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Achievable agricultural soil carbon sequestration across Europe from country-specific estimates.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Agroscope Reckenholz, Climate and Agriculture Group, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046, Zürich, Switzerland.

The role of soils in the global carbon cycle and in reducing GHG emissions from agriculture has been increasingly acknowledged. The "4 per 1000" initiative (4p1000) has become a prominent action plan for climate change mitigation and achieve food security through an annual increase in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks by 0.4 %, ( i. Read More

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September 2021

Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Targeted Therapies for Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

Can Respir J 2021 1;2021:1626971. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Cardiology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, No. 139 Middle Renmin Road, Furong District, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China.

Background: There is significant controversy relating to whether chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) can be treated with pulmonary arterial hypertension- (PAH-) targeted therapies and which therapy is the optimal choice for patients. A large number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have compared PAH-targeted therapies with placebo or conventional therapies. In this study, we aimed to compare all of the PAH-targeted medications that are used to treat CTEPH and rank their efficacy by the application of network meta-analysis (NMA). Read More

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September 2021

The comparative efficacy and safety of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: A network meta-analysis.

IBRO Neurosci Rep 2021 Dec 27;11:103-111. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Jordan University, Amman, Jordan.

With the recent successful targeting of B lymphocytes in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), treatment with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) may represent a promising managemental approach, particularly for those with relapsing/remitting MS (RRMS). A network meta-analysis was conducted based on a comprehensive search in Embase, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library to assess the comparative efficacy and safety of currently available anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), including rituximab, ocrelizumab, and ofatumumab, versus a common comparator (interferon beta-1a [INFβ-1a]) in RRMS patients recruited in randomized clinical trials (RCTs). In a frequentist network meta-analytical model, annualized relapse rates (ARRs) and safety outcomes were expressed as risk ratios (RRs), whereas relapse-free events were expressed as odds ratios (ORs). Read More

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December 2021

Cost-effectiveness of strategies for preventing paediatric lower respiratory infections associated with respiratory syncytial virus in eight Chinese cities.

Vaccine 2021 Sep 26;39(39):5490-5498. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Control, School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 7 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; Laboratory of Data Discovery for Health (D24H), Hong Kong Science Park, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. Electronic address:

Background: New monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and vaccines against RSV with promising efficacy and protection duration are expected to be available in the near future. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the administration of maternal immunisation (MI), infant mAb (IA) and paediatric immunisation (PI) as well as their combinations in eight Chinese cities.

Methods: We used a static model to estimate the impact of these preventive interventions on reducing the burden of RSV-ALRI in twelve monthly birth cohorts from a societal perspective. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of Progressive Resistance Strength Training on Body Mass Index, Quality of Life and Functional Capacity in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Multidiscip Healthc 2021 11;14:2161-2168. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603, Malaysia.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of progressive resistance strength training of the lower limb rehabilitation protocol (LLRP) on body mass index (BMI), quality of life, and functional capacity in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) who were overweight and obese.

Patients And Methods: Fifty-six patients were allocated into either the Rehabilitation Protocol Group (RPG) or the Control Group (CG) by a computer-generated random number. The patients in the RPG performed the strengthening exercises of the LLRP and followed the instruction of daily care (IDC). Read More

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Optimisation of oral anticoagulants for patients with atrial fibrillation within 12 months after percutaneous coronary intervention: A -analysis and systematic review.

Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc 2021 Oct 2;36:100850. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Pathophysiology and Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research (Harbin Medical University), Ministry of Education, Harbin 150086, PR China.

Background: The optimal antithrombotic strategy, especially regarding oral anticoagulants (OACs) for atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with bleeding and thrombosis risk after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), remains unknown. This study explored the optimal oral anticoagulants for AF patients after PCI using a -analysis.

Methods: Randomised controlled trials were identified from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library through December 2020. Read More

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October 2021

Effect of Exercise on Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Network Meta-analysis.

Int J Sports Med 2021 Aug 10. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China.

Few studies have directly compared the effects of different exercise therapies on reducing fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis. Thus, we conducted a Frequentist network meta-analysis to analyze and compare the effectiveness of different types of exercise on reducing multiple sclerosis-related fatigue. Relevant randomized controlled trials were searched in PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases from the date of their inception up to April 1, 2021. Read More

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Patient harm from cardiovascular medications.

Ther Adv Drug Saf 2021 25;12:20420986211027451. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Background: Medication harm can lead to hospital admission, prolonged hospital stay and poor patient outcomes. Reducing medication harm is a priority for healthcare organisations worldwide. Recent Australian studies demonstrate cardiovascular (CV) medications are a leading cause of harm. Read More

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Sugar sweetened beverages and increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the Indigenous community of Australia.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 09 30;31(10):2825-2830. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 23, Hobart, Tasmania, 7000, Australia. Electronic address:

Aims: The aim of this viewpoint was to discuss a profound health gap in type 2 diabetes that exists between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

Data Synthesis: In Australia, type 2 diabetes is ranked as the fastest growing chronic condition, with the rates of type 2 diabetes higher among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australians. Improvements to diet could aid in reducing overweight and obesity in the Indigenous community, with sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) examples of discretionary foods that contain a high amount of sugar. Read More

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September 2021

Towards the evaluation of regional ecosystem integrity using NDVI, brightness temperature and surface heterogeneity.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 13;796:148994. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, Institute for Natural Resource Conservation, Olshausenstraße 75, 24118 Kiel, Germany.

Maintaining ecological integrity is globally acknowledged as a strategic goal, yet there is no consensus on a practical and widely usable methodology to assess it. This study proposes a comprehensive approach to quantify regional ecosystem integrity based on FAIR data, obtained using satellite remote sensing and image analysis. Three variables are central to this approach: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), at-satellite brightness temperature (BT) and vegetation surface heterogeneity (HG), corresponding to ecosystem integrity indicators exergy capture, biotic water flows and abiotic heterogeneity. Read More

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November 2021

Scoping opinion: Speech and language therapists' views on extending their role to the urgent ear, nose and throat pathway.

Int J Lang Commun Disord 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Division of Language and Communication Science, School of Health Sciences, City, University of London, Northampton Square, Clerkenwell, London, UK.

Background: In the UK, there is increasing pressure on ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinicians and departments, which is anticipated to amplify in the coming months and years due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and other workforce pressures. In the context of a national drive to advance practice of Allied Health Professionals to address some key challenges facing the National Health Service, we explored whether UK speech and language therapists (SLTs) felt it is possible to utilize and extend their existing skills to patients on the urgent 2-week wait (2ww) ENT pathway.

Aims: To explore SLTs' views of extending their role to work with patients referred on the ENT 2ww pathway. Read More

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Just-in-time Adaptive Mechanisms of Popular Mobile Applications for Individuals with Depression: Systematic Review.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Centre for Digital Health Interventions, Department of Management, Technology, and Economics, ETH Zurich, Weinbergstrasse 56/58, Zurich, CH.

Background: There is an increasing number of smartphone applications (apps) focusing on prevention, treatment, and diagnosis of depression. A promising approach to increase the effectiveness while reducing the individual's burden is the use of just-in-time adaptive intervention (JITAI) mechanisms. JITAIs are designed to improve the effectiveness of the intervention and reduce the burden of the person using the intervention by providing the right type of support at the right time. Read More

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A multi-data ensemble approach for predicting woodland type distribution: Oak woodland in Britain.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jul 21;11(14):9423-9434. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Centre for Ecosystems Society and Biosecurity Forest Research Roslin UK.

Interactions between soil, topography, and climatic site factors can exacerbate and/or alleviate the vulnerability of oak woodland to climate change. Reducing climate-related impacts on oak woodland habitats and ecosystems through adaptation management requires knowledge of different site interactions in relation to species tolerance. In Britain, the required thematic detail of woodland type is unavailable from digital maps. Read More

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Pain management in shoulder arthroplasty: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Background: Postoperative pain management after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) can be challenging. Given the variety of pain management options available, the purpose of this investigation was to systematically review the literature for randomized controlled trials reporting on pain control after shoulder arthroplasty. We sought to determine which modalities are most effective in managing postoperative pain and reducing postoperative opioid use. Read More

