599 results match your criteria reached thalamus


Topographic evaluation of bithalamic infarcts: Are these due to occlusion of the artery of Percheron?

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Aug 7;90:99-104. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Gaziosmanpaşa Training and Research Hospital, Department of Neurology, Istanbul, Turkey.

Occlusion of the artery of Percheron (AoP) causes bithalamic paramedian infarct (BTPI). Although it can be diagnosed easily in its pure form, it can be underdiagnosed in cases with concomitant extrathalamic acute infarcts (plus-BTPI) as it may be difficult to determine whether BTPI is due to occlusion of AoP or two different paramedian arteries even with conventional angiography. This study was performed to highlight plus-BTPI that could result from occlusion of AoP rather than of two distinct paramedian arteries using topographic evaluation of bithalamic infarcts. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of [F]-JNJ-64326067-AAA tau PET tracer in humans.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 Jul 14:271678X211031035. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA.

The [F]-JNJ-64326067-AAA ([F]-JNJ-067) tau tracer was evaluated in healthy older controls (HCs), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) participants. Seventeen subjects (4 HCs, 5 MCIs, 5 ADs, and 3 PSPs) received a [C]-PIB amyloid PET scan, and a tau [F]-JNJ-067 PET scan 0-90 minutes post-injection. Only MCIs and ADs were amyloid positive. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

R2* and quantitative susceptibility mapping in deep gray matter of 498 healthy controls from 5 to 90 years.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Putative MRI markers of iron in deep gray matter have demonstrated age related changes during discrete periods of healthy childhood or adulthood, but few studies have included subjects across the lifespan. This study reports both transverse relaxation rate (R2*) and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) of four primary deep gray matter regions (thalamus, putamen, caudate, and globus pallidus) in 498 healthy individuals aged 5-90 years. In the caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus, increases of QSM and R2* were steepest during childhood continuing gradually throughout adulthood, except caudate susceptibility which reached a plateau in the late 30s. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Deep grey matter injury in multiple sclerosis: A NAIMS consensus statement.

Brain 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Neurology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Although multiple sclerosis (MS) has traditionally been considered a white matter disease, extensive research documents the presence and importance of gray matter injury including cortical and deep regions. The deep gray matter (DGM) exhibits a broad range of pathology and is uniquely suited to study the mechanisms and clinical relevance of tissue injury in MS using magnetic resonance techniques. DGM injury has been associated with clinical and cognitive disability. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Routes of the thalamus through the history of neuroanatomy.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 06 4;125:442-465. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives et Adaptatives, Université de Strasbourg, F-67000 Strasbourg, France; LNCA, UMR 7364 - CNRS, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.

The most distant roots of neuroanatomy trace back to antiquity, with the first human dissections, but no document which would identify the thalamus as a brain structure has reached us. Claudius Galenus (Galen) gave to the thalamus the name 'thalamus nervorum opticorum', but later on, other names were used (e.g. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Acute acetate administration increases endogenous opioid levels in the human brain: A [C]carfentanil molecular imaging study.

J Psychopharmacol 2021 May 6;35(5):606-610. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neurosciences, King's College London, London, UK.

Introduction: A recent study has shown that acetate administration leads to a fourfold increase in the transcription of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in the hypothalamus. POMC is cleaved to peptides, including β-endorphin, an endogenous opioid (EO) agonist that binds preferentially to the µ-opioid receptor (MOR). We hypothesised that an acetate challenge would increase the levels of EO in the human brain. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Patterns of diffusion kurtosis changes in Parkinson's disease subtypes.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2020 12 20;81:96-102. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Applied Neuroscience Research Group, Central European Institute of Technology - CEITEC, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; First Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine and St. Anne's University Hospital, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Background: Diffusion kurtosis imaging has been applied to evaluate white matter and basal ganglia microstructure in mixed Parkinson's disease (PD) groups with inconclusive results.

Objectives: To evaluate specific patterns of kurtosis changes in PD and to assess the utility of diffusion imaging in differentiating between healthy subjects and cognitively normal PD, and between PD with and without mild cognitive impairment.

Methods: Diffusion scans were obtained in 92 participants using 3T MRI. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Differential Expression of Integrin β1 in Two Brain Injury Models of Rats.

Authors:
M W Wu L Su F He X Xu

Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2020 Aug;36(4):502-506

School of Forensic Medicine, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu 241002, Anhui Province, China.

Abstract: Objective To study the characteristics of positive expression of integrin β1 in the rat brain tissue of two kinds of traumatic brain injury models and to explore the feasibility of inferring the mode of traumatic brain injury using the positive expression of integrin β1. Methods The occipital region of rats was hit by hydraulic impact method and pendulum striking method to produce two closed brain injury models of linear and rotation acceleration respectively, then 120 SD rats were randomly divided into linear acceleration injury group, rotation acceleration injury group, sham operation group and normal control group. Immunohistochemistry staining and Western blotting method were used to detect the positive expression of integrin β1 in different parts of the brain tissue at 30 min, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 3 d and 7 d after rat injury. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Microneurosurgical removal of thalamic lesions: surgical results and considerations from a large, single-surgeon consecutive series.

J Neurosurg 2020 Oct 2:1-11. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Departments of1Neurosurgery and.

Objective: The object of this study was to present the surgical results of a large, single-surgeon consecutive series of patients who had undergone transcisternal (TCi) or transcallosal-transventricular (TCTV) endoscope-assisted microsurgery for thalamic lesions.

Methods: This is a retrospective study of a consecutive series of patients harboring thalamic lesions and undergoing surgery at one institution between February 2007 and August 2019. All surgical and patient-related data were prospectively collected. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Central Nervous System Tuberculosis With Shower Like Pattern of Intracranial Tuberculomas in an Immunocompetent Patient.

Cureus 2020 Aug 21;12(8):e9922. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Neurology, Pak-Emirates Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, PAK.

Central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS TB), though comparatively uncommon as compared to other forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB), results in high morbidity and mortality. The symptoms are non-specific and of a progressive nature resulting in delayed diagnosis. We present a case of CNS TB that presented two months after the onset of symptoms. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The developing brain by trimester.

Handb Clin Neurol 2020 ;171:245-289

Department of Neonatology, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Transient anatomical entities play a role in the maturation of brain regions and early functional fetal networks. At the postmenstrual age of 7 weeks, major subdivisions of the brain are visible. At the end of the embryonic period, the cortical plate covers the neopallium. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Diaschisis revisited: quantitative evaluation of thalamic hypoperfusion in anterior circulation stroke.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 26;27:102329. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Radiology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Purpose: Ipsilateral thalamic diaschisis (ITD) refers to the phenomenon of thalamic hypoperfusion or hypometabolism due to a distant cerebral injury. To further investigate the characteristics and spectrum of ITD, we analyzed quantitative measurements of thalamic hypoperfusion in acute anterior circulation stroke.

Methods: We selected consecutive patients with large-vessel occlusion (LVO) anterior circulation stroke and available CT perfusion (CTP) examination on admission who underwent endovascular thrombectomy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Anterior thalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for refractory epilepsy: Preliminary results in our first 5 patients.

Neurochirurgie 2020 Aug 1;66(4):252-257. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

Objectives: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN) has been recognized to be an efficient treatment of refractory epilepsy (RE). However, ATN targeting is difficult and up to 8% of lead misplacement is reported. Our objective is to report our surgical procedure based on MRI targeting and our clinical results. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mechanisms and variances of rotation-induced brain injury: a parametric investigation between head kinematics and brain strain.

Biomech Model Mechanobiol 2020 Dec 24;19(6):2323-2341. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Western University, London, ON, N6A 5B9, Canada.

There lacks a comprehensive understanding of the correlation between head kinematics and brain strain especially deep-brain strain, partially resulting the deficiency of understanding brain injury mechanisms and the difficulty of choosing appropriate brain injury metrics. Hence, we simulated 76 impacts that were focused on concussion-relevant rotational kinematics and evaluated cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) and average strain that could represent brain strain distribution. For the whole brain, axial rotation induced the highest CSDM, while lateral bending produced the lowest CSDM. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Anatomical brain structures normalization for deep brain stimulation in movement disorders.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 25;27:102271. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Institute for Medical Engineering and Medical Informatics, School of Life Sciences, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Hofackerstrasse 30, 4132 Muttenz, Switzerland; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linköping University, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden. Electronic address:

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy requires extensive patient-specific planning prior to implantation to achieve optimal clinical outcomes. Collective analysis of patient's brain images is promising in order to provide more systematic planning assistance. In this paper the design of a normalization pipeline using a group specific multi-modality iterative template creation process is presented. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

MRI follow-up after magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound for non-invasive thalamotomy: the neuroradiologist's perspective.

Neuroradiology 2020 Sep 3;62(9):1111-1122. Epub 2020 May 3.

Department of Radiology, University Hospital Bonn, Venusberg-Campus 1, 53127, Bonn, Germany.

Purpose: Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) systems are increasingly used to non-invasively treat tremor; consensus on imaging follow-up is poor in these patients. This study aims to elucidate how MRgFUS lesions evolve for a radiological readership with regard to clinical outcome.

Methods: MRgFUS-induced lesions and oedema were retrospectively evaluated based on DWI, SWI, T2-weighted and T1-weighted 3-T MRI data acquired 30 min and 3, 30 and 180 days after MRgFUS (n = 9 essential tremor, n = 1 Parkinson's patients). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Using Preimplanted Deep Brain Stimulation Electrodes for Rescue Thalamotomy in a Case of Holmes Tremor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2020;98(2):136-141. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Medtronic, Mumbai, India.

Background: Chronic stimulation of the thalamus is a surgical option in the management of intractable Holmes tremor. Patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) can encounter infection as a postoperative complication, necessitating explantation of the hardware. Some studies have reported on the technique and the resulting efficacy of therapeutic lesioning through implanted DBS leads before their explantation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Endoscope-Assisted Contralateral Perimedian Supracerebellar Suprapineal Approach to Third Ventricle Surface of the Thalamus: 3-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2020 Sep;19(3):E306-E307

Department of Neurosurgery, Yeditepe University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

In managing thalamic gliomas, total surgical removal is the most effective way of increasing overall survival. However, the thalamus is a difficult target because of surrounding neurovascular structures. According to the lesion's size/location/growth pattern, relation to neighboring structures, and surgeon's experience, most thalamic lesions can be reached through one of the 4 free surfaces: lateral ventricle, velar, cisternal, and third ventricle surfaces of the thalamus (3VsT). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

The Neural Tract Between the Hypothalamus and Basal Forebrain in the Ascending Reticular Activating System: A Diffusion Tensor Tractography Study.

Curr Med Imaging Rev 2019 ;15(4):369-372

Department of Physical Therapy, College of Health Sciences, Eulji University, Gyeonggi, Korea.

Objective: Ascending Reticular Activating System (ARAS) has a key role in consciousness. The ARAS is a complex network consisting of a portion of the brainstem reticular formation, nonspecific thalamic nuclei, hypothalamus, Basal Forebrain (BF), and cerebral cortex. We examined the reconstruction method and features of the neural tract between the hypothalamus and the BF in normal subjects, using Diffusion Tensor Tractography (DTT). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Motor tract integrity predicts walking recovery: A diffusion MRI study in subacute stroke.

Neurology 2020 02 2;94(6):e583-e593. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

From the Université Grenoble Alpes (J.S., A.T., F.R., A.B.B., N.V., A.J.), AGEIS, Faculté de Médecine; Stroke Unit (J.S., A.T.), Neurologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Grenoble Alpes (CHUGA); Unité IRM 3T-Recherche-UMS IRMaGe-CHUGA (C.H., A.K., A.J.); IRMaGe-Inserm US-017 (C.H., A.K.), CNRS UMS-3552, UGA, Grenoble; Neuroradiologie-IRM-Pôle Imagerie-CHUGA (A.K.); Centre Hospitalier Métropole Savoie (C.H.), Chambéry; Laboratoire HP2 (S.B.), UGA; Pôle thorax et vaisseaux, CHUGA; Pôle Recherche (A.J.), CHUGA, Grenoble; and Institut Universitaire de France (N.V.), Paris, France.

Objective: To identify candidate biomarkers of walking recovery with motor tract integrity measurements using fractional anisotropy (FA) from the corticospinal tract (CST) and alternative motor pathways in patients with moderate to severe subacute stroke.

Methods: Walking recovery was first assessed with generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with repeated measures of walking scores (WS) over 2 years of follow-up in a longitudinal study of 29 patients with subacute ischemic stroke. Baseline FA measures from the ipsilesional and contralesional CST (i-CST and c-CST), cortico-reticulospinal pathway (i-CRP and c-CRP), and cerebellar peduncles were derived from a 60-direction diffusion MRI sequence on a 3T scanner. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2020

Stereotactic Gamma Ray Radiosurgery to the Centromedian and Parafascicular Complex of the Thalamus for Trigeminal Neuralgia and Other Complex Pain Syndromes.

Cureus 2019 Dec 19;11(12):e6421. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Functional Neurosurgery, Clinica Foscal Internacional, Bucaramanga, COL.

Introduction We report our initial series of patients treated with radiosurgery to the Centromedian (CM) and Parafascicular (Pfc) Complex (CM-Pf) of the contralateral thalamus mainly for trigeminal neuralgia that had failed most known forms of conventional treatments. The coordinates were co-registered to a three-dimensional atlas of the thalamus in order to have a better comprehension of isodose curves distribution. Methods A fully automated rotating gamma ray unit was used to deliver a high dose of radiation (140 Gy) using a 4-mm collimator to the CM-Pf of the contralateral thalamus in 14 patients suffering from refractory trigeminal pain and other complex pain syndromes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2019

Reversibility of cerebral blood flow in patients with Cushing's disease after surgery treatment.

Metabolism 2020 03 18;104:154050. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Center for Biomedical Image Computing and Analytics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: Cushing's disease (CD) patients have metabolic abnormalities in the brain caused by excessive exposure to endogenous cortisol. However, the reversibility of brain metabolism of CD patients after treatment remains largely unknown.

