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Novel autoantibodies to the β-cell surface epitopes of ZnT8 in patients progressing to type-1 diabetes.

J Autoimmun 2021 Jun 12;122:102677. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing β-cells in pancreatic islets. Seroconversions to islet autoantibodies (IAbs) precede the disease onset by many years, but the role of humoral autoimmunity in the disease initiation and progression are unclear. In the present study, we identified a new IAb directed to the extracellular epitopes of ZnT8 (ZnT8ec) in newly diagnosed patients with T1D, and demonstrated immunofluorescence staining of the surface of human β-cells by autoantibodies to ZnT8ec (ZnT8ecA). Read More

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Clinical characteristics of anti-isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase antibody associated syndrome and comparison with different patient cohorts.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Rheumatology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objectives: This study aimed to analyse the clinical features of anti-isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (OJ) antibodies in Chinese patients and to compare with previously published cohorts. We reviewed the clinical data of anti-OJ antibody positive patients, including their long-term follow-up.

Results: Anti-OJ antibodies were present in 10 of 1269 (0. Read More

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Immunogenicity and safety of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in adult patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases and in the general population: a multicentre study.

Ann Rheum Dis 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Rheumatology Department, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Introduction: Vaccination represents a cornerstone in mastering the COVID-19 pandemic. Data on immunogenicity and safety of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) are limited.

Methods: A multicentre observational study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of the two-dose regimen BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in adult patients with AIIRD (n=686) compared with the general population (n=121). Read More

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Synthetic conjugate peptide Fba-Met6 (MP12) induces complement-mediated resistance against disseminated Candida albicans.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Parasitology, 1901 Perdido St., New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. Electronic address:

The fungal genus Candida includes common commensals of the human mucosal membranes, and the most prevalently isolated species, C. albicans, poses a threat of candidemia and disseminated infection associated with an unacceptably high mortality rate and an immense $4 billion burden (US) yearly. Nevertheless, the demand for a vaccine remains wholly unfulfilled and increasingly pressing. Read More

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Multiplexed and High-Throughput Label-Free Detection of RNA/Spike Protein/IgG/IgM Biomarkers of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Utilizing Nanoplasmonic Biosensors.

Anal Chem 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, 402 N Blackford Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, United States.

To tackle the COVID-19 outbreak, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), there is an unmet need for highly accurate diagnostic tests at all stages of infection with rapid results and high specificity. Here, we present a label-free nanoplasmonic biosensor-based, multiplex screening test for COVID-19 that can quantitatively detect 10 different biomarkers (6 viral nucleic acid genes, 2 spike protein subunits, and 2 antibodies) with a limit of detection in the aM range, all within one biosensor platform. Our newly developed nanoplasmonic biosensors demonstrate high specificity, which is of the upmost importance to avoid false responses. Read More

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Provider Antibody Serology Study of Virus in the Emergency Room (PASSOVER) Study: Special Population COVID-19 Seroprevalence.

West J Emerg Med 2021 Apr 9;22(3):565-571. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Children's Hospital of Orange County, Research Institute, Orange, California.

Introduction: Limited data on the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among healthcare workers (HCW) are publicly available. In this study we sought to determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in a population of HCWs in a pediatric emergency department (ED).

Methods: We conducted this observational cohort study from April 14-May 13, 2020 in a pediatric ED in Orange County, CA. Read More

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Usefulness of the l-type Wako antibody J test.

JGH Open 2021 Jun 7;5(6):673-678. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Gastroenterology The Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research Tokyo Japan.

Background And Aim: antibody levels in the blood are currently measured using an ELISA. In April 2016, FUJIFILM Wako Pure Chemical Corporation launched the "l-type Wako antibody J" test, which is based on the latex agglutination turbidimetric immunoassay. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of the Wako test. Read More

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Impact of Subclinical and Clinical Kidney Allograft Rejection Within 1 Year Posttransplantation Among Compatible Transplant With Steroid Withdrawal Protocol.

Transplant Direct 2021 Jul 8;7(7):e706. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Medicine, Thomas E Starzl Transplantation Institute, Pittsburgh, PA.

Early acute kidney rejection remains an important clinical issue.

