2,427 results match your criteria rapidly adopted

Terahertz focusing metalens of reflectionless meta-atoms with negative refractive indices.

Appl Opt 2021 May;60(13):3989-3996

Terahertz continuous-wave (CW) sources oscillating around the 1.0 THz band at room temperature have rapidly been developed to bridge the terahertz gap. However, reflectionless metasurfaces suitable for integration with terahertz CW sources as optical components have yet to be developed in the terahertz gap. Read More

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Global changes to the chemotherapy service during the covid-19 pandemic.

J Oncol Pharm Pract 2021 May 13:10781552211015767. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department for Targeted Intervention, UCL/UCLH Surgical Outcomes Research Centre, Centre for Perioperative Medicine, University College London, London, UK.

Purpose: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, changes to chemotherapy services were implemented as a means of managing imposed workload strains within health services and protecting patients from contracting COVID-19. Given the rapidly evolving nature of the pandemic many changes were rapidly adopted and were not substantiated by robust evidence. This study aimed to describe the changes adopted internationally to chemotherapy services, which may be used to guide future changes to treatment delivery. Read More

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Urgent need to address the slow scale-up of TB preventive treatment in the WHO South-East Asia Region.

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2021 May;25(5):382-387

Tuberculosis Unit, South-East Asia Regional Office, WHO, New Delhi, India.

In September 2018, all countries made a commitment at the first ever United Nations High-Level Meeting (UNHLM) on TB, to provide TB preventive treatment (TPT) to at least 30 million people at high-risk of TB disease between 2018 and 2022. In the WHO South-East Asia Region (SEA Region), which accounts for 44% of the global TB burden, only 1.2 million high-risk individuals (household contacts and people living with HIV) were provided TPT (11% of the 10. Read More

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Physiotherapist involvement in the pandemic era: a Lombardy region survey.

Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Italian Association of Respiratory Physiotherapists (ARIR); Respiratory Unit and Cystic Fibrosis Adult Center, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan.

In February 2020 the first COVID-19 case was reported in Italy and afterwards the virus started spreading rapidly, increasing dramatically the number of infected subjects. To face the pandemic outbreak, hospitals converted wards to assure COVID-19 patients' care and adopted measures to reduce virus diffusion. The aim of this study was to determine how many physiotherapists, in the Lombardy region, worked during pandemic, whether they continued their usual practice or were employed in COVID-19 wards and in which tasks they were involved. Read More

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Enhancing semantic belief function to handle decision conflicts in SoS using k-means clustering.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2021 7;7:e468. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Information Technology Department, Faculty of Information Technology and Computer Science, Sinai University, Arish, Egypt.

Background: The endeavouring to offer complex special functions from individual systems gave rise to what is known as the System of Systems (SoS). SoS co-integrating systems together while allowing for absorbing more systems in the future. SoS as an integrated system simplifies operations, reduces costs, and ensures efficiency. Read More

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Can new herbicide discovery allow weed management to outpace resistance evolution?

Pest Manag Sci 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Bayer AG, Industriepark Höchst, 65926 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

While herbicides are the most effective and widely adopted weed management approach, the evolution of multiple herbicide resistance in damaging weed species threatens the yield and profitability of many crops. Weeds accumulate multiple resistance mechanisms through sequential selection and/or gene flow, with long-range and international transport of herbicide resistant weeds proving to be a serious issue. Metabolic resistance mechanisms can confer resistance across multiple sites of action and even to herbicides not yet discovered. Read More

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Public and private sectors collective response to combat COVID-19 in Malaysia.

J Pharm Policy Pract 2021 May 3;14(1):40. Epub 2021 May 3.

Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa'adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong, Brunei Darussalam.

Over the last year, the dangerous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly around the world. Malaysia has not been excluded from this COVID-19 pandemic. The resurgence of COVID-19 cases has overwhelmed the public healthcare system and overloaded the healthcare resources. Read More

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Healthcare systems and Covid19: Lessons to be learnt from efficient countries.

Int J Health Plann Manage 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Hertfordshire Business School, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK.

Background: The novel coronavirus is rapidly spreading over the world and puts the health systems of countries under intense pressure. High hospitalization levels due to the pandemic outbreak have caused the intensive care units to work above capacity.

Purpose: A data envelopment analysis (DEA) based modelling approach was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of regions (i. Read More

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Landscape rules predict optimal superhighways for the first peopling of Sahul.

