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Sexual Development and the Environment: Conclusions from 40 Years of Theory.

Sex Dev 2021 Jun 15:1-16. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute for Applied Ecology, University of Canberra, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

In this review, we consider the insight that has been gained through theoretical examination of environmental sex determination (ESD) and thermolability - how theory has progressed our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary dynamics associated with ESD, the transitional pathways between different modes of sex determination, and the underlying mechanisms. Following decades of theory on the adaptive benefits of ESD, several hypotheses seem promising. These hypotheses focus on the importance of differential fitness (sex-specific effects of temperature on fitness) in generating selection for ESD, but highlight alternative ways differential fitness arises: seasonal impacts on growth, sex-specific ages of maturation, and sex-biased dispersal. Read More

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Incorporating oxygenation levels in analytical DNA-damage models - quantifying the oxygen fixation mechanism.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire, UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND.

Purpose: To develop a framework to include oxygenation effects in radiation therapy treatment planning which is valid for all modalities, energy spectra and oxygen levels. The framework is based on predicting the difference in DNA--damage resulting from ionising radiation at variable oxygenation levels.

Methods: Oxygen fixation is treated as a statistical process in a simplified model of complex and simple damage. Read More

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Efficient heavy metal removal from water by alginate-based porous nanocomposite hydrogels: The enhanced removal mechanism and influencing factor insight.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 8;418:126358. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Hydraulic Engineering, Changsha University of Science & Technology, Changsha 410114, China; Key Laboratory of Dongting Lake Aquatic Eco-Environmental Control and Restoration of Hunan Province, Changsha 410114, China. Electronic address:

Novel porous alginate-based nanocomposite hydrogels were prepared by incorporating polyaniline-polypyrrole modified graphene oxide ([email protected]) as reinforcing fillers into the alginate matrix ([email protected]/SA) for Cr(VI) and Cu(II) removal from water. Different in-situ co-polymerization functionalized GO with Py-to-An mass ratios of monomers (from nil to 1:1) and contents of [email protected] (from nil to 2.0%(w/v)) were embedded into the alginate backbone to improve the sorption performance. Read More

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Combined toxicity of nano-TiO and Cd to Scenedesmus obliquus: Effects at different concentration ratios.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 9;418:126354. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, China.

The continuous release of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) to environments raised concerns on their combined toxicological risks with co-existing contaminants, since MNMs might severely alter the environmental behavior and fate of the contaminants. In this study, the combined toxicity of nano-sized titanium dioxide (nTiO) and cadmium (Cd) to the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the underlying physicochemical mechanisms were investigated for the first time at different concentration ratios of Cd to nTiO to closely mimic the realistic environment scenarios where the concentration ratios of nTiO to other contaminants are constantly changing. Our results suggested that under the co-exposure to different concentration ratios of Cd to nTiO, the co-exposure contaminants exhibited three different combined toxicity modes (antagonistic, partially additive, and synergistic). Read More

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Thromboembolic events associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors: A real-world study of data from the food and drug administration adverse event reporting system (FAERS) database.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jun 12;98:107818. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing 100020, China. Electronic address:

Background: Although there have been a few studies reporting thromboembolic events (TEEs) in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), the detailed profile of the TEEs and the prothrombotic effects of ICIs remain mostly unknown.

Methods: Data from January 2004 to December 2019 in the FAERS database were retrieved. We investigated the clinical characteristics of the TEEs and conducted disproportionality analysis by using reporting odds ratios (ROR) to compare ICIs with the full database and other anti-cancer agents. Read More

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Effect of chlorhexidine-loaded poly(amido amine) dendrimer on matrix metalloproteinase activities and remineralization in etched human dentin in vitro.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 Jun 10;121:104625. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Stomatological Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 401147, China. Electronic address:

To investigate the effect of chlorhexidine (CHX)-loaded carboxyl-terminated poly (amido amine) dendrimer (CHX-PAMAM-COOH) on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities and remineralization in human dentin, CHX-PAMAM-COOH was prepared and characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The inhibitory effects of CHX, PAMAM-COOH, and CHX-PAMAM-COOH on soluble recombinant human matrix metalloproteinase (rhMMP-2) and dentin-bound endogenous MMP activity were measured using an MMP Activity Assay Kit. In situ zymography was performed to evaluate the gelatinase activity in dentin pretreated with CHX, PAMAM-COOH, and CHX-PAMAM-COOH. Read More

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Frequency and factors associated with post-stroke seizures in a large multicenter study in West Africa.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Jun 9;427:117535. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Nigeria; Center for Genomic and Precision Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Post-stroke seizures (PSS) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality across the globe. There is a paucity of data on PSS in Africa.