Methods: The current study included 552 recipients who had 1-2 surveillance or indication biopsy within the 1 y posttransplant. We evaluated the impact of type of allograft inflammation on allograft outcome. Read More

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Novel CD123 polyaptamer hydrogel edited by Cas9/sgRNA for AML-targeted therapy.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):1166-1178

Department of Neonatology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

CD123 targeting molecules have been widely applied in acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) therapeutics. Although antibodies have been more widely used as targeting molecules, aptamer have unique advantages for CD123 targeting therapy. In this study, we constructed an aptamer hydrogel termed as SSFH which could be precisely cut by Cas9/sgRNA for programmed SS30 release. Read More

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December 2021

Cluster Percolation Causes Shear Thinning Behavior in Concentrated Solutions of Monoclonal Antibodies.

Mol Pharm 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester M1 7DN, United Kingdom.

High-concentration (>100 g/L) solutions of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are typically characterized by anomalously large solution viscosity and shear thinning behavior for strain rates ≥10 s. Here, the link between protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and the rheology of concentrated solutions of COE-03 and COE-19 mAbs is studied by means of static and dynamic light scattering and microfluidic rheometry. By comparing the experimental data with predictions based on the Baxter sticky hard-sphere model, we surprisingly find a connection between the observed shear thinning and the predicted percolation threshold. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 Antibody persistence in COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors: Dependency on assay format and applicability to serosurveillance.

Transfusion 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Vitalant Research Institute, Denver, CO, USA.

Background: Antibody response duration following SARS-CoV-2 infection tends to be variable and depends on severity of disease and method of detection.

Study Design And Methods: COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) from 18 donors was collected longitudinally for a maximum of 63 - 129 days following resolution of symptoms. All the samples were initially screened by the Ortho Total Ig test to confirm positivity and subsequently tested with 7 additional direct sandwich or indirect binding assays (Ortho, Roche, Abbott, Broad Institute) directed against a variety of antigen targets (S1, RBD, and NC), along with 2 neutralization assays (Broad Institute live virus PRNT and Vitalant Research Institute Pseudovirus RVPN). Read More

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Tocilizumab in COVID-19: The Cerrahpaşa-PREDICT score.

J Infect Chemother 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Cytokine release syndrome (CRS), characterized by overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines in the course of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has been suggested as the major cause of mortality. Tocilizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody against human IL-6 receptor, poses a therapeutic option for the treatment of CRS leading to severe acute respiratory syndrome in coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.

Methods: We performed a single-center retrospective study to reveal the outcome of COVID-19 patients on tocilizumab and proposed "the Cerrahpaşa-PREDICT score", a new clinical scoring system using clinical and laboratory parameters that would help predicting the 28-day mortality of COVID-19 patients receiving tocilizumab. Read More

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Comparison of Rapid Antibody Test and Thorax Computed Tomography Results in Patients who Underwent RT-PCR with the Pre-Diagnosis of COVID-19.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jun 13:e14524. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Bakırcay University, Izmır Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.

Introduction: In this study, it is planned to compare the RT-PCR test, which is the gold standard in the diagnosis of COVID-19, with Thorax computed tomography (CT) and rapid antibody test results.

Methods: Patients who were admitted to the emergency service of İzmir Çiğli Training and Research Hospital between 01.04. Read More

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Novel corona virus (COVID-19); Global efforts and effective investigational medicines: A review.

J Infect Public Health 2021 May 1;14(7):910-921. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Chemistry, Hindu College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007,India.

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), associated with the outbreak of deadly virus originating in Wuhan, China, is now a global health emergency and a matter of serious concern. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is rapidly spreading worldwide, and WHO declared the outbreak of this disease a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Though some of the countries have succeeded in slowing down the rate of the spread of this pandemic, most the countries across the globe are still continuing to experience an increasing trend in the growth and spread of this deadly disease. Read More

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Non-invasive immunoPET imaging of PD-L1 using anti-PD-L1-B11 in breast cancer and melanoma tumor model.

Nucl Med Biol 2021 May 29;100-101:4-11. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Immunotherapy targeting PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) is efficacious in various solid and hematologic malignancies. However, the response rate to PD-1/PD-L1 therapy is only 15-35%. To obtain optimal clinical response to ICI therapies, a reliable assessment of tumor PD-L1 expression is needed to select appropriate patients, and a non-invasive imaging-based assessment of PD-L1 expression is critically needed. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the Southern Region of New Zealand, 2020.

Pathology 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Southern Community Laboratories, Dunedin, New Zealand. Electronic address:

During New Zealand's first outbreak in early 2020 the Southern Region had the highest per capita SARS-CoV-2 infection rate. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing was initially limited by a narrow case definition and limited laboratory capacity, and cases may have been missed. Our objectives were to evaluate the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG nucleocapsid assay, alongside spike-based assays, and to determine the frequency of antibodies among PCR-confirmed and probable cases, and higher risk individuals in the Southern Region of New Zealand. Read More

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Nationwide Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Saudi Arabia.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Apr 24;14(7):832-838. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Estimated seroprevalence of Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a critical evidence for a better evaluation of the virus spread and monitoring the progress of COVID-19 pandemic in a population. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence has been reported in specific regions, but an extensive nationwide study has not been reported. Here, we report a nationwide study to determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the population of KSA during the pandemic, using serum samples from healthy blood donors, non-COVID patients and healthcare workers (HCWs) in six different regions of the kingdom, with addition samples from COVID-19 patients. Read More

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The occurrence of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in aquaporin-4-antibody seronegative Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 May 28;53:103030. Epub 2021 May 28.

China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100070, China; Department of Neurology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052, China. Electronic address:

Background: Despite inclusion in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG-Ab)-associated diseases are increasingly recognized as an independent disease entity. In this study, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to comprehensively update the rate of occurrence of MOG-Ab in Aquaporin4 (AQP4)-antibody seronegative NMOSD.

Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases for studies reporting the rates of patients with MOG-Ab in NMOSD. Read More

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Extracellular loops of the serotonin transporter act as a selectivity filter for drug binding.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jun 9:100863. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

The Institute of Pharmacology and the Gaston H. Glock Research Laboratories for Exploratory Drug Development, Center of Physiology and Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

The serotonin transporter (SERT) shapes serotonergic neurotransmission by retrieving its eponymous substrate from the synaptic cleft. Ligands which discriminate between SERT and its close relative, the dopamine transporter DAT, differ in their association rate constant rather than their dissociation rate. The structural basis for this phenomenon is not known. Read More

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Clinical significance of large unstained cell count in estimating the current activity of ANCA-associated vasculitis.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jun 12:e14512. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: We investigated whether large unstained cell (LUC) count could estimate the current high activity according to Birmingham vasculitis activity score (BVAS) in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) positive ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 176 immunosuppressive drug-naïve patients with ANCA positive AAV. Clinical and laboratory data at diagnosis, including LUC count, were collected. Read More

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Chitosan and alginate salt as biomaterials are potential natural adjuvants for killed cholera vaccine.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Chitosan and alginate salts are natural biopolymers that have gained recent attention in the biomedical sectors. Their properties allow them to become potential candidates as safe, cheap, and effective vaccine adjuvants. The present study aimed to enhance the immunogenic response of a current injectable killed cholera vaccine (KCV) using chitosan and alginate salt as natural adjuvants against alum. Read More

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Citywide serosurveillance of the initial SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in San Francisco using electronic health records.

Nat Commun 2021 06 11;12(1):3566. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Serosurveillance provides a unique opportunity to quantify the proportion of the population that has been exposed to pathogens. Here, we developed and piloted Serosurveillance for Continuous, ActionabLe Epidemiologic Intelligence of Transmission (SCALE-IT), a platform through which we systematically tested remnant samples from routine blood draws in two major hospital networks in San Francisco for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies during the early months of the pandemic. Importantly, SCALE-IT allows for algorithmic sample selection and rich data on covariates by leveraging electronic health record data. Read More

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Assessment of immunogenicity and safety across two manufacturing lots of a 3-antigen hepatitis B vaccine, Sci-B-Vac®, compared with Engerix-B® in healthy Asian adults: A phase 3 randomized clinical trial.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

VBI Vaccines Inc., Cambridge, MA, United States.

Background: Sci-B-Vac®, a 3-antigen hepatitis B vaccine (3A-HBV), contains all three recombinant hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope proteins (S, pre-S1, and pre-S2). In 2005, 3A-HBV manufacturing transferred facilities (A to B), where it continues to be manufactured.