Nat Hum Behav 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

ARC Centre of Excellence for Australian Biodiversity and Heritage, James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland, Australia.

Archaeological data and demographic modelling suggest that the peopling of Sahul required substantial populations, occurred rapidly within a few thousand years and encompassed environments ranging from hyper-arid deserts to temperate uplands and tropical rainforests. How this migration occurred and how humans responded to the physical environments they encountered have, however, remained largely speculative. By constructing a high-resolution digital elevation model for Sahul and coupling it with fine-scale viewshed analysis of landscape prominence, least-cost pedestrian travel modelling and high-performance computing, we create over 125 billion potential migratory pathways, whereby the most parsimonious routes traversed emerge. Read More

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Rural Morphology and Forces Driving Change in Rapidly Urbanizing Areas: A Case Study in Fujian, China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 26;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

School of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China.

Rapid urbanization in China has transformed many rural areas from agriculture-dominated to diverse systems, but studies of rural morphology are limited compared to studies of urban settlement. This paper uses a fractal dimension (FD) value to analyze the change in rural morphology in Fujian Province, a region with a long history of rural settlement and rapid recent urbanization, and to explore the factors that influenced this change. We found that the rural FD value increased from 2000 to 2012 and that rural morphology was spatially heterogeneous. Read More

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Gel-Like Human Mimicking Phantoms: Realization Procedure, Dielectric Characterization and Experimental Validations on Microwave Wearable Body Sensors.

Biosensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 8;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica, Modellistica, Elettronica e Sistemistica, Università della Calabria, 87036 Rende, Italy.

A simple and low-cost procedure for gel-like time-durable biological phantoms is presented in this work. Easily accessible materials are adopted, which are able to provide a flexible and controllable method to rapidly realize different kind of tissues. The proposed technique is applied to fabricate various tissue-mimicking phantoms, namely skin, muscle, blood and fat. Read More

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A molecular single-cell lung atlas of lethal COVID-19.

Nature 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Human Immune Monitoring Core, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Respiratory failure is the leading cause of death in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, yet the host response at the lung tissue-level is poorly understood. Here, we performed single-nucleus RNA-sequencing of ~116,000 nuclei of lungs from 19 COVID-19 decedents who underwent rapid autopsy and 7 control lungs. Integrated analyses revealed significant alterations in cellular composition, transcriptional cell states, and cell-to-cell interactions, providing insights into the biology of lethal COVID-19. Read More

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Best Practices for Using Telehealth in Hospice and Palliative Care.

J Hosp Palliat Nurs 2021 06;23(3):277-285

Hospice and palliative care providers throughout the United States have continued to provide compassionate patient- and family-centered care during the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic while adapting to the need for scrupulous infection control measures and the accelerated use of telehealth. Prior to the pandemic, hospice and palliative care adopted telehealth slowly compared with other specialties, but its rapidly increasing utilization during the COVID-19 pandemic has long-term implications for access to primary and specialty palliative care, particularly for patients in rural communities and populations experiencing inequitable access to services. Telehealth also shows great promise for leveraging technology to provide care more effectively and efficiently. Read More

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Using eHealth platforms and Apps to support monitoring and management of home-quarantined COVID-19 patients. Insights from the experience of the Province of Trento, Italy.

JMIR Form Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Trento, IT.

Background: Italy was the first country to largely experience the COVID-19 epidemic among Western countries during the so-called first wave of COVID-19 pandemic. Proper management of an increasing number of home-quarantined citizens created a significant challenge for healthcare authorities and professionals. This was especially true when considering the importance of remote surveillance to detect signs of disease progression and consequently regulate access to hospitals and intensive care units on priority basis. Read More

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Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR)-Based Quality Information Exchange for Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing Genomic Testing: Implementation Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 28;23(4):e26261. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Smart Healthcare Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has been rapidly adopted in clinical practice, with the scope extended to early diagnosis, disease classification, and treatment planning. As the number of requests for NGS genomic testing increases, substantial efforts have been made to deliver the testing results clearly and unambiguously. For the legitimacy of clinical NGS genomic testing, quality information from the process of producing genomic data should be included within the results. Read More

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Simulation as a Dynamic Tool to Reorganize Pediatric Emergency Department Resuscitation During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic and Beyond.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2021 May;37(5):286-289

From the Division of Emergency Medicine Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania.

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has challenged hospitals and pediatric emergency department (PED) providers to rapidly adjust numerous facets of the care of critically ill or injured children to minimize health care worker (HCW) exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.

Objective: We aimed to iteratively devise protocols and processes that minimized HCW exposure while safely and effectively caring for children who may require unanticipated aerosol-generating procedures.

Methods: As part of our PED's initiative to optimize clinical care and HCW safety during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, regular multidisciplinary systems and process simulation sessions were conducted. Read More

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Are countries' precautionary actions against COVID-19 effective? An assessment study of 175 countries worldwide.

Saudi Pharm J 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Medication Safety Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected many countries negatively, particularly in terms of their health care and financial systems. Numerous countries have attempted to employ precautions to address this pandemic. This study was aimed at exploring and assessing the early precautionary actions taken by 175 countries on six continents to prevent the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Read More

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Current and future lithium-ion battery manufacturing.

iScience 2021 Apr 19;24(4):102332. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA 01609, USA.

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have become one of the main energy storage solutions in modern society. The application fields and market share of LIBs have increased rapidly and continue to show a steady rising trend. The research on LIB materials has scored tremendous achievements. Read More

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A Framework for Maintaining a Fully Operational Autopsy Service at a Large Academic Teaching Institution During a Global Pandemic.

Acad Pathol 2021 Jan-Dec;8:23742895211006821. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic created new challenges in health care, and pathology departments have led with innovations in testing and education. While the medical community and public showed great interest in gross and histologic findings in COVID-affected patients, paradoxically many autopsy services nationwide closed due to uncertainties surrounding the proximity to infected patient tissue, shortages in personal protective equipment, and pressures to discontinue perceived nonessential hospital operations. These disruptions furthermore negatively impacted pathology trainee education. Read More

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COVID-19: Is reinfection possible?

EXCLI J 2021 2;20:522-536. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Psychopharmacology Laboratory, Institute of Drugs and Medicines Research, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil.

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread rapidly in many countries, overburdening health systems and causing numerous economic and social impacts. Most studies on the subject have focused on epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment, however, there remains a scientific gap concerning the possibility of reinfection. The purpose of this bibliographic review is to gather information from studies aimed at this possibility, and to clarify what we know so far. Read More

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A Stronger Effect of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference on the Prevalence of Uncontrolled Hypertension among Caucasian Men than Women.

Kidney Blood Press Res 2021 Apr 21:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Internal Medicine and Oncological Chemotherapy, Medical Faculty in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

Background: Gender-related differences in fat distribution may affect blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive subjects. The aim of the study was to assess how body mass (BM), BMI, and waist circumference (WC) influence the effectiveness of antihypertension therapy in hypertensive men and women in daily clinical practice.

Patients And Methods: The observational study involved 12,289 adult hypertensive Caucasians (6,163 women) declaring regular use of antihypertensive drugs. Read More

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Behaviours and attitudes in response to the COVID-19 pandemic: insights from a cross-national Facebook survey.

EPJ Data Sci 2021 14;10(1):17. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Konrad-Zuse-Straße 1, Rostock, Germany.

Background: In the absence of medical treatment and vaccination, individual behaviours are key to curbing the spread of COVID-19. Here we describe efforts to collect attitudinal and behavioural data and disseminate insights to increase situational awareness and inform interventions.

Methods: We developed a rapid data collection and monitoring system based on a cross-national online survey, the "COVID-19 Health Behavior Survey". Read More

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Decision support for the quickest detection of critical COVID-19 phases.

Sci Rep 2021 04 20;11(1):8558. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, 06269, USA.

During the course of an epidemic, one of the most challenging tasks for authorities is to decide what kind of restrictive measures to introduce and when these should be enforced. In order to take informed decisions in a fully rational manner, the onset of a critical regime, characterized by an exponential growth of the contagion, must be identified as quickly as possible. Providing rigorous quantitative tools to detect such an onset represents an important contribution from the scientific community to proactively support the political decision makers. Read More

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Automated synthesis of prexasertib and derivatives enabled by continuous-flow solid-phase synthesis.

Nat Chem 2021 May 19;13(5):451-457. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Republic of Singapore.

Recent advances in end-to-end continuous-flow synthesis are rapidly expanding the capabilities of automated customized syntheses of small-molecule pharmacophores, resulting in considerable industrial and societal impacts; however, many hurdles persist that limit the number of sequential steps that can be achieved in such systems, including solvent and reagent incompatibility between individual steps, cumulated by-product formation, risk of clogging and mismatch of timescales between steps in a processing chain. To address these limitations, herein we report a strategy that merges solid-phase synthesis and continuous-flow operation, enabling push-button automated multistep syntheses of active pharmaceutical ingredients. We demonstrate our platform with a six-step synthesis of prexasertib in 65% isolated yield after 32 h of continuous execution. Read More

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Current progress and challenges in crop genetic transformation.

J Plant Physiol 2021 Apr 5;261:153411. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Institute of Molecular Plant Biology, Department of Biology, ETH Zurich, Universitätstrasse 2, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland; Advanced Plant Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, 145 Xingda Road, Taichung City 402, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Plant transformation remains the most sought-after technology for functional genomics and crop genetic improvement, especially for introducing specific new traits and to modify or recombine already existing traits. Along with many other agricultural technologies, the global production of genetically engineered crops has steadily grown since they were first introduced 25 years ago. Since the first transfer of DNA into plant cells using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, different transformation methods have enabled rapid advances in molecular breeding approaches to bring crop varieties with novel traits to the market that would be difficult or not possible to achieve with conventional breeding methods. Read More

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Are Training Programs Ready for the Rapid Adoption of CCTA?: CBME in CCTA.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Canada.

Objectives: This study sought to assess training volumes and its relationship to learning and identify potential new thresholds for determining expertise.

Background: Competency-based medical education (CBME) is being rapidly adopted and therefore training programs will need to adapt and identify new and novel methods of defining, measuring, and assessing clinical skills.

Methods: Consecutive cardiac computed tomography (CT) studies were interpreted independently by trainees and expert readers, and their interpretations (Agatston score, coronary artery disease severity, and Coronary Artery Disease Reporting and Data System) were collected. Read More

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Early examination of real-world uptake and second-dose completion of recombinant zoster vaccine in the United States from October 2017 to September 2019.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Apr 13:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

US Health Outcomes & Epidemiology, GSK, Philadelphia, PA, USA [Employment at Initial Submission].

(Recombinant zoster vaccine, RZV) was approved in October 2017 in the United States (US) for the prevention of herpes zoster in adults aged 50 years and older. The vaccine is administered in two doses, with the second dose administration recommended between two and six months after the first dose. Examination of uptake and series completion is important to ensure appropriate use, especially at the time of vaccine introduction. Read More

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Critical preparedness and operational response actions directed for the acute and post-acute COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil: the experience of a nationwide outpatient healthcare group.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(15):e25495

Department of Radiology, Grupo Fleury, São Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract: While the new Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic rapidly spread across the world, South America was reached later in relation to Asia, Europe and the United States of America (USA). Brazil concentrates now the largest number of cases in the continent and, as the disease speedily progressed throughout the country, prompt and challenging operational strategies had to be taken by institutions caring for COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients in order to assure optimal workflows, triage, and management. Although hospitals in the USA, Europe and Asia have shared their experience on this subject, little has been discussed about such strategies in South America or by the perspective of outpatient centers, which are paramount in the radiology field. Read More

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Evaluating the analytical validity of circulating tumor DNA sequencing assays for precision oncology.

Nat Biotechnol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

R&D Genomics MPS, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Pathology ARUP Laboratories, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) sequencing is being rapidly adopted in precision oncology, but the accuracy, sensitivity and reproducibility of ctDNA assays is poorly understood. Here we report the findings of a multi-site, cross-platform evaluation of the analytical performance of five industry-leading ctDNA assays. We evaluated each stage of the ctDNA sequencing workflow with simulations, synthetic DNA spike-in experiments and proficiency testing on standardized, cell-line-derived reference samples. Read More

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Individual and community experience of rising burden of non-communicable diseases in two case districts of Nepal: a qualitative exploration.

Glob Health Promot 2021 Apr 12:17579759211001718. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand.

Introduction: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a rapidly emerging global health challenge with multi-level determinants popularly known as social determinants. The objective of this paper is to describe the individual and community experiences of NCDs in the two case districts of Nepal from a social determinants of health perspective.

Method: This study adopted qualitative study design to identify the experiences of NCDs. Read More

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