Purpose: To assess the frequency and factors associated with PSS by stroke types across 15 hospitals in Nigeria and Ghana. Read More

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Low dietary quercetin intake by food frequency questionnaire analysis is not associated with hypertension occurrence.

Clin Nutr 2021 May 12;40(6):3748-3753. Epub 2021 May 12.

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Quercetin is one of the most abundant flavonoids in plant kingdom. Because of its strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect, it is of potential in anti-hypertension. The objective of the present study was to explore the relationship between dietary quercetin and hypertension incidence in a Chinese population. Read More

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The role of systemic inflammation in the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 27;40(6):3661-3667. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Blood Transfusion, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains inconclusive. Moreover, whether inflammatory biomarkers are involved in this association has not been explored. This study aims to investigate serum 25(OH)D in relation to T2DM in a Chinese population and provide clues for the inflammatory mechanism whereby serum 25(OH)D deficiency increases T2DM risk. Read More

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Thiazolidinediones and Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists and the Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cohort Study.

Hepatology 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

CARIM School for Cardiovascular Disease, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are potential pharmacological treatment options for patients at risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, we examined the association between the risk of NAFLD and the use of thiazolidinediones and GLP-1 receptor agonists compared with the use of sulfonylureas (SUs) and insulins. Additionally, we calculated the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in users of TZDs and GLP-1 receptor agonists. Read More

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Starting pitchers demonstrate a greater hazard of arm injury compared to relief pitchers.

J Athl Train 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

University of South Carolina Center for Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Sciences, Greenville, South Carolina, USA.

Context: It is currently unclear how different pitching roles affect arm injury risk in professional pitchers.

Objective: 1) Investigate the differences in arm injury hazard between professional baseball starting and relief pitchers; 2) Separately investigate elbow and shoulder injury hazard between professional baseball starting and relief pitchers.

Study Design: Prospective cohort Setting: Minor League Baseball (MiLB) from 2013-2019 Patients or Other Participants: Pitchers Main Outcome Measures: Pitchers were followed for the entire MiLB season and athletic exposures (AE's) and injuries were recorded. Read More

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The Relationship Between Workload and Non-Contact Musculoskeletal Injury in College Swimmers: A Prospective Cohort Study.

J Athl Train 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Exercise Science, University of South Carolina, Colombia, SC,

Context: Swimmers are known for high training loads and overuse injuries, but few studies have investigated the relationship between the two at the college level.

Objective: To determine the association between workload and non-contact musculoskeletal injury in college swimmers. We hypothesized (1) higher overall workload (kilometers swum throughout the season) would be associated with increased odds of injury and (2) the ratio of the current week's (acute) workload divided by the current month's (chronic) workload (i. Read More

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Long-term Continuity of Antipsychotic Treatment for Schizophrenia: A Nationwide Study.

Schizophr Bull 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Niuvanniemi Hospital, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Schizophrenia often requires long-term treatment with antipsychotic medication. This study aims to measure the continuity of antipsychotic treatment over the course of illness in schizophrenia, as well as factors involved in the interruption of treatment. For this, we followed up a national cohort of first-episode psychosis patients in Finland for up to 18 years. Read More

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Association Between Primary Headache and Bruxism: An Updated Systematic Review.

J Oral Facial Pain Headache 2021 Spring;35(2):129-138

Aims: To answer the question: among observational studies, is there any association between primary headaches and bruxism in adults?

Materials And Methods: A systematic review of observational studies was performed. The search was performed in seven main databases and three gray literature databases. Studies in which samples were composed of adult patients were included. Read More

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Association among pterygium, cataracts, and cumulative ocular ultraviolet exposure: A cross-sectional study in Han people in China and Taiwan.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253093. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa, Japan.

Purpose: Pterygium is an ocular surface disorder mainly caused by ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. This study explored the relationships between six cataract types with pterygium and UV exposure.

Methods: We have previously studied cataracts in residents of three regions in China and Taiwan with different UV intensities. Read More

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Detailed balance limits for inversion in solar-pumped lasers and allied systems.

Opt Lett 2021 Jun;46(12):2916-2919

Solar-pumped lasers and optical amplifiers continue to draw research interest with advances in nanomaterials science and technology. Establishing accurate detailed balance limits for inversion in these systems is essential. In this Letter, we re-examine the threshold limits for inversion in broadband-pumped lasers, with reference to those provided by Roxlo and Yablonvitch [Opt. Read More

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SeReNe: Sensitivity-Based Regularization of Neurons for Structured Sparsity in Neural Networks.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jun 15;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Deep neural networks include millions of learnable parameters, making their deployment over resource-constrained devices problematic. Sensitivity-based regularization of neurons (SeReNe) is a method for learning sparse topologies with a structure, exploiting neural sensitivity as a regularizer. We define the sensitivity of a neuron as the variation of the network output with respect to the variation of the activity of the neuron. Read More

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Non-Official Language Concordance in Urban Canadian Medical Practice: Implications for Care during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Healthc Policy 2021 05;16(4):84-96

Professor, Department of Economics, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON.

Language barriers can reduce access to medical and virtual care. Although the topic of healthcare professionals and linguistic minorities has been studied in Canada, it has mainly been done for official languages (i.e. Read More

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Contraceptive Care Disparities Among Sexual Orientation Identity and Racial/Ethnic Subgroups of U.S. Women: A National Probability Sample Study.

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Adolescent/Young Adult Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Sexual minority women may use contraception for various reasons but face notable barriers to contraceptive care, including stigma and discrimination. However, studies examining sexual orientation disparities in contraceptive care have largely relied on nonprobability samples of predominately White women and may thus not be generalizable to U.S. Read More

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Mortgage Lending Bias and Breast Cancer Survival Among Older Women in the United States.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 15:JCO2100112. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Center for Advancing Population Science, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Purpose: The objective was to examine the relationship between contemporary redlining (mortgage lending bias on the basis of property location) and survival among older women with breast cancer in the United States.

Methods: A redlining index using Home Mortgage Disclosure Act data (2007-2013) was linked by census tract with a SEER-Medicare cohort of 27,516 women age 66-90 years with an initial diagnosis of stage I-IV breast cancer in 2007-2009 and follow-up through 2015. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the relationship between redlining and both all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality, accounting for covariates. Read More

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Cardiolipin Remodeling Defects Impair Mitochondrial Architecture and Function in a Murine Model of Barth Syndrome Cardiomyopathy.

Circ Heart Fail 2021 Jun 15;14(6):e008289. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Medicine (S.Z., Z.C., M.Z., S.S., C.T., Y.G., A.N., W.F., S.M.E., X.F.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla.

Background: Cardiomyopathy is a major clinical feature in Barth syndrome (BTHS), an X-linked mitochondrial lipid disorder caused by mutations in (), encoding a mitochondrial acyltransferase required for cardiolipin remodeling. Despite recent description of a mouse model of BTHS cardiomyopathy, an in-depth analysis of specific lipid abnormalities and mitochondrial form and function in an in vivo BTHS cardiomyopathy model is lacking.

Methods: We performed in-depth assessment of cardiac function, cardiolipin species profiles, and mitochondrial structure and function in our newly generated cardiomyocyte-specific knockout mice and Cre-negative control mice (n≥3 per group). Read More

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Enhanced matrix production by cocultivated human stem cells and chondrocytes under concurrent mechanical strain.

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, 1505 NE Stadium Way, Pullman, WA, 99164-6515, USA.

Conventional treatments of osteoarthritis have failed to re-build functional articular cartilage. Tissue engineering clinical treatments for osteoarthritis, including autologous chondrocyte implantation, provides an alternative approach by injecting a cell suspension to fill lesions within the cartilage in osteoarthritic knees. The success of chondrocyte implantation relies on the availability of chondrogenic cell lines, and their resilience to high mechanical loading. Read More

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Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Adjuvant Therapy for BRAF-Mutant Resected Stage III Melanoma in Medicare Patients.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Surgery, Division of Biological Sciences, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Adjuvant therapy for stage III melanoma improves several measures of patient survival. However, decisions regarding inclusion of adjuvant therapies in the formularies of public payers necessarily consider the cost-effectiveness of those treatments. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of four recently approved adjuvant therapies for BRAF-mutant stage III melanoma in the Medicare patient population. Read More

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Impact of polypharmacy on all-cause mortality and hospitalization in incident hemodialysis patients: a cohort study.

