7,163 results match your criteria reactor temperature

Recovery of methane dissolved in the effluent of a novel Upflow Anaerobic Hybrid Reactor (UAHB) submitted to temperature variation.

Environ Technol 2021 Jul 30:1-33. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

The Federal University of Technology - Paraná (UTFPR), Chemistry and Biology Academic Department, Deputado Heitor de Alencar Furtado St., 5000, Ecoville, 81280-340, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

Recent studies point out losses of 30-40% of the produced methane in the effluent of anaerobic reactors treating sewage, reducing the renewable energy potential and the environmental footprint. A novel bench-scale upflow anaerobic hybrid (UAHB) reactor combining a sludge blanket at the bottom and a filter media at the top, both with three-phase separators, was proposed to evaluate the recovery of dissolved methane. UAHB was operated with volumetric organic loading rate of 1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of Au/γ-AlO nanocatalyst for plasma-catalytic decomposition of toluene.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 10;285:131474. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

School of Environmental and Safety Engineering, Changzhou University, Jiangsu, 213164, China; Advanced Plasma Catalysis Engineering Laboratory for China Petrochemical Industry, Changzhou University, Jiangsu, 213164, China; School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Zhejiang, 310018, China. Electronic address:

The emission of toluene into the atmosphere can seriously affect the environmental quality and endanger human health. A dielectric barrier discharge reactor filled with a small amount of Au nanocatalysts was used to decompose toluene in He and O gases mixtures at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Normally, the oxidation of toluene using Au nanocatalysts suffers from low reaction activity and facile catalyst deactivation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Solid state anaerobic digestion of food waste and sewage sludge: Impact of mixing ratios and temperature on microbial diversity, reactor stability and methane yield.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 22;793:148586. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Bioengineering and Environmental Sciences (BEES) Group, Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering (DEEE), CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Tarnaka, Hyderabad 500007, India; Academy of Scientific and Industrial Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad - 201002, India. Electronic address:

Food waste (FW) and sewage sludge (SS) were anaerobically co digested under solid state conditions (Total solids >15%) and observed that mixing ratio of 3:1 and 2:1 is optimum for mesophilic and thermophilic conditions respectively. The VS reduction and methane yield at optimized ratio was 76% and 0.35 L CH/(g VS reduced) respectively at mesophilic temperature whereas it was 88% and 0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Robustness of mainstream anammox activity at bench and pilot scale.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 8;796:148920. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland.

New technologies and processes, such as mainstream anammox, aim to reduce energy requirements of wastewater treatment and improve effluent quality. However, in municipal wastewater (MWW) anammox system are often unstable due to process control disturbance, influent variability, or unwanted nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). This study examines the anammox system by focusing on anammox activity and its robustness in a mainstream environment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Achieving stable nitrogen removal performance of mainstream PN-ANAMMOX by combining high-temperature shock for selective recovery of AOB activity.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 22;794:148582. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280 Daehak-Ro, Gyeongsan-Si, Gyeongbuk 38541, South Korea. Electronic address:

This paper describes the new concept of the mainstream partial nitritation (PN)-anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) combined with a high-temperature shock strategy for the selective recovery of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) activity. In the preliminary test, the temperature shock condition for PN was optimized (60 °C and > 20 min). Based on this, the implementation strategy in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system was studied further, and the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/sodium alginate carrier exposure ratio (ER) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration were considered as primary variables. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Process intensification of the ionoSolv pretreatment: effects of biomass loading, particle size and scale-up from 10 mL to 1 L.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 28;11(1):15383. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London, SW7 2AZ, UK.

The ionoSolv process is one of the most promising technologies for biomass pretreatment in a biorefinery context. In order to evaluate the transition of the ionoSolv pretreatment of biomass from bench-scale experiments to commercial scale, there is a need to get better insight in process intensification. In this work, the effects of biomass loading, particle size, pulp washing protocols and 100-fold scale up for the pretreatment of the grassy biomass Miscanthus giganteus with the IL triethylammonium hydrogen sulfate, [TEA][HSO], are presented as a necessary step in that direction. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

High-rate nitrogen removal in a continuous biofilter anammox reactor for treating low-concentration nitrogen wastewater at moderate temperature.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Oct 4;337:125496. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Power China-Northwest Engineering Corporation Limited, Xi'an 710065, People's Republic of China.

The high-rate nitrogen removal in a continuous biofilter anammox reactor (CBAR) was investigated to treat low-concentration nitrogen wastewater. Shortening hydraulic retention time (HRT) gradually could restart CBAR and accumulate anammox bacteria effectively in the reactor, where the carmine anammox granular sludge and biofilm were coexisted well. It spent 21 days to restart CBAR completely after it had been idle for 116 days. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

The effects of magnetite on anammox performance: Phenomena to mechanisms.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Oct 26;337:125470. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036, China.

Low temperature is adverse to anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) reaction while proper Fe addition can enhance anammox performance. Therefore, batch assays were conducted to investigate the potential effects of magnetite (100 μm, 20 μm and 200 nm) on anammox performance which were achieved from the reactor operated at 10-25 °C. After 3 runs, the results indicated that nano-scale magnetite improved the nitrogen elimination significantly. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Continuous Clarification of Barberry Juice with Pectinase Immobilised by Oxidized Polysaccharides.

Food Technol Biotechnol 2021 Jun;59(2):174-184

Bioprocessing and Biodetection Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Engineering, University of Tehran, 31587-77871 Karaj, Iran.

Research Background: Barberry juice is a rich source of bioactive compounds and shows different health properties such as antioxidant and anticancer activities. Clarification, as the removal process of suspended material, is an important step in the production of fruit juice due to its significant effect on the appearance, flavour and commercialisation of juice. Pectinase is the most important enzyme applied in juice clarification that breaks down the pectin polymer structure and reduces the undesirable turbidity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Facile Synthesis of Platinum Right Bipyramids by Separating and Controlling the Nucleation Step in a Continuous Flow System.

Chemistry 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Georgia Institute of Technology, College of Sciences, North Avenue, MoSE 3100J, 30332, Atlanta, UNITED STATES.

Colloidal synthesis of metal nanocrystals with controlled shapes and internal structures calls for a tight control over both the nucleation and growth processes. Here we report a method for the facile synthesis of Pt right bipyramids (RBPs) by separating nucleation from growth and controlling the nucleation step in a continuous flow reactor. Specifically, homogeneous nucleation was thermally triggered by introducing the reaction solution into a tubular flow reactor held at an elevated temperature to generate singly-twinned seeds. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Surface oxidation-induced restructuring of liquid Pd-Ga SCALMS model catalysts.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II, Egerlandstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen, Germany.

We have examined model systems for the recently reported Pd-Ga Supported Catalytically Active Liquid Metal Solutions (SCALMS) catalysts using near-ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) under oxidizing conditions. Gallium is known to be highly prone to oxidation and in practical applications, handling of the catalyst material in air or the presence of traces of oxygen in the reactor are unavoidable. Therefore, we expect our results to be of high relevance for the application of Ga-based SCALMS catalysts. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Reaction Rate Coefficient of OH Radicals with -Butanol as a Function of Temperature.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 8;6(28):18123-18134. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

IMT Lille Douai, Univ. Lille, SAGE, Lille F-59000, France.

-Butanol or 1-butan- -ol (D9B) is often used as an OH radical tracer in atmospheric chemistry studies to determine OH exposure, a useful universal metric that describes the extent of OH radical oxidation chemistry. Despite its frequent application, there is only one study that reports the rate coefficient of D9B with OH radicals, (295 K), which limits its usefulness as an OH tracer for studying processes at temperatures lower or higher than room temperature. In this study, two complementary experimental techniques were used to measure the rate coefficient of D9B with OH radicals, (), at temperatures between 240 and 750 K and at pressures within 2-760 Torr. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Switchable Polymerization Catalysis Using a Tin(II) Catalyst and Commercial Monomers to Toughen Poly(l-lactide).

ACS Macro Lett 2021 Jul 8;10(7):774-779. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, 12 Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA, U.K.

Sustainable plastics sourced without virgin petrochemicals, that are easily recyclable and with potential for degradation at end of life, are urgently needed. Here, copolymersand blends meeting these criteria are efficiently prepared using a single catalyst and existing commercial monomers l-lactide, propylene oxide, and maleic anhydride. The selective, one-reactor polymerization applies an industry-relevant tin(II) catalyst. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Temporal triggers of NO emissions during cyclical and seasonal variations of a full-scale sequencing batch reactor treating municipal wastewater.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 18;797:149093. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

To investigate the major triggers of nitrous oxide (NO) production in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant, NO emissions and wastewater characteristics (ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, total nitrogen, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and specific oxygen uptake rate), the results of variations in the cycling of a sequential batch reactor (SBR, where only full nitrification was performed), were monitored seasonally for 16 months. Major triggers of NO production were investigated based on a seasonal measured database using a random forest (RF) model and sensitivity analysis, which was applied to identify important input variables. As the result of seasonal monitoring in the full-scale SBR, the NO emission factor relative to daily total nitrogen removal ranged from 0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effect of slow pyrolysis conditions on biocarbon yield and properties: Characterization of the volatiles.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 16;338:125567. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Magyar tudósok körútja 2, 1117 Budapest, Hungary. Electronic address:

Slow pyrolysis of spruce and birch was performed at various heating programs and conditions in a horizontal quartz tube reactor heated by an electric furnace. The effects of feedstock and carbonization conditions on the yield of biocarbon, liquid and gaseous products were studied. The thermal properties, volatile matter (VM) content and the evolution profiles of volatiles from the biocarbons were characterized by thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The treatment of electroplating wastewater using an integrated approach of interior microelectrolysis and Fenton combined with recycle ferrite.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 13;286(Pt 1):131543. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang, 212013, China; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 1H9, Canada. Electronic address:

Heavy metal ions in chelated forms have aroused great concerns because of their high solubility, poor biodegradation and extreme stability. In this research, an efficient strategy, interior microelectrolysis-Fenton-recycle ferrite (IM-Fenton-RF), was developed to treat simulated electroplating wastewater containing chelated copper at room temperature. The decomplexation of chelated copper was carried out by both interior microelectrolysis and Fenton reactions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Calcination of Clay Raw Materials in a Fluidized Bed.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 16;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, Institute of Thermal Machinery, Czestochowa University of Technology, al. Armii Krajowej 21, 42-201 Czestochowa, Poland.

Clay raw materials are diverse in terms of their mineral composition, as well as the content of colouring oxides and their physical properties. Determining the suitability of raw materials for various purposes requires comprehensive studies on their properties, as well as their appropriate correction, which is possible through the use of appropriate modification techniques. One of the most commonly used technologies for the enrichment of clay raw materials is to subject them to high temperatures, which, depending on the temperature regime used in the technological process, may cause the decomposition and removal of some addditional components (e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Characterization of Desulfurized Crumb Rubber/Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Composite Modified Asphalt Based on Rheological Properties.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 6;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

School of Transportation, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China.

With the growing interest in bituminous construction materials, desulfurized crumb rubber (CR)/styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modified asphalts have been investigated by many researchers as low-cost environmental-friendly road construction materials. This study aimed to investigate the rheological properties of desulfurized CR/SBS composite modified asphalt within various temperature ranges. Bending beam rheometer (BBR), linear amplitude sweep (LAS), and multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) tests were performed on conventional CR/SBS composite modified asphalt and five types of desulfurized CR/SBS modified asphalts. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

An effective strategy for in situ start-up of mainstream anammox process treating domestic sewage.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 9;339:125525. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

National Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technology, Engineering Research Center of Beijing, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, PR China. Electronic address:

The feasibility of in situ start-up of mainstream anammox process was investigated in three parallel sequencing batch biofilm reactors (SBBRs) inoculated with nitrification sludge, partial nitrification sludge, and denitrifying phosphorus removal sludge, respectively. The SBBRs were operated under alternate anaerobic/aerobic/anoxic pattern at ambient temperature (16.5-26. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Multiscale Chirping Modes Driven by Thermal Ions in a Plasma with Reactor-Relevant Ion Temperature.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Jul;127(2):025001

General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608, USA.

A thermal ion driven bursting instability with rapid frequency chirping, considered as an Alfvénic ion temperature gradient mode, has been observed in plasmas having reactor-relevant temperature in the DIII-D tokamak. The modes are excited over a wide spatial range from macroscopic device size to microturbulence size and the perturbation energy propagates across multiple spatial scales. The radial mode structure is able to expand from local to global in ∼0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Temperature and immigration effects on quorum sensing in the biofilms of anaerobic membrane bioreactors.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 11;293:112947. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle, NE1 7RU, UK.

Quorum sensing (QS), a microbial communication mechanism modulated by acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) molecules impacts biofilm formation in bioreactors. This study investigated the effects of temperature and immigration on AHL levels and biofouling in anaerobic membrane bioreactors. The hypothesis was that the immigrant microbial community would increase the AHL-mediated QS, thus stimulating biofouling and that low temperatures would exacerbate this. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Start-up of an aerobic granular sludge system from stored granules: Evaluating the impact of storage period on biomass activity and stability and the effect of temperature on nitrification and phosphorus removal rates.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 17;296:113200. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Civil Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Chemical Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) has been considered a breakthrough within the wastewater treatment sector. However, the long reactor start-up for the formation of granules is challenging and may hinder the spread of this technology. To circumvent this obstacle, inoculation of the reactors with pre-formed granules from existing plants is an interesting approach. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Treatment of real industrial-grade dye solutions and printing ink wastewater using a novel pilot-scale hydrodynamic cavitation reactor.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 16;297:113301. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Rio, GR-26504, Patras, Greece; Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes (FORTH/ ICE-HT), Stadiou Str., Platani, GR-26504, Patras, Greece. Electronic address:

A novel pilot-scale hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) reactor was used to decolorize industrial-grade dye solutions and printing ink wastewater (PIW). The effect of the orifice plate geometry (1 hole plate of 1 mm and 2 mm in diameter, 31 holes of 1 mm and 2 mm in diameter, 62 holes of 1 mm and 2 mm in diameter), inlet pressure (4, 5 bar), initial dye concentration (0.3 and 0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Increasing salinity concentrations determine the long-term participation of methanogenesis and sulfidogenesis in the biodigestion of sulfate-rich wastewater.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 14;296:113254. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Biological Processes Laboratory, Center for Research, Development and Innovation in Environmental Engineering, São Carlos School of Engineering (EESC), University of São Paulo (USP), Av. João Dagnone, 1100, Santa Angelina, 13.563-120, São Carlos, SP, Brazil.

The competition between sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic archaea (MA) depends on several factors, such as the COD/SO ratio, sensitivity to inhibitors and even the length of the operating period in reactors. Among the inhibitors, salinity, a characteristic common to diverse types of industrial effluents, can act as an important factor. This work aimed to evaluate the long-term participation of sulfidogenesis and methanogenesis in the sulfate-rich wastewater process (COD/SO = 1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Nitrilase immobilization and transposition from a micro-scale batch to a continuous process increase the nicotinic acid productivity.

Biotechnol J 2021 Jul 16:e2100010. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

CEA, LITEN, DTCH, Laboratoire Composants et Systèmes Thermiques (LCST), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France.

In recent years, many biocatalytic processes have been developed for the production of chemicals and pharmaceuticals. In this context, enzyme immobilization methods have attracted attention for their advantages, such as continuous production and increased stability. Here, enzyme immobilization methods and a collection of nitrilases from biodiversity for the conversion of 3-cyanopyridine to nicotinic acid were screened. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Predicting Graphene Growth on Cu: Universal Kinetic Growth Model and Its Experimental Verification.

ACS Nano 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Technical University of Munich (TUM), Chemie Department-Physikalische Chemie mit Schwerpunkt Katalyse, Lichtenbergstraße 4, 85748 Garching, Germany.

The kinetics of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of graphene on Cu in CH + H were investigated by monitoring the graphene flake size as a function of CVD growth time. A growth model was set up which relates the CVD parameters to the mass action constant of the methane decomposition reaction toward graphene at a given temperature . Graphene growth was shown to proceed from pre-equilibrated adsorbed carbon (C) within a wide CVD parameter range. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Modeling and optimization of radish root extract drying as peroxidase source using spouted bed dryer.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 13;11(1):14362. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.

The main advantages of the dried enzymes are the lower cost of storage and longer time of preservation for industrial applications. In this study, the spouted bed dryer was utilized for drying the garden radish (Raphanus sativus L.) root extract as a cost-effective source of the peroxidase enzyme. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Data-Driven Modeling of a Pilot Plant Batch Reactor and Validation of a Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller for Dynamic Temperature Profile Tracking.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 21;6(26):16714-16721. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Department of Mechatronics Engineering, and Department of Chemical Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal 576104, India.

Batch process plays a very crucial and important role in process industries. The increased operational flexibility and trend toward high-quality, low-volume chemical production has put more emphasis on batch processing. In this work, nonlinearities associated with the batch reactor process have been studied. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A compact electron beam ion trap in support of high-temperature plasma diagnostics based on conduction-cooled superconducting coils.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Jun;92(6):063512

National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029, China.

Spectroscopic diagnostics of future fusion reactor plasmas require information on impurity line emissions, especially for relevant high-Z metal elements (e.g., tungsten). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Multichannel gas-uptake/evolution reactor for monitoring liquid-phase chemical reactions.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Apr;92(4):044103

Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53719, USA.

The design of a headspace pressure-monitoring reactor for measuring the uptake/evolution of gas in gas-liquid chemical transformations is described. The reactor features a parallel setup with ten-reactor cells, each featuring a low working volume of 0.2-2 ml, a pressure capacity from 0 to 150 PSIa, and a high sensitivity pressure transducer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF