193,125 results match your criteria rat muscle

Phlorizin attenuates visceral hypersensitivity and colonic hyperpermeability in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 May 3;139:111649. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido, 078-8510, Japan; Department of General Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510, Japan.

Visceral hypersensitivity and impaired gut barrier are crucial contributors to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and those are mediated via corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-Toll like receptor 4-pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling. Phlorizin is an inhibitor of sodium-linked glucose transporters (SGLTs), and known to have anti-cytokine properties. Thus, we hypothesized that phlorizin may improve these gastrointestinal changes in IBS, and tested this hypothesis in rat IBS models, i. Read More

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Liraglutide treatment counteracts alterations in adipose tissue metabolism induced by orchiectomy in rats.

Life Sci 2021 May 3:119586. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Physiology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Aims: The reduction in androgens serum concentration is a physiological condition that accompanies age advancement but can also occur because of prostate cancer and gender affirming treatment or pathological conditions such as functional hypogonadism. However, androgen deficiency is related to a higher risk of developing metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Considering that glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) analogs are increasingly used in the treatment of T2DM, we investigated if liraglutide could also attenuate the metabolic changes caused by orchiectomy in rats. Read More

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MicroRNA‑101 inhibits renal tubular epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition by targeting TGF‑β1 type I receptor.

Int J Mol Med 2021 Jun 6;47(6). Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Liver Diseases, Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, P.R. China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are key regulators of renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF). The present study was designed to identify miRNAs associated with the development of RIF, and to explore the ability of these identified miRNAs to modulate the renal tubular epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. To this end, miRNAs that were differentially expressed between normal and fibrotic kidneys in a rat model of mercury chloride (HgCl)‑induced RIF were detected via an array‑based approach. Read More

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[Corrigendum] Combination treatment of adipose‑derived stem cells and adiponectin attenuates pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats by inhibiting pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation and regulating the AMPK/BMP/Smad pathway.

Int J Mol Med 2021 Jul 6;48(1). Epub 2021 May 6.

Fujian Hypertension Research Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital ofFujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350005, P.R. China.

Following the publication of the above article, an interested reader drew the authors' attention that the data featured in Fig. 1B (for adipogenic differentiation of adipose‑derived stem cells) and Fig. 1F (for expression of green fluorescent protein of adipose‑derived stem cells) of the above article appeared to have already been published as Fig. Read More

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Decreased muscle-derived musclin by chronic resistance exercise is associated with improved insulin resistance in rats with type 2 diabetes.

Physiol Rep 2021 May;9(9):e14823

Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan.

Chronic resistance exercise induces improved hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Musclin, a muscle-derived secretory factor, is involved in the induction of insulin resistance via the downregulation of the glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) signaling pathway in skeletal muscles. However, whether musclin affects the mechanism of resistance exercise remains unclear. Read More

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The effects of exercise training on Kinesin and GAP-43 expression in skeletal muscle fibers of STZ-induced diabetic rats.

Sci Rep 2021 May 5;11(1):9535. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Literature and Human Sciences, Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran.

Kinesin-1 and Growth Associated Protein 43 (GAP-43) localization in muscle fiber are crucial for proper skeletal muscle hypertrophy. To evaluate this assumption, we investigated the beneficial effects of endurance training on GAP-43 and Kinesin Family Member 5B (KIF5B) expression in gastrocnemius muscle of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Fifty-two male rats were randomly divided into four groups: healthy control (C), healthy trained (T), diabetic control (DC) and diabetic trained (DT). Read More

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[Pharmacological characteristics and clinical study results of Selexipag (Uptravi tablets), a selective prostacyclin receptor agonist].

Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi 2021 ;156(3):178-186

Global Business Division, Nippon Shinyaku Co., Ltd.

Selexipag (Uptravi tablets) is a novel prostacyclin receptor (IP receptor) agonist designed and synthesized at Nippon Shinyaku Co., Ltd., and approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Read More

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January 2021

[The roles of gap junctional intercellular communication in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver fibrosis].

Aya Naiki-Ito

Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi 2021 ;156(3):152-156

Department of Experimental Pathology and Tumor Biology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences.

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common risk factor for fibrosis, cirrhosis, and a predisposing factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Recently, incidence of NASH has increased due to an increase in metabolic syndrome. Connexin (Cx)32, a hepatocyte gap-junction protein, plays an important role in liver tissue homeostasis; Cx32 dominant-negative transgenic rat (Cx32ΔTg) has much decreased gap-junctional intercellular communication, and high susceptibility to carcinogens. Read More

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January 2021

iPSC-endothelial cell phenotypic drug screening and in silico analyses identify tyrphostin-AG1296 for pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Sci Transl Med 2021 May;13(592)

Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disorder leading to occlusive vascular remodeling. Current PAH therapies improve quality of life but do not reverse structural abnormalities in the pulmonary vasculature. Here, we used high-throughput drug screening combined with in silico analyses of existing transcriptomic datasets to identify a promising lead compound to reverse PAH. Read More

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Protective effects of calorie restriction on insulin resistance and islet function in STZ-induced type 2 diabetes rats.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2021 May 5;18(1):48. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The Seventh Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Shenzhen, 518107, China.

Background: Caloric restriction (CR) has become increasingly attractive in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) because of the increasingly common high-calorie diet and sedentary lifestyle. This study aimed to evaluate the role of CR in T2DM treatment and further explore its potential molecular mechanisms.

Methods: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Read More

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Key indicators of repetitive overuse-induced neuromuscular inflammation and fibrosis are prevented by manual therapy in a rat model.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 May 5;22(1):417. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, 3500 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19140, USA.

Background: We examined the effectiveness of a manual therapy consisting of forearm skin rolling, muscle mobilization, and upper extremity traction as a preventive treatment for rats performing an intensive lever-pulling task. We hypothesized that this treatment would reduce task-induced neuromuscular and tendon inflammation, fibrosis, and sensorimotor declines.

Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats performed a reaching and lever pulling task for a food reward, 2 h/day, 3 days/week, for 12 weeks, while simultaneously receiving the manual therapy treatment 3 times per week for 12 weeks to either the task-involved upper extremities (TASK-Tx), or the lower extremities as an active control group (TASK-Ac). Read More

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A BMP/Activin A Chimera Induces Posterolateral Spine Fusion in Nonhuman Primates at Lower Concentrations Than BMP-2.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Orthopedic Research and Pharmaceutical Development Consultant, Hudson, Massachusetts.

Background: Supraphysiologic bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 concentrations are required to induce spinal fusion. In this study, a BMP-2/BMP-6/activin A chimera (BV-265), optimized for BMP receptor binding, delivered in a recombinant human collagen:CDHA [calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite] porous composite matrix (CM) or bovine collagen:CDHA granule porous composite matrix (PCM), engineered for optimal BV-265 retention and guided tissue repair, was compared with BMP-2 delivered in a bovine absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) wrapped around a MASTERGRAFT Matrix (MM) ceramic-collagen rod (ACS:MM) in a nonhuman primate noninstrumented posterolateral fusion (PLF) model.

Methods: In vivo retention of 125I-labeled-BV-265/CM or PCM was compared with 125I-labeled-BMP-2/ACS or BMP-2/buffer in a rat muscle pouch model using scintigraphy. Read More

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Use of paclitaxel carried in lipid nanoparticles to treat aortic allograft transplantation in rats.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Instituto do Coracao (InCor), Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to test whether lipid core nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel (LDE-PTX) protect rat aortic allograft from immunological damage.

Methods: Fisher and Lewis rats were used differing in minor histocompatibility loci. Sixteen Lewis rats were allocated to four-animal groups: SYNG (syngeneic), Lewis rats receiving aorta grafts from Lewis rats; ALLO (allogeneic), Lewis rats receiving aortas from Fisher rats; ALLO+LDE (allogeneic transplant treated with LDE), Lewis rats receiving aortas from Fisher rats, treated with LDE (weekly injection for 3 weeks); ALLO+LDE-PTX (allogeneic transplant treated with LDE-PTX), Lewis rats receiving aortas from Fisher rats treated with LDE-PTX (4 mg/kg weekly for 3 weeks). Read More

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Acute Intrathecal BDNF Enhances Functional Recovery after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

J Neurophysiol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Physiology & Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, United Statesgrid.66875.3a.

Unilateral C hemisection (CSH) disrupts descending inspiratory-related drive to phrenic motor neurons and thus, silences rhythmic diaphragm muscle (DIAm) activity. There is gradual recovery of rhythmic DIAm EMG activity over time post-CSH, consistent with neuroplasticity, which is enhanced by chronic (two weeks) intrathecal BDNF treatment. In the present study, we hypothesized that acute (30-min) intrathecal BDNF treatment also enhances recovery of DIAm EMG activity after CSH. Read More

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Vascular permeability of skeletal muscle microvessels in rat arterial ligation model: in vivo analysis using two-photon laser scanning microscopy.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Engineering Science, University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo, Japangrid.266298.1.