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Effects of straw return with N fertilizer reduction on crop yield, plant diseases and pests and potential heavy metal risk in a Chinese rice paddy: A field study of 2 consecutive wheat-rice cycles.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 7;288:117741. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, 310058, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Understanding the comprehensive effect on crop production and quality, soil acidification, and Cd accumulation and distribution for wheat-rice rotation under N fertilization and continuous straw return is important for proper contaminated agricultural soil management. A 2-year paddy field experiment was conducted to study the effects of above factors change in the Zhejiang province, China. Fertilization treatments included: conventional N fertilizer application (N3), 20% reduction of N application (N2), 40% reduction of N application (N1), combined with three portions of straw incorporation: all straws retention (N3), half of the straws into the fields (S2), 20% straws retention(S1). Read More

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Antiviral activity of hexapeptides derived from conserved regions of bacterial proteases against HCV NS3 protease.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2021 Jan;34(1(Supplementary)):215-223

Department of Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

The main cause of hepatitis C is hepatitis C virus or HCV and for the cure of hepatitis C, NS3/4A protease has been found an important and emerging target. A number of HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors have been discovered which have shown subsequent reduction in reducing the viral load leading to this infection however they are still undergoing clinical trials for improvement. Bacterial proteases are of great pharmaceutical importance and have a key role in various biological processes and in life cycle of several pathogens. Read More

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January 2021

Barriers and Facilitators to Mental Health Help-Seeking in Elite Gaelic Footballers Post-Injury: A Qualitative Study.

Res Q Exerc Sport 2021 Jul 16:1-16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Dublin City University.

Injury can exacerbate mental health issues in athletes. However, the prevalence of mental health issues is not equivalent to the rate of professional help-seeking, with reluctance to seek-help acknowledged as one of the greatest obstacles in efficient management of mental health issues. The current study aimed to examine perceived barriers and facilitators to professional mental health help-seeking in elite male and female Gaelic footballers post-injury. Read More

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Physical activity and sedentary behaviour counselling: Attitudes and practices of mental health professionals.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(7):e0254684. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Footscray, Australia.

Background: Despite recent interest in the mental health benefits of increasing physical activity (PA) and reducing sedentary behaviour (SB), little is known about PA and SB counselling provided by mental health professionals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the attitudes and practices of mental health professionals in recommending more PA and less SB to their clients.

Methods: Quantitative data were collected using a modified version of the Exercise in Mental Illness Questionnaire in a sample of 17 Australian mental health professionals. Read More

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Sparse Topological Pharmacophore Graphs for Interpretable Scaffold Hopping.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 07 15;61(7):3348-3360. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Graduate School of Science and Technology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192, Japan.

The aim of scaffold hopping (SH) is to find compounds consisting of different scaffolds from those in already known active compounds, giving an opportunity for unexplored regions of chemical space. We previously demonstrated the usefulness of pharmacophore graphs (PhGs) for this purpose through proof-of-concept virtual screening experiments. PhGs consist of nodes and edges corresponding to pharmacophoric features (PFs) and their topological distances. Read More

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Query mandates in prescription drug monitoring programs reduce opioid use among commercially insured patients with cancer.

J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Background: Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) have been shown to reduce opioid use in the general and noncancer populations. However, evidence of PDMP impacts on patients with cancer remains limited.

Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the impact of PDMP mandates on individual-level opioid use among patients with cancer. Read More

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From statistics to clinics: the visual feedback of PROMIS® CATs.

J Patient Rep Outcomes 2021 Jul 10;5(1):55. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Child and Adolescent Psychiatry & Psychosocial Care, Amsterdam Reproduction and Development, Amsterdam Public Health, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Postbox 22660, 1100 DD, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: To reduce the burden of completing Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs), PROMIS® Computerized Adaptive Tests (CATs) are being implemented in pediatric clinical practice. We aimed to develop recommendations for visual feedback options for PROMIS CATs on individual item and domain score level as an evidence-based feedback recommendation for PROMIS CATs is lacking.

Methods: Focus groups were held with clinicians who use the KLIK PROM portal. Read More

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What is the effect of a decision aid on knowledge, values and preferences for lung cancer screening? An online pre-post study.

BMJ Open 2021 07 9;11(7):e045160. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Medicine, The University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical School, Austin, Texas, USA.

Objective: To examine if a decision aid improves knowledge