282 results match your criteria rao horses


Computed Tomography Analysis of the Feline Infraorbital Foramen and Canal.

Front Vet Sci 2020 27;7:619248. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, United States.

Feline skull anatomic variation is plain to see with casual observation. Obtaining an in-depth understanding of this anatomic variability is critical to performing safe and effective regional anesthesia for dental procedures and maxillofacial surgeries. Maxillofacial anatomic variability is proven to impact the placement and efficacy of nerve blocks in dogs and horses, but similar studies have not been performed in cats. Read More

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January 2021

Involvement of hemostasis in pathophysiology of RAO in horses.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2020 Dec 6;230:110128. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

TIERplus Wien-Kagran - Tiermedizinisches Zentrum für Chirurgie und Diagnostik, Wien, Austria. Electronic address:

Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO), also called severe asthma or heaves, is a chronic disease in adult horses caused by aeroallergens from straw or hay. Disturbances in hemostasis (intensified coagulation and depressed fibrinolysis) are considered one of the prominent reasons of inflammatory process, injury and dysfunction of the lungs. The aim of the study was to evaluate chosen parameters of hemostasis in horses with active form of RAO. Read More

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December 2020

Ovarian histopathology, pre- and post-operative endocrinological analysis and behavior alterations in 27 mares undergoing bilateral standing laparoscopic ovariectomy.

Can Vet J 2020 02;61(2):181-186

Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (Devick, McCue, Rao, Hendrickson); Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA (Leise).

Determining if ovariectomy will abolish unwanted behaviors can be challenging in mares without ultrasonographic ovarian abnormalities and/or endocrine values not consistent with a granulosa cell tumor. The objective of the study was to identify mares that have a positive improvement in unwanted behaviors after elective standing laparoscopic ovariectomy and to determine if the change is associated with any pre- and post-operative endocrine profiles and/or with ovarian histological findings. During the study period 27 mares underwent a bilateral standing laparoscopic ovariectomy. Read More

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February 2020

Comparison of xylazine and detomidine in combination with midazolam/ketamine for field castration in Quarter Horses.

Equine Vet J 2020 Jul 18;52(4):516-521. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

Background: The ideal field anaesthetic protocol for castration will offer an adequate duration and depth of anaesthesia using a single injection without compromising safety or recovery quality.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare intravenous (IV) xylazine and detomidine as sedatives in combination with midazolam and ketamine for induction of anaesthesia in horses undergoing field castration.

Study Design: Randomised, blinded, clinical study. Read More

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Changes in the SID and SID Values in the Course of Respiratory Acidosis in Horses With Symptomatic Severe Equine Asthma-An Experimental Study.

J Equine Vet Sci 2019 07 13;78:107-111. Epub 2019 May 13.

Centre for Experimental Diagnostics and Biomedical Innovations, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław, Poland.

Equine asthma syndrome is an allergic, inflammatory airway disease that usually affects older horses. Respiratory acidosis is an acid-base imbalance caused by alveolar hypoventilation. The acid-base balance may be assessed using the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation as well as the Stewart model. Read More

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Assessment of serum allergen-specific IgE levels in horses with seasonal allergic dermatitis and recurrent airway obstruction in Spain.

Acta Vet Hung 2019 03;67(1):11-21

Animal Pathology Department, Veterinary Faculty, Zaragoza University , Miguel Servet 177, 50013 Zaragoza , Spain.

Allergic conditions are prevalent equine diseases that can be diagnosed by clinical examination alone, but definitive diagnosis is more likely with laboratory testing. The ELISA Allercept test was used to analyse the serum samples of 73 horses with allergic diseases. Sixty-one horses (83. Read More

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Effect of different doses of inhaled ciclesonide on lung function, clinical signs related to airflow limitation and serum cortisol levels in horses with experimentally induced mild to severe airway obstruction.

Equine Vet J 2019 Nov 5;51(6):779-786. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica GmbH, Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany.

Background: Inhaled corticosteroids are effective for the treatment of equine asthma but they induce cortisol suppression with potential side effects.

Objectives: To study the efficacy of ciclesonide, an inhaled corticosteroid with an improved safety profile, on lung function, clinical signs related to airway obstruction, and serum cortisol levels in asthmatic horses exposed to a mouldy hay challenge.

Study Design: Cross-over placebo controlled, blinded, randomised experiment. Read More

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November 2019

Equine asthma: Integrative biologic relevance of a recently proposed nomenclature.

J Vet Intern Med 2018 Nov 7;32(6):2088-2098. Epub 2018 Oct 7.

The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and The Roslin Institute, Easter Bush Campus, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland, United Kingdom.

The term "equine asthma" has been proposed as a unifying descriptor of inflammatory airway disease (IAD), recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), and summer pasture-associated obstructive airway disease. Whilst the term will increase comprehensibility for both the lay and scientific communities, its biologic relevance must be compared and contrasted to asthma in human medicine, recognizing the limited availability of peer-reviewed equine-derived data, which are largely restricted to clinical signs, measures of airway obstruction and inflammation and response to therapy. Such limitations constrain meaningful comparisons with human asthma phenotypes. Read More

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November 2018

Effect of antigen challenge on dynamics of CD62P and CD41/61 expression on platelets in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO).

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2018 Aug 18;202:172-180. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Department of Internal Diseases with Clinic for Horses, Dogs and Cats, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland. Electronic address:

Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), also known as heaves, is an allergic respiratory condition that develops in horses following an exposure to aeroallergens in hay and straw. This is manifested by airway hyperreactivity, inflammation, bronchoconstriction, as well as a leukocyte and platelet infiltration into the airways. Platelet activation and an increase in circulating platelet-leukocyte aggregates may lead to airway remodeling. Read More

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eQTL discovery and their association with severe equine asthma in European Warmblood horses.

BMC Genomics 2018 Aug 2;19(1):581. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Swiss Institute of Equine Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, and Agroscope, Länggassstrasse 124, 3012, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Severe equine asthma, also known as recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), is a debilitating, performance limiting, obstructive respiratory condition in horses that is phenotypically similar to human asthma. Past genome wide association studies (GWAS) have not discovered coding variants associated with RAO, leading to the hypothesis that causative variant(s) underlying the signals are likely non-coding, regulatory variant(s). Regions of the genome containing variants that influence the number of expressed RNA molecules are expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). Read More

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Evaluation of post-operative pain after active desufflation at completion of laparoscopy in mares undergoing ovariectomy.

Can Vet J 2018 03;59(3):261-266

Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, United States (Devick, Rao, Hendrickson); Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States (Leise).

The cause of transient post-operative pain in a subset of horses undergoing laparoscopy is unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate if residual pneumoperitoneum is associated with transient post-operative pain in mares undergoing ovariectomy. Thirty-eight mares undergoing routine standing laparoscopic ovariectomy were randomly allocated into 2 groups. Read More

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Effect of lipopolysaccharide on the responsiveness of equine bronchial tissue.

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2018 04 31;49:88-94. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.

Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is a main characteristic of horses with severe equine asthma syndrome. The presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the airways of horses is thought to play a crucial role in the clinical expression of this disorder. This study pharmacologically characterized the effect of LPS on the responsiveness of equine bronchial tissue. Read More

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Tamoxifen induces apoptotic neutrophil efferocytosis in horses.

Vet Res Commun 2018 Mar 2;42(1):57-63. Epub 2018 Jan 2.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

Macrophages and neutrophils are important cellular components in the process of acute inflammation and its subsequent resolution, and evidence increasingly suggests that they play important functions during the resolution of chronic, adaptive inflammatory processes. Exacerbated neutrophil activity can be harmful to surrounding tissues; this is important in a range of diseases, including allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in humans, and equine asthma (also known as recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). Tamoxifen (TX) is a non-steroidal estrogen receptor modulator with effects on cell growth and survival. Read More

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Horses With Pasture Asthma Have Airway Remodeling That Is Characteristic of Human Asthma.

Vet Pathol 2018 01;55(1):144-158

1 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, MS, USA.

Severe equine asthma, formerly recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), is the horse counterpart of human asthma, affecting horses maintained indoors in continental climates. Equine pasture asthma, formerly summer pasture RAO, is clinically similar but affects grazing horses during hot, humid conditions in the southeastern United States and United Kingdom. To advance translational relevance of equine pasture asthma to human asthma, histologic features of airway remodeling in human asthma were scored in lung lobes from 15 pasture asthma-affected and 9 control horses of mixed breeds. Read More

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January 2018

A Therapeutic Double Whammy: Transcriptional or Post-transcriptional Suppression of Microsatellite Repeat Toxicity by Cas9.

Mol Cell 2017 11;68(3):473-475

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address:

Microsatellite expansion diseases are caused by unstable tandem repeats of 3-10 nucleotides that become pathogenic beyond a threshold number of copies. Two groups present different approaches to reduce pathogenesis by targeting deactivated Cas9 to either the DNA (Pinto et al., 2017) or the RNA (Batra et al. Read More

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November 2017

A genome-wide association study for equine recurrent airway obstruction in European Warmblood horses reveals a suggestive new quantitative trait locus on chromosome 13.

Anim Genet 2017 Dec 24;48(6):691-693. Epub 2017 Jul 24.

Swiss National Stud Farm, Agroscope, Les Longs-Prés, 1580, Avenches, Switzerland.

Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), also known as heaves, is an asthma-like respiratory disease. Its development is strongly influenced by environmental risk factors such as sensitization and exposure to moldy hay, straw bedding and stabling indoors. A hereditary component has been documented in previous studies; however, so far no causative genetic variant that influences the risk of developing RAO has been identified. Read More

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December 2017

In Vitro effects of tamoxifen on equine neutrophils.

Res Vet Sci 2017 Feb 6;110:60-64. Epub 2016 Nov 6.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile. Electronic address:

Neutrophils participate in innate immunity as the first line of host defense against microorganisms. However, exacerbated neutrophil activity can be harmful to surrounding tissues; this is important in a range of diseases, including allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in humans, and equine asthma (also known as recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). Tamoxifen (TX) is a non-steroidal estrogen receptor modulator with effects on cell growth and survival. Read More

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February 2017

Influence of respiratory tract disease and mode of inhalation on detectability of budesonide in equine urine and plasma.

Am J Vet Res 2017 Feb;78(2):244-250

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the influence of respiratory tract disease (ie, recurrent airway obstruction [RAO]) and mode of inhalation on detectability of inhaled budesonide in equine plasma and urine samples. ANIMALS 16 horses (8 healthy control horses and 8 horses affected by RAO, as determined by results of clinical examination, blood gas analysis, bronchoscopy, and cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid). PROCEDURES 4 horses of each group inhaled budesonide (3 μg/kg) twice daily for 10 days while at rest, and the remaining 4 horses of each group inhaled budesonide during lunging exercise. Read More

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February 2017

Evaluation of serum cytokine levels in recurrent airway obstruction.

Pol J Vet Sci 2016 Dec;19(4):785-791

Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) represents a serious health problem and is traditionally classified as an allergic disease, where contact with an antigen can induce clinical airway inflammation, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and reversible airway obstruction. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of the Th2 response in the lungs of human patients with asthma and horses with heaves. These cells are involved in the production of cytokines which regulate the synthesis of immunoglobulins. Read More

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December 2016

Are pulmonary hemostasis and fibrinolysis out of balance in equine chronic pneumopathies?

J Vet Sci 2017 Sep;18(3):349-357

Equine Clinic, Freie Universitaet Berlin, 14163 Berlin, Germany.

Clinical examination, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology, acute-phase protein, and pulmonary hemostasis and fibrinolysis marker (fibrinogen, serum amyloid A [SAA], and D-dimer) results were compared between control and respiratory disease-affected horses. Using a clinical scoring system, horses (n = 58) were classified as respiratory disease-free (Controls, n = 15) or with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO; n = 18), inflammatory airway disease (n = 14) or chronic interstitial pneumopathy (n = 11). There were no significant differences in fibrinogen concentrations among groups, but there was a trend toward a lower value in controls (median 0. Read More

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September 2017

Pulmonary Remodeling in Equine Asthma: What Do We Know about Mediators of Inflammation in the Horse?

Mediators Inflamm 2016 7;2016:5693205. Epub 2016 Dec 7.

Equine Clinic, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Equine inflammatory airway disease (IAD) and recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) represent a spectrum of chronic inflammatory disease of the airways in horses resembling human asthma in many aspects. Therefore, both are now described as severity grades of equine asthma. Increasing evidence in horses and humans suggests that local pulmonary inflammation is influenced by systemic inflammatory processes and the other way around. Read More

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Procalcitonin as a biomarker in equine chronic pneumopathies.

BMC Vet Res 2016 Dec 9;12(1):281. Epub 2016 Dec 9.

Equine Clinic, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Oertzenweg 19b, 10163, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Procalcitonin (PCT), a precursor protein of the hormone calcitonin, is a sensitive inflammatory marker in human medicine, which is primarily used for diagnosis of bacterial sepsis, but is also useful in diagnosis of exacerbation of asthma and COPD. In this study, PCT was evaluated as a potential biomarker for different chronic pneumopathies in the horse using an equine specific ELISA in comparison to established clinical markers and different interleukins. Sixty-four horses were classified as free of respiratory disease, recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), inflammatory airway disease (IAD) or chronic interstitial pneumopathy (CIP) using a scoring system. Read More

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December 2016

Metalloproteinases and their inhibitors are influenced by inhalative glucocorticoid therapy in combination with environmental dust reduction in equine recurrent airway obstruction.

BMC Vet Res 2016 Dec 9;12(1):282. Epub 2016 Dec 9.

Equine Clinic, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Oertzenweg 19b, Berlin, 10163, Germany.

Background: Overexpression of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been shown to lead to tissue damage in equine recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), as a misbalance with their natural inhibitors, the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), occurs. This favors irreversible pulmonary fibrosis formation. Increased levels of MMPs, TIMPs or altered ratios between them can be used as biomarkers of respiratory disease. Read More

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December 2016

Evaluation of amniotic mesenchymal cell derivatives on cytokine production in equine alveolar macrophages: an in vitro approach to lung inflammation.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2016 09 20;7(1):137. Epub 2016 Sep 20.

Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety (VESPA), Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 10, 20133, Milano, Italy.

Background: Data obtained in both animal models and clinical trials suggest that cell-based therapies represent a potential therapeutic strategy for lung repair and remodeling. Recently, new therapeutic approaches based on the use of stem cell derivatives (e.g. Read More

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September 2016

Development of a Semiquantitative Histological Score for the Diagnosis of Heaves Using Endobronchial Biopsy Specimens in Horses.

J Vet Intern Med 2016 Sep 16;30(5):1739-1746. Epub 2016 Aug 16.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Université de Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada.

Background: Remodeling of the peripheral airways persists during the asymptomatic phase of heaves. Assessing the histology of large bronchi could facilitate the diagnosis of heaves during remission of the disease.

Hypothesis: Airway inflammation and remodeling in endobronchial biopsy (EBB) specimens differentiate horses with heaves from controls, independently of their clinical status (exacerbation or remission). Read More

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September 2016

Intratracheal therapy with autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells reduces airway inflammation in horses with recurrent airway obstruction.

Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2016 10 7;232:35-42. Epub 2016 Jul 7.

Department of Animal Science, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Rua Imaculada Conceição, 1155, Prado Velho, Curitiba, Paraná 80215-901, Brazil. Electronic address:

This research evaluated the effects of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMCs) on the inflammatory process in the equine recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). Eight horses in RAO clinical score were divided into cell therapy group (Gcel) treated with a single intratracheal dose of BMMCs, and dexamethasone group (Gdex) treated with 21days of oral dexamethasone. The horses were clinically revaluated on days 7 and 21, together with cytological evaluation of the BALF, and detection of inflammatory markers (interleukins [IL]-10, -4, and -17, and interferon γ and α). Read More

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October 2016

Efficacy of Inhaled Levalbuterol Compared to Albuterol in Horses with Recurrent Airway Obstruction.

J Vet Intern Med 2016 Jul 9;30(4):1333-7. Epub 2016 Jun 9.

Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine, West Lafayette, IN.

Background: The (R)-enantiomer of racemic albuterol (levalbuterol) has bronchodilatory properties whereas the (S)-enantiomer causes adverse effects in human airways, animal models, and isolated equine bronchi. Levalbuterol is commercially available and improves pulmonary function of asthmatic patients with a longer duration of effect than albuterol.

Objective: To determine the dose at which inhaled levalbuterol produces maximal bronchodilatory effect (EDmax) and determine its duration of action in recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)-affected horses in comparison to racemic albuterol. Read More

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Serum 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine as a marker of DNA oxidative damage in horses with recurrent airway obstruction.

Acta Vet Scand 2016 Jun 7;58(1):38. Epub 2016 Jun 7.

Department of Horse Breeding and Riding, University of Warmia and Mazury, Prawocheńskiego 2, 10-720, Olsztyn, Poland.

Background: It has been reported that equine recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is a state of oxidative stress. Oxidant-antioxidant imbalance is known to increase the conversion of deoxyguanosine to 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in DNA. 8-OHdG can easily be measured using ELISA tests in serum or urine samples. Read More

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Microbiological characterization of stable resuspended dust.

Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016 ;29(3):375-80

Bay Zoltán Nonprofit Ltd. (BAY-BIO), Szeged, Hungary.

Objectives: Air quality in the stables is characterized by elevated level of dust and aeroallergens which are supposed to directly cause or exacerbate several respiratory disorders. The most often recognized problem is recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), previously known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is some indication that aeroallergens (among them endotoxins) may also cause inflammation in human airways and may exceed safe levels in stables. Read More

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January 2017

Analysis of genomic copy number variation in equine recurrent airway obstruction (heaves).

Anim Genet 2016 Jun 1;47(3):334-44. Epub 2016 Mar 1.

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.

We explored the involvement of genomic copy number variants (CNVs) in susceptibility to recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), or heaves-an asthmalike inflammatory disease in horses. Analysis of 16 RAO-susceptible (cases) and six RAO-resistant (control) horses on a custom-made whole-genome 400K equine tiling array identified 245 CNV regions (CNVRs), 197 previously known and 48 new, distributed on all horse autosomes and the X chromosome. Among the new CNVRs, 30 were exclusively found in RAO cases and were further analyzed by quantitative PCR, including additional cases and controls. Read More

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