Methods: This phase 3, single-blind, randomized study, conducted at one site in Vietnam, compared efficacy and safety among two 3A-HBV lots, lot A and lot B, and a single-antigen hepatitis B vaccine (1A-HBV), Engerix-B®. Read More

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The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among health care workers before the Era of vaccination: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Koç University İş Bank Research Center for Infectious Diseases (KUISCID), Istanbul, Turkey; Koç University, School of Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:

Background: The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs provide information to for the spread of COVID-19 within health care facilities, and to detect the risk groups.

Objective: We aimed to describe the rate of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and its determinants among health care workers.

Data Sources: We used Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, EBSCOhost and Cochrane Library. Read More

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Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) Consult Series #56: Hepatitis C in Pregnancy: Updated Guidelines.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

In the United States, it is estimated that 1% to 4% of pregnant women are infected with hepatitis C virus, which carries approximately a 5% risk of transmission from mother to infant. Hepatitis C virus can be transmitted to the infant in utero or during the peripartum period, and infection during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including fetal growth restriction and low birthweight. The purpose of this document is to discuss the current evidence, provide updated recommendations regarding screening, review treatment, and address management of hepatitis C virus during pregnancy. Read More

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Carcinoembryonic antigen as a specific glycoprotein ligand of rBC2LCN lectin on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells.

Cancer Sci 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Cellular and Molecular Biotechnology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8566, Japan.

The rBC2LCN lectin, known as a stem cell marker probe that binds to an H type 3 fucosylated trisaccharide motif, was recently revealed to also bind to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. A lectin-drug conjugate was generated by fusing rBC2LCN with a cytocidal toxin, and it showed a strong anticancer effect in in vitro and in vivo PDAC models. However, it is unclear which molecules are carrier proteins of rBC2LCN on PDAC cells. Read More

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Prospective observational study of the efficacy of nivolumab in Japanese patients with advanced melanoma (CREATIVE study).

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Cellular Signaling, Institute for Advanced Medical Research, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Nivolumab, the anti-programmed cell death protein 1 antibody, has been approved for advanced melanoma, mainly based on evidence from Western countries. The profile of melanoma differs between Caucasian and Asian patients. This study was performed to obtain post-marketing data of nivolumab in Japanese patients with advanced melanoma. Read More

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Determining the approximate factor VIII level of patients with severe haemophilia A on emicizumab using in vivo global haemostasis assays.

Haemophilia 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Hemostasis and Thrombosis Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Introduction: Emicizumab is a recombinant, humanized bispecific monoclonal antibody that mimics the function of factor VIII (FVIII) which results in a significant reduction in the annualized bleeding rate in patients with haemophilia A (HA), however, the degree with which emicizumab corrects the coagulation defect remains unclear. The objective of this study was to predict the approximate FVIII level in severe haemophilia A patients with inhibitors on emicizumab using global haemostasis assays.

Materials And Methods: Patients with moderate and mild HA in the non-bleeding state and healthy controls had FVIII levels and thrombin generation assessed. Read More

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Relationship between autoimmune thyroid disease and nephropathy: A clinicopathological study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(23):e26273

Department of Pathology, Shanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Taiyuan City, Shanxi Province, China.

Abstract: The association of nephropathy with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) has been reported previously. However, there is limited information on the relationship between thyroid autoantibodies and nephropathy. A retrospective study was conducted using the medical records of 246 patients with nephropathy, 82 of whom had concurrent AITD. Read More

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COVID-19 in the Context of Inborn Errors of Immunity: a Case Series of 31 Patients from Mexico.

J Clin Immunol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Immune Deficiencies Lab., National Institute of Pediatrics, Av Iman 1, Torre de Investigacion Piso 9, Insurgentes Cuicuilco, Coyoacan, 04530, Mexico City, Mexico.

Introduction: Patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) have a compromised or inappropriate immune response. Although they might be considered a high-risk group for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, the reported impact of COVID-19 in these patients has been reassuring, while the differential susceptibility of distinct types of IEI remains unclear.

Objective: We aimed to describe the findings and outcomes of our known patients with IEI who were diagnosed with COVID-19. Read More

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