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Exposure to prolonged unpredictable light impairs spatial memory via induction of oxidative stress and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rats.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Neuroscience and Oral Physiology Unit, Department of Physiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Objectives: The human body physiology rapidly changes and adapt to several environmental stimuli, including light. Abnormal artificial light exposures have been shown to affect sleep cycle, cognition, and mood. Although studies have reported inconsistent effects of short-term or constant long-term light exposures, human exposures to artificial lights occur at varying, unpredictable times and duration daily. Read More

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Peripartum Covid-19 Pneumonia with Severe ARDS - A Case Report.

Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol 2021 Apr 19;225(2):183-187. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vivantes Klinikum im Friedrichshain, Berlin, Germany.

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that was first isolated in Wuhan, China, and resulted in a rapidly spreading pandemic worldwide. Currently there is only limited evidence on the effect of COVID-19 on pregnant women.

Case: Here we present one of the first serious COVID-19 cases in pregnancy at term with subsequent delivery. Read More

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Links between biodiversity and human infectious and non-communicable diseases: a review.

Swiss Med Wkly 2021 Mar 28;151:w20485. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland / University of Basel, Switzerland.

Introduction: Biodiversity has intrinsic value and a fundamental role in human health. The relationship between them is complex, and the specific sustaining processes are still not well understood. In view of the rapidly evolving landscape, this literature review investigated scientific evidence for specific links between biodiversity and human infectious and non-communicable diseases to characterise identifiable relationships. Read More

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Trends over time in adult cannabis use: A review of recent findings.

Curr Opin Psychol 2021 Mar 20;38:80-85. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY, USA.

In the United States, policies regarding the medical and nonmedical use of cannabis are changing rapidly. In 2021, a total of 34 US states have legalized cannabis for adult medical use, and 15 of these states have legalized adult non-medical use. These changing policies have raised questions about increasing prevalences of cannabis use, changing perceptions regarding frequent use, and potentially related outcomes such as comorbid psychiatric illness or driving under the influence of cannabis. Read More

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A benthic habitat sensitivity analysis of Qatar's coastal zone.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Apr 16;167:112333. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Environmental Management Division, ExxonMobil Research Qatar, Qatar Science and Technology Park, Tech 2, PO BOX 22500, Al Wosail Tower, Doha, Qatar.

Characterizing benthic habitat sensitivities of rapidly-developing countries is of paramount importance. Recent efforts defining the benthic habitat of Qatar's coastal zone with a high-resolution, ground-truthed benthic habitat map has provided a framework on which to develop a habitat sensitivity map. Here we present a sensitivity analysis catered towards identifying habitats with varying sensitivities to natural and anthropogenic stressors on a quantitative scale from 1 to 5, low to high. Read More

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Current perceptions of cancer nurses in France about their role and the evolution of nursing practices: Findings and perspectives.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Apr 3;277:113896. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

University of Saint-Etienne, Centre Hygée, Institut Presage, CIC-EC Inserm 1408, Saint-Etienne, France. Electronic address:

Background: Florence Nightingale lamented that nurses were seen as merely obedient and devoted. Our two previous oncology studies demonstrated the continuum of strictly curative care and paternalistic care practices among healthcare professionals. At a time when France has just formalized the nursing sciences, this article seeks to shed light on the specifics of the nursing role in oncology and the evolution of standard nursing practices in a rapidly changing environment. Read More

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A unique view of SARS-COV-2 through the lens of ORF8 protein.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Apr 15;133:104380. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science, Ulster University, Coleraine BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland, UK. Electronic address:

Immune evasion is one of the unique characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) attributed to its ORF8 protein. This protein modulates the adaptive host immunity through down-regulation of MHC-1 (Major Histocompatibility Complex) molecules and innate immune responses by surpassing the host's interferon-mediated antiviral response. To understand the host's immune perspective concerning the ORF8 protein, a comprehensive study of the ORF8 protein and mutations possessed by it have been performed. Read More

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Current progress and challenges in crop genetic transformation.

J Plant Physiol 2021 Apr 5;261:153411. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Institute of Molecular Plant Biology, Department of Biology, ETH Zurich, Universitätstrasse 2, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland; Advanced Plant Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, 145 Xingda Road, Taichung City 402, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Plant transformation remains the most sought-after technology for functional genomics and crop genetic improvement, especially for introducing specific new traits and to modify or recombine already existing traits. Along with many other agricultural technologies, the global production of genetically engineered crops has steadily grown since they were first introduced 25 years ago. Since the first transfer of DNA into plant cells using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, different transformation methods have enabled rapid advances in molecular breeding approaches to bring crop varieties with novel traits to the market that would be difficult or not possible to achieve with conventional breeding methods. Read More

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The influence of G on the electronic properties of ds-DNA. Damage versus mismatch: A theoretical approach.

Comput Biol Chem 2021 Apr 16;92:107485. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

DNA Damage Laboratory of the Food Science Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lodz, ul. Muszynskiego 1, 90-151, Lodz, Poland. Electronic address:

The seed of life is concealed in the base sequence in DNA. This macromolecule is continuously exposed to harmful factors which can cause it damage. The stability of genetic information depends on the protein efficiency of repair systems. Read More

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Bibliometric Analysis of the Scientific Literature on Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

World Neurosurg 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Daniel and Jane Och Spine Hospital, New York-Presbyterian Healthcare System, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: In recent years, there has been increasing research on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), leading to a large number of publications on this topic. To our knowledge, there is no study focused on the research trend in this field yet.

Methods: Using the Web of Science Core Collection database for all publications on AIS. Read More

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Glucagon transiently stimulates mTORC1 by activation of an EPAC/Rap1 signaling axis.

Cell Signal 2021 Apr 16:110010. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, United States of America. Electronic address:

Activation of the protein kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) in both complexes 1 and 2 (mTORC1/2) in the liver is repressed during fasting and rapidly stimulated in response to a meal. The effect of feeding on hepatic mTORC1/2 is attributed to an increase in plasma levels of nutrients, such as amino acids, and insulin. By contrast, fasting is associated with elevated plasma levels of glucagon, which is conventionally viewed as having a counter-regulatory role to insulin. Read More

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Trimethylamine N-oxide alters structure-function integrity of β-casein: Structural disorder co-regulates the aggregation propensity and chaperone activity.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, 190006, India. Electronic address:

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), involved in the regulation and function of various cellular processes like transcription, translation, cell cycle etc., exist as ensembles of rapidly interconverting structures with functional plasticity. Among numerous cellular regulatory mechanisms involved in structural and functional regulation of IDPs, osmolytes are emerging as promising regulatory agents due to their ability to affect the structure-function integrity of IDPs. Read More

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A single administration of ascorbic acid rapidly reverses depressive-like behavior and hippocampal synaptic dysfunction induced by corticosterone in mice.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 Apr 16:109476. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Biochemistry, Center of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil. Electronic address:

Ketamine is the prototype for glutamate-based fast-acting antidepressants. The establishment of ketamine-like drugs is still a challenge and ascorbic acid has emerged as a candidate. This study investigated the ascorbic acid's ability to induce a fast antidepressant-like response and to improve hippocampal synaptic markers in mice subjected to chronic corticosterone (CORT) administration. Read More

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Oncogene targeted therapy for metastatic primary scrotal melanoma.

Can J Urol 2021 Apr;28(2):10643-10647

Scott Department of Urology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Primary scrotal melanoma represents the rarest genitourinary malignancy. We describe the 25th reported case. The 79-year-old patient presented with a rapidly enlarging right cutaneous scrotal mass which after local excision demonstrated pT4b nodular malignant melanoma (BRAF V600E mutation positive). Read More

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Epidemiologic Characteristics of a COVID-19 Outbreak Caused by Religious Activities in Daegu, Korea.

Epidemiol Health 2021 Apr 14:e2021024. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: A coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak triggered by religious activities occurred in Daegu, South Korea in February 2020. This outbreak spread rapidly to the community through high-risk groups. This study describes the characteristics of the COVID-19 cases based on S religious group membership and summarizes Daegu City's processes and responses to control the outbreak. Read More

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Parental whole life cycle exposure modulates progeny responses to ocean acidification in slipper limpets.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Life Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong.

Multigenerational exposure is needed to assess the evolutionary potential of organisms in the rapidly changing seascape. Here, we investigate if there is a transgenerational effect of ocean acidification exposure on a calyptraeid gastropod such that long-term exposure elevates offspring resilience. Larvae from wild type Crepidula onyx adults were reared from hatching until sexual maturity for over 36 months under three pH conditions (pH 7. Read More

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Highly variable trends in rates of newly diagnosed HIV cases in U.S. hotspots, 2008-2017.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(4):e0250179. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Epidemiology, George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health, Washington, DC, United States of America.

The U.S. Ending the HIV Epidemic (EHE) initiative was announced in early 2019 and rapidly became a focal point for domestic HIV prevention and treatment programs. Read More

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The methodological quality of 176,620 randomized controlled trials published between 1966 and 2018 reveals a positive trend but also an urgent need for improvement.

PLoS Biol 2021 Apr 19;19(4):e3001162. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Child Neurology, UMC Utrecht Brain Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, and Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are biased and difficult to reproduce due to methodological flaws and poor reporting. There is increasing attention for responsible research practices and implementation of reporting guidelines, but whether these efforts have improved the methodological quality of RCTs (e.g. Read More

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A Rare Case of Cholecystoduodenal Fistula with Rapid Distal Gallstone Migration.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Apr 19;22:e929150. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of General Surgery, Ascension Michigan Genesys Hospital, Grand Blanc, MI, USA.

BACKGROUND Abnormal communicating channels or fistulas between the gallbladder or common bile duct and the intestine are rare, but have potential to result in serious complications. Further complications can arise with migration of gallstones from the gallbladder to the intestines, causing distal obstruction in the ileum, intestinal hemorrhage, or intestinal perforation. High clinical suspicion is warranted for the diagnosis of Bouveret's syndrome, with anticipation of surgery to prevent distal gallstone migration that would otherwise result in unfavorable patient outcomes. Read More

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Trainee Perspectives Regarding Advanced Clinical Global Health Fellowships in North America.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

1Division of Global Health, Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Postgraduate clinical global health (GH) training is a rapidly evolving field. To understand and improve training opportunities, we sought the perspectives of current and former trainees related to their advanced clinical training or global health fellowships and the anticipated impact on their careers. Clinical GH fellowships across North America were identified through websites and previous studies. Read More

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Why do platelets express K channels?

Platelets 2021 Apr 19:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

Potassium ions have widespread roles in cellular homeostasis and activation as a consequence of their large outward concentration gradient across the surface membrane and ability to rapidly move through K-selective ion channels. In platelets, the predominant K channels include the voltage-gated K channel Kv1.3, and the intermediate conductance Ca-activated K channel KCa3. Read More

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Etiologies and outcomes of cirrhosis in a large contemporary cohort.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 19:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Hepatology, Department of Upper GI, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background And Aims: Patients with liver cirrhosis have high mortality, often estimated by the Child-Pugh or MELD scores. Etiologies of cirrhosis are rapidly shifting, and it is unclear if these scores perform similarly across subgroups of patients. Here, we describe the characteristics and outcomes of a large contemporary cohort of patients with cirrhosis. Read More

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Working in Creative Partnership with Students to Co-Produce Neuroanatomy e-Learning Resources in a new era of Blended Learning.

Anat Sci Educ 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Faculty of Medicine, The University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Anatomists are well placed to tackle the transition from face-to-face to blended learning approaches as a result of the rapidly forced changes brought about by Covid-19. The subject is extremely visual and has therefore previously been a target for the development of technology enhanced learning initiatives over the last ten years. Today's students have come to expect the integration of technology in the classroom and remotely. Read More

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Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and solid tumors: Three new patients from the French Registry for Severe Chronic Neutropenia and literature review.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Apr 19:e29071. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine, APHP, Armand-Trousseau Hospital, French Registry for Severe Chronic Neutropenia, CRMR of Chronic Neutropenia, Department of Pediatrics Hematology and Oncology, Sorbonne Université, Inserm, Paris, France.

Shwachman-Diamond syndrome with Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS) biallelic variants is a rare disorder that predisposes the carrier to malignant hemopathies but solid-cancer predisposition is poorly known. Among 155 cases entered in the French Registry for Severe Chronic Neutropenia, three were identified with malignant solid tumors (ovary, breast, and esophagus). All cancers occurred during the fifth decade and, despite being localized at diagnosis, were rapidly fatal thereafter. Read More

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Changing Health-Related Behaviors 3: Lessons from Implementation Science.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2249:571-595

School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Health-related behavior change refers to a body of behavior change strategies that aim to align people's behavior with advances in evidence-based knowledge and decision-making. However, human behavior is complex, and changing it often requires a combination of strategies to be effective. The challenge is in choosing the combination of strategies that will work best. Read More

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January 2021

A Clinical and Budgetary Impact Analysis of Introducing Sugammadex for Routine Reversal of Neuromuscular Blockade in a Hypothetical Cohort in the US.

Adv Ther 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Introduction: Sugammadex rapidly reverses the effects of rocuronium- and vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade (NMB), offering a more complete and predictable NMB recovery than cholinesterase inhibitors. Despite clinical benefits, cost pressures on hospital budgets influence the choice of the NMB reversal method. This study evaluated clinical and healthcare system payer's budget impacts associated with sugammadex in the US for routine reversal of moderate or deep rocuronium- or vecuronium-induced NMB in adults undergoing surgery. Read More

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Gene body methylation is under selection in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Genetics 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Irvine, CA 92697, United States.

In plants, mammals and insects, some genes are methylated in the CG dinucleotide context, a phenomenon called gene body methylation (gbM). It has been controversial whether this phenomenon has any functional role. Here we took advantage of the availability of 876 leaf methylomes in Arabidopsis thaliana to characterize the population frequency of methylation at the gene level and to estimate the site-frequency spectrum of allelic states. Read More

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Evolution after whole genome duplication: teleost microRNAs.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene OR 97403, USA.

microRNAs (miRNAs) are important gene expression regulators implicated in many biological processes, but we lack a global understanding of how miRNA genes evolve and contribute to developmental canalization and phenotypic diversification. Whole genome duplication events likely provide a substrate for species divergence and phenotypic change by increasing gene numbers and relaxing evolutionary pressures. To understand the consequences of genome duplication on miRNA evolution, we studied miRNA genes following the Teleost Genome Duplication (TGD). Read More

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Generation and Culture of Lingual Organoids Derived from Adult Mouse Taste Stem Cells.

J Vis Exp 2021 Apr 5(170). Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology and the Rocky Mountain Taste and Smell Center, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus;

The sense of taste is mediated by taste buds on the tongue, which are composed of rapidly renewing taste receptor cells (TRCs). This continual turnover is powered by local progenitor cells and renders taste function prone to disruption by a multitude of medical treatments, which in turn severely impacts the quality of life. Thus, studying this process in the context of drug treatment is vital to understanding if and how taste progenitor function and TRC production are affected. Read More

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