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) in the lower limb compromises oxygen supply due to arterial occlusion. Ischemic skeletal muscle is accompanied by capillary structural deformation. Therefore, using novel microscopy techniques, we tested the hypothesis that endothelial cell swelling temporally and quantitatively corresponds to enhanced microvascular permeability. Read More

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Regular aerobic exercise increased VEGF levels in both soleus and gastrocnemius muscles correlated with hippocampal learning and VEGF levels.

Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 2021 ;81(1):1-9

Department of Physiology , Dokuz Eylul University , School of Medicine , Izmir , Turkey.

Physical exercise improves learning and memory abilities by increasing the levels of several growth factors in the hippocampus. One growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is primarily produced in the muscles and not only increases in the periphery during exercise but can also cross the blood-brain barrier. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of regular aerobic chronic exercise on different types of muscle fibers and the relationships between learning/memory and muscle induced-VEGF. Read More

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January 2021

ERK/Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission contributes to HMGB1-induced autophagy in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Cell Prolif 2021 May 4:e13048. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Objectives: High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and aberrant mitochondrial fission mediated by excessive activation of GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) have been found to be elevated in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and critically implicated in PAH pathogenesis. However, it remains unknown whether Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission and which downstream targets of mitochondrial fission mediate HMGB1-induced pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) proliferation and migration leading to vascular remodelling in PAH. This study aims to address these issues. Read More

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Maternal exercise during pregnancy modulates mitochondrial function and redox status in a sex-dependent way in adult offspring's skeletal muscle.

J Dev Orig Health Dis 2021 May 5:1-8. Epub 2021 May 5.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas - Bioquímica, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Maternal exercise has shown beneficial effects on mother and child. Literature confirm progeny's cognition improvement, and upregulation in neurotrophins, antioxidant network, and DNA repair system. Considering that there is a lack of information demonstrating the impact of maternal exercise on offspring's skeletal muscle, we aimed to investigate the mitochondrial and redox effects elicited by maternal swimming. Read More

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Investigation of Neuropathology after Nerve Release in Chronic Constriction Injury of Rat Sciatic Nerve.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 29;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan.

Peripheral compressive neuropathy causes significant neuropathic pain, muscle weakness and prolong neuroinflammation. Surgical decompression remains the gold standard of treatment but the outcome is suboptimal with a high recurrence rate. From mechanical compression to chemical propagation of the local inflammatory signals, little is known about the distinct neuropathologic patterns and the genetic signatures after nerve decompression. Read More

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Divergent effects of exendin-4 and interleukin-6 on rat colonic secretory and contractile activity are associated with changes in regional vagal afferent signaling.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 May 4:e14160. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Physiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Background: The pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-6 is elevated in individuals with the functional bowel disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). IL-6 can independently modify intestinal secreto-motor function, thereby contributing to IBS pathophysiology. Additionally, hormonal changes may underlie symptom flares. Read More

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Successful and unsuccessful nonsurgical removal of ingested golf balls and an artificial egg in four rat snakes ().

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021 May;258(10):1135-1141

Case Description: 4 wild adult rat snakes () were evaluated after ingesting spherical or ovoid foreign bodies.

Clinical Findings: Physical examination revealed a large, firm mass at the level of the stomach in each snake. Radiographic findings were consistent with ingestion of a golf ball (3 snakes) or an artificial egg (1 snake). Read More

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Allosteric modulation of cardiac myosin mechanics and kinetics by the conjugated omega-7,9 trans-fat rumenic acid.

J Physiol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, OE4350, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Hannover, 30625, Germany.

Key Points: Direct binding of rumenic acid to the cardiac myosin-2 motor domain increases the release rate for orthophosphate and increases the Ca responsiveness of cardiac muscle at low load. Physiological cellular concentrations of rumenic acid affect the ATP turnover rates of the super-relaxed and disordered relaxed states of β-cardiac myosin leading to a net increase in myocardial metabolic load. In Ca -activated trabeculae, rumenic acid exerts a direct inhibitory effect on the force-generating mechanism without affecting the number of force-generating motors. Read More

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[Evaluation of ischemia-modified albumin in obstructive renal injury.]

Arch Esp Urol 2021 May;74(4):427-434

SBU Haydarpasa Numune SUAM. Department of Urology. Istanbul. Turkey.

Objectives: This study was aimed at assessing the ability of ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) to predict renal injury by associating biochemical, functional, and pathological findings with various degrees of ureteral obstruction.

Methods: Twenty-four rats were randomized into three groups, and their blood was sampled to determine the creatinine and IMA values and renal scintigraphy was done at the start and on postoperative day 7. In the sham group, the ureter was untouched; in the partial group, the ureter was gently embedded into the psoas muscle; and in the complete group, the ureter was compathologically, and all parameters were statistically evaluated. Read More

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Sympathectomy decreases pain behaviors and nerve regeneration by downregulating monocyte chemokine CCL2 in dorsal root ganglia in the rat tibial nerve crush model.

Pain 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Pain Research Center, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267, U.S.A. Department of Anesthesiology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China. *Present address.

Abstract: Peripheral nerve regeneration is associated with pain in several preclinical models of neuropathic pain. Some neuropathic pain conditions and preclinical neuropathic pain behaviors are improved by sympathetic blockade. In this study we examined the effect of a localized "microsympathectomy," i. Read More

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Multi-omics reveals age-related differences in the diaphragm response to mechanical ventilation: a pilot study.

Skelet Muscle 2021 05 3;11(1):11. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Bioclinicum, J8:30, SE-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Old age is associated with a significantly increased mortality in COVID-19 patients exposed to long-term controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) and suggested to be due to the hyperinflammatory response associated with the viral infection. However, our understanding of age-related differences in the response to CMV in the absence of a viral infection remains insufficient.

Methods: Young (7-8 months) and old (28-32 months) F344 BN hybrid rats were exposed to the ICU condition for 5 days, i. Read More

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Mirogabalin, a novel ligand for αδ subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels, improves cognitive impairments in repeated intramuscular acidic saline injection model rats, an experimental model of fibromyalgia.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Apr 30;139:111647. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Specialty Medicine Research Laboratories I, Daiichi-Sankyo Co., Ltd., 1-2-58, Hiromachi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-8710, Japan. Electronic address:

Mirogabalin is a novel potent and selective ligand for the αδ subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels, and shows potent and sustained analgesic effects in neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia models. Fibromyalgia is often associated with multiple comorbid symptoms, such as anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment. In the present study, we investigated the effects of mirogabalin on cognitive impairments in an experimental animal model for fibromyalgia, repeated intramuscular acidic saline injection model (Sluka model) rats. Read More

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C-bouton components on rat extensor digitorum longus motoneurons are resistant to chronic functional overload.

J Anat 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neuromuscular Diseases, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.

Mammalian motor systems adapt to the demands of their environment. For example, muscle fibre types change in response to increased load or endurance demands. However, for adaptations to be effective, motoneurons must adapt such that their properties match those of the innervated muscle fibres. Read More

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Elucidation of Mechanisms in Cu (II) Caused Hypercontraction of Rat Tracheal Rings.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 110025, India.

Airway smooth muscle contraction is one of the primary factors involved in the initiation and progression of asthma which in turn is regulated by increased cytosolic Ca concentration from intracellular stores and through transmembrane ion channels. Calcium-independent factors such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, nitric oxide (NO) depletion and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways also contribute to tracheal smooth muscle contraction. Studies on copper toxicity suggest significance of this essential micronutrient overdose in acute respiratory disorders, allergic asthma and ciliary motion in tracheal explants. Read More

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Study on the time-effectiveness of exercise preconditioning on heart protection in exhausted rats.

Chin J Physiol 2021 Mar-Apr;64(2):97-105

Department of Cardiology, The Hospital of the 82nd Group Army, Baoding, Hebei, China.

To investigate the persistence time and the effectiveness of exercise preconditioning (EP) on myocardial protection in exhausted rats from myocardial enzymes, electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac function, and mitochondrial respiratory function after cessation of exercise training. One hundred and twelve healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups (n = 16): control group (CON), exhaustive exercise (EE) group, EP group, and EE after EP (EP + EE); furthermore, EP + EE group was randomly divided into 1D, 3D, 9D, and 18D groups (1D, 3D, 9D, and 18D) and performed exhaustive treadmill exercise at a speed of 30 m/min on the 1, 3, 9, and 18 days separately after EP exercise stopped. We detected the serum contents of N-terminal pro B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays method, recorded ECG, detected heart function by pressure volume catheter, measured the respiratory rates of rat myocardial mitochondria state 3 and 4 of complex I, complex II, and IV by high-resolution breathing apparatus. Read More

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Deficit of female sex hormones desensitizes rat cardiac mitophagy.

Chin J Physiol 2021 Mar-Apr;64(2):72-79

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Long-term deprivation of female sex hormones has been shown to mediate accumulation of damaged mitochondria in ventricular muscle leading to cardiovascular dysfunction. Therefore, the roles of female sex hormones in mitochondrial quality control are closely focused. In the present study, depletion of female sex hormones impairing mitochondrial autophagy in the heart was hypothesized. Read More

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