Clin Exp Nephrol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Hemovascular Medicine and Artificial Organs, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara Kiyotake, Miyazaki city, Miyazaki, 889-1692, Japan.

Background: Polypharmacy (PP) is common in end-stage chronic renal disease patients largely due to the presence of multiple comorbid conditions. Although PP is potentially harmful, its relationship with mortality and morbidity in hemodialysis patients currently remains unclear.

Methods: Study design: cohort study. Read More

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Secretor status strongly influences the incidence of symptomatic norovirus infection in a genotype-dependent manner in a Nicaraguan birth cohort.

J Infect Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, National Autonomous University of Nicaragua - León, León, Nicaragua.

Background: The role of histo-blood group on the burden and severity of norovirus gastroenteritis in young infants has not been well documented.

Methods: Norovirus gastroenteritis was assessed in 443 Nicaraguan children followed from birth until 3 years of age. Stool samples were tested for norovirus by RT-qPCR and histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) were determined by phenotyping of saliva and blood. Read More

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Informatics Methods and Infrastructure Needed to Study Factors Associated with High Incidence of Pediatric Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors in Kentucky.

J Registry Manag 2020 ;47(3):127-134

Pediatric brain and central nervous system tumors (PBCNSTs) are the most common solid tumors and are the leading cause of disease-related death in US children. PBCNST incidence rates in Kentucky are significantly higher than in the United States as a whole, and are even higher among Kentucky's Appalachian children. To understand and eventually eliminate such disparities, population-based research is needed to gain a thorough understanding of the epidemiology and etiology of the disease. Read More

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Comprehensive Cancer Survival by Neighborhood-Level Income in Ontario, Canada, 2006-2011.

J Registry Manag 2020 ;47(3):102-112

Background: Cancer survival statistics can provide a means to assess the effectiveness of the cancer care system, including early detection strategies, the quality of clinical care, and disease management. Disparities in cancer survival (for instance, by neighborhood-level income) persist in Ontario, Canada despite the existence of a universal health care system. Lower income has been associated with an increased incidence of cancer and worsened survival. Read More

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Comparative analysis of ischemic changes in electrocardiogram and coronary angiography results: A retrospective study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(24):e26007

Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, China.

Abstract: To improve the correct diagnosis rate of coronary heart disease and to explore the guiding value of electrocardiogram (ECG) ST-T ischemic changes in the clinical diagnosis of coronary heart disease.A retrospective analysis was conducted on a total of 310 cases who underwent a conventional 12-lead ECG, 12-lead dynamic ECG (DECG, Holter) with ST-T ischemic changes, and then coronary angiography (CA) within 1 week in Qingdao Sttarr Heart Hospital from June 2015 to April 2020 in the study. Ischemic ST-T changes were evaluated using conventional diagnostic criteria, and Judkins diagnostic criteria were used in CA. Read More

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Cost-Effectiveness of Treatment Thresholds for Subsolid Pulmonary Nodules in CT Lung Cancer Screening.

Radiology 2021 Jun 15:204418. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

From the Department of Radiology (Thoracic Division), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 (M.M.H.); Institute of Technology Assessment, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass (A.L.E.); Department of Statistical Science, Duke University, Durham, NC (L.L.P.); and Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (C.Y.K.).

Background Guidelines such as the Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS) are available for determining when subsolid nodules should be treated within lung cancer screening programs, but they are based on expert opinion. Purpose To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of varying treatment thresholds for subsolid nodules within a lung cancer screening setting by using a simulation model. Materials and Methods A previously developed model simulated 10 million current and former smokers undergoing CT lung cancer screening who were assumed to have a ground-glass nodule (GGN) at baseline. Read More

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The Fluorescent Dye 1,6-Diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene Binds to Amyloid Fibrils Formed by Human Amylin and Provides a New Probe of Amylin Amyloid Kinetics.

Biochemistry 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Graduate Program in Biochemistry and Structural Biology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, United States.

The fluorescent dye 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) is widely used as a probe of membrane order. We show that DPH also interacts with amyloid fibrils formed by human amylin (h-amylin, also known as islet amyloid polypeptide) in solution, and this results in a 100-fold increase in DPH fluorescence for a sample of 20 μM h-amylin and 0.25 μM DPH. Read More

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