Methods: This study recruited 50 CD patients seeking treatment and 34 matched normal controls (NCs). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Uncovering convolutional neural network decisions for diagnosing multiple sclerosis on conventional MRI using layer-wise relevance propagation.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 6;24:102003. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 10117 Berlin, Germany; Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Berlin Center for Advanced Neuroimaging, Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience, 10117 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Machine learning-based imaging diagnostics has recently reached or even surpassed the level of clinical experts in several clinical domains. However, classification decisions of a trained machine learning system are typically non-transparent, a major hindrance for clinical integration, error tracking or knowledge discovery. In this study, we present a transparent deep learning framework relying on 3D convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP) for diagnosing multiple sclerosis (MS), the most widespread autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

The Role of Anterior Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation as an Alternative Therapy in Patients with Previously Failed Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Refractory Epilepsy.

Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2019 18;97(3):176-182. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has provided new treatment options for refractory epilepsy; however, treatment outcomes of DBS in refractory epilepsy patients previously treated with vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) have not been clarified. Herein, treatment outcomes of DBS of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT-DBS) in patients who had previously experienced VNS failure are reported. Seven patients who had previously experienced VNS failure underwent ANT-DBS device implantation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2020

Thalamus Cavernous Malformation Resection of via Contralateral Anterior Interhemispheric Transcallosal Approach: Two-Dimensional Operative Video.

World Neurosurg 2019 Dec 11;132:389. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical Collage, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Thalamic cavernous malformations (CM) are highly challenging surgically. In this illustrative video (Video 1), we present the case of a 36-year-old man with a CM at the left medial thalamus, which was successfully treated by a contralateral anterior interhemispheric transcallosal approach. Informed consent was obtained from the patient. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2019

Against the Current: Wilder Penfield, the Frontal Lobes and Psychosurgery.

Authors:
Richard Leblanc

Can J Neurol Sci 2019 09 10;46(5):585-590. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Psychosurgery refers to the surgical interruption of the white matter fibres joining the frontal cortex to the remainder of the cortical mantle and to the thalamus, in an attempt to mitigate the manifestations of psychosis. It reached its heyday following World War Two and was abandoned with the introduction of major tranquilisers such as chlorpromazine. Wilder Penfield, unlike most of his contemporaries, had a jaundiced view of psychosurgery. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2019

A model-based reassessment of the three-dimensional tuning of head direction cells in rats.

J Neurophysiol 2019 09 26;122(3):1274-1287. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

In a recent study, Shinder and Taube (Shinder ME, Taube JS. 121: 4-37, 2019) concluded that head direction cells in the anterior thalamus of rats are tuned to one-dimensional (1D, yaw-only) motion, in contrast to recent findings in bats, mice, and rats. Here we reinterpret the author's experimental results using model comparison and demonstrate that, contrary to their conclusions, experimental data actually supports the dual-axis rule (lson JJ, Jeffery KJ. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2019

Retrosplenial Cortical Representations of Space and Future Goal Locations Develop with Learning.

Curr Biol 2019 06 6;29(12):2083-2090.e4. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Department of Psychology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Recent findings suggest that long-term spatial and contextual memories depend on the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) [1-5]. RSC damage impairs navigation in humans and rodents [6-8], and the RSC is closely interconnected with brain regions known to play a role in navigation, including the hippocampus and anterior thalamus [9, 10]. Navigation-related neural activity is seen in humans [11] and rodents, including spatially localized firing [12, 13], directional firing [12, 14, 15], and responses to navigational cues [16]. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Thalamic Atrophy Without Whole Brain Atrophy Is Associated With Absence of 2-Year NEDA in Multiple Sclerosis.

Front Neurol 2019 3;10:459. Epub 2019 May 3.

Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

To study which brain volume measures best differentiate early relapsing MS (RMS) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS) patients and correlate with disability and cognition. To test whether isolated thalamic atrophy at study baseline correlates with NEDA (no evidence of disease activity) at 2 years. Total and regional brain volumes were measured from 24 newly diagnosed RMS patients 6 months after initiation of therapy and 2 years thereafter, and in 36 SPMS patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Theory of visual attention thalamic model for visual short-term memory capacity and top-down control: Evidence from a thalamo-cortical structural connectivity analysis.

Neuroimage 2019 07 27;195:67-77. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Psychology, General and Experimental Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Leopoldstrasse 13, 80802, Munich, Germany; Graduate School of Systemic Neurosciences GSN, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Großhaderner Strasse 2, 82152, Planegg, Germany; Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747, Jena, Germany.

In the theory of visual attention (TVA), it is suggested that objects in a visual scene compete for representation in a visual short-term memory (vSTM) store. The race towards the store is assumed to be biased by top-down controlled weighting of the objects according to their task relevance. Only objects that reach the store before its capacity limitation is reached are represented consciously in a given instant. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF