Viral Diseases, Division of Viral Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, United States Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Avian influenza A(H7N9) epidemics have a fatality rate of approximately 40%. Previous studies reported that low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI)-derived candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs) are poorly immunogenic. Here, we assess the immunogenicity and efficacy of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016 (GD/16)-extracted hemagglutinin (eHA) vaccine. Read More

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February 2021

Keeping an Eye on Bisphosphonate Therapy in Myeloma: A Case Report of Ocular Inflammation Postzoledronic Acid Infusion.

Case Rep Hematol 2021 13;2021:6647277. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Haematology Department, University Hospital Galway, Galway, Ireland.

Bisphosphonates have evolved over the past decades from oral to more potent intravenous preparations. Along with significant paradigm shift in the management of myeloma over the past years, stronger nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates, due to their antiresorptive action on the bones, have found their way as a key and integral part in the management of bone disease in myeloma. Multiple randomized controlled trials have established efficacy of bisphosphonates in reducing skeletal-related events in myeloma. Read More

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February 2021

The effects of Medicaid on access to care and adherence to recommended preventive services.

Health Serv Res 2021 Feb 8;56(1):84-94. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Division of Research & Modeling, Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Objective: To quantify the impact of Medicaid enrollment on access to care and adherence to recommended preventive services.

Data Source: 2005-2015 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component.

Study Design: We examined several access measures and utilization of several preventive services within the past year and within the time frame recommended by the United States Preventive Services Task Force, if more than a year. Read More

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February 2021

Systematic Evaluation of Kinetics and Distribution of Muscle and Lymph Node Activation Measured by F-FDG- and C-PBR28-PET/CT Imaging, and Whole Blood and Muscle Transcriptomics After Immunization of Healthy Humans With Adjuvanted and Unadjuvanted Vaccines.

Front Immunol 2020 5;11:613496. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Imperial Clinical Research Facility (NICRF), Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom.

Systems vaccinology has been applied to detect signatures of human vaccine induced immunity but its ability, together with high definition clinical imaging is not established to predict vaccine reactogenicity. Within two European Commission funded high impact programs, BIOVACSAFE and ADITEC, we applied high resolution positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanning using tissue-specific and non-specific radioligands together with transcriptomic analysis of muscle biopsies in a clinical model systematically and prospectively comparing vaccine-induced immune/inflammatory responses. 109 male participants received a single immunization with licensed preparations of either AS04-adjuvanted hepatitis B virus vaccine (AHBVV); MF59C-adjuvanted (ATIV) or unadjuvanted seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (STIV); or alum-OMV-meningococcal B protein vaccine (4CMenB), followed by a PET/CT scan (n = 54) or an injection site muscle biopsy (n = 45). Read More

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February 2021

Self-Amplifying Pestivirus Replicon RNA Encoding Influenza Virus Nucleoprotein and Hemagglutinin Promote Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses in Pigs.

Front Immunol 2020 28;11:622385. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

The Institute of Virology and Immunology IVI, Mittelhäusern, Switzerland.

Self-amplifying replicon RNA (RepRNA) promotes expansion of mRNA templates encoding genes of interest through their replicative nature, thus providing increased antigen payloads. RepRNA derived from the non-cytopathogenic classical swine fever virus (CSFV) targets monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs), potentially promoting prolonged antigen expression in the DCs, contrasting with cytopathogenic RepRNA. We engineered pestivirus RepRNA constructs encoding influenza virus H5N1 (A/chicken/Yamaguchi/7/2004) nucleoprotein (Rep-NP) or hemagglutinin (Rep-HA). Read More

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February 2021

Association of α1-Blocker Receipt With 30-Day Mortality and Risk of Intensive Care Unit Admission Among Adults Hospitalized With Influenza or Pneumonia in Denmark.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 02 1;4(2):e2037053. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Importance: Alpha 1-adrenergic receptor blocking agents (α1-blockers) have been reported to have protective benefits against hyperinflammation and cytokine storm syndrome, conditions that are associated with mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and other severe respiratory tract infections. However, studies of the association of α1-blockers with outcomes among human participants with respiratory tract infections are scarce.

Objective: To examine the association between the receipt of α1-blockers and outcomes among adult patients hospitalized with influenza or pneumonia. Read More

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February 2021

The adverse effects of bisphosphonates in breast cancer: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(2):e0246441. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Pure Mathematics & Mathematical Statistics, Winton Centre for Risk & Evidence Communication, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: Bisphosphonate drugs can be used to improve the outcomes of women with breast cancer. Whilst many meta-analyses have quantified their potential benefits for patients, attempts at comprehensive quantification of potential adverse effects have been limited. We undertook a meta-analysis with novel methodology to identify and quantify these adverse effects. Read More

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February 2021

Adherence to COVID-19 Preventive Measures in Mozambique: Two Consecutive Online Surveys.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 01 26;18(3). Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, 2000 Antwerp, Belgium.

We assessed adherence to government recommendations implemented shortly after the introduction of COVID-19 in Mozambique in March 2020, through two online cross-sectional surveys in April and June 2020. We quantified adherence to preventive measures by a composite score comprising of five measures: physical distancing, face mask use, hand hygiene, cough hygiene, and avoidance of touching the face. 3770 and 1115 persons participated in the first and second round respectively. Read More

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January 2021

Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation with Reduced Intensity Conditioning Using Fludarabine/Busulfan or Fludarabine/Melphalan for Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases.

J Clin Immunol 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Pediatrics and Developmental Biology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: The purpose of our study was to compare the safety and efficacy of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) using fludarabine (Flu)-based reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) with busulfan (BU) or melphalan (Mel) for primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID).

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed transplant outcome, including engraftment, chimerism, immune reconstitution, and complications in 15 patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and 27 patients with non-SCID PID. The patients underwent Flu-based RIC-HCT with BU (FluBU: 7 SCID, 16 non-SCID) or Mel (FluMel: 8 SCID, 11 non-SCID). Read More

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February 2021

A pneumococcal pneumonia and influenza vaccination quality improvement program for women receiving chemotherapy for gynecologic cancers at a major tertiary cancer Centre.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 04 29;161(1):236-243. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, McMaster University, Juravinski Hospital & Cancer Centre, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Objective: International guidelines recommend pneumococcal pneumonia and influenza vaccination for all patients with solid organ malignancies prior to initiating chemotherapy. Baseline vaccination rates (March 2019) for pneumococcal pneumonia and influenza at our tertiary cancer centre were 8% and 40%, respectively. The aim of this study was to increase the number of gynecologic chemotherapy patients receiving pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations to 80% by March 2020. Read More

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Influenza and Influenza Vaccine: A Review.

J Midwifery Womens Health 2021 01 1;66(1):45-53. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Family Nurse Practitioner Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Influenza is a highly contagious, deadly virus, killing nearly half a million people yearly worldwide. The classic symptoms of influenza are fever, fatigue, cough, and body aches. In the outpatient setting, diagnosis can be made by clinical presentation with optional confirmatory diagnostic testing. Read More

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January 2021

Xofluza Now Indicated to Prevent Influenza.

Am J Nurs 2021 02;121(2):26-27

Diane S. Aschenbrenner is an assistant professor at Notre Dame of Maryland University in Baltimore. She also coordinates Drug Watch:

Baloxavir marboxil (Xofluza), an antiviral flu treatment, has now been approved to prevent influenza.Patients should avoid taking calcium, aluminum, or magnesium products while receiving baloxavir as this will lead to a loss of antiviral efficacy. Read More

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February 2021

COVID-19: Before the Fall, An Evidence-Based Narrative Review of Treatment Options.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Mar 25;10(1):93-113. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Anti-Infective Research Laboratory, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has quickly become one of the most dire international pandemic crises since the 1918 Spanish flu. Evidence for COVID-19 pharmacological therapies has shown rapid growth and a diverse array of results, but an assessment of the value of each piece of evidence must be reinforced. This article aims to review utilized therapies, the evidence level supporting these therapies, as well as drugs under investigation for the treatment of COVID-19. Read More

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Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Copper oxide Nanoparticles in chickens.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Jan 23. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Pathology Department, Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) are consciously used to control the growth of bacteria, fungi, and algae. Several studies documented the beneficial and hazardous effects of CuO-NPs on human cells and different experimental animals but there are not many studies that report the effect of CuO-NPs in poultry. Therefore, the present study was performed to investigate the dose-dependent effects of copper oxide nanoparticles on the growth performance, immune status, oxidant/antioxidant capacity, DNA status, and histological structures of most edible parts of broiler chickens (muscle, heart, liver, spleen, and kidneys). Read More

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January 2021

Transcriptomic similarities and differences in host response between SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infections.

iScience 2021 Jan 16;24(1):101947. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Inflammatix, Inc., 863 Mitten Road, Suite 104, Burlingame, CA 94010, USA.

The pandemic 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) shares certain clinical characteristics with other acute viral infections. We studied the whole-blood transcriptomic host response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using RNAseq from 24 healthy controls and 62 prospectively enrolled patients with COVID-19. We then compared these data to non-COVID-19 viral infections, curated from 23 independent studies profiling 1,855 blood samples covering six viruses (influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1), Ebola, dengue). Read More

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January 2021

Safety of Biological Therapy in Children With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2021 Jan 6;Publish Ahead of Print. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Pediatric Gastroenterology and Liver Unit, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Objectives: Retrospective, observational, single-center, cohort study investigating the safety profile of biological therapy in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Methods: Retrospective, observational, cohort study of pediatric patients with IBD, receiving infliximab, adalimumab, vedolizumab, or ustekinumab for at least 2 months. Data related to the immediate and delayed adverse events (AEs) were collected, focusing on the reaction type and severity, the time of onset, the outcome and the temporary or definitive therapy discontinuation secondary to the AE. Read More

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January 2021

Relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the incidence of ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections: a European multicenter cohort study.

Intensive Care Med 2021 02 3;47(2):188-198. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

CHU de Lille, Médecine Intensive-Réanimation, 59000, Lille, France.

Purpose: Although patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection have several risk factors for ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections (VA-LRTI), the reported incidence of hospital-acquired infections is low. We aimed to determine the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, as compared to influenza pneumonia or no viral infection, and the incidence of VA-LRTI.

Methods: Multicenter retrospective European cohort performed in 36 ICUs. Read More

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February 2021

Association between seasonal flu vaccination and COVID-19 among healthcare workers.

Occup Med (Lond) 2020 12;70(9):665-671

School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy.

Background: In next fall and winter, SARS-CoV-2 could circulate in parallel with seasonal influenza. The dual epidemics will result in considerable morbidity and mortality; therefore, influenza vaccination may be essential. Recent studies found increased risk of coronavirus in individuals receiving influenza vaccination. Read More

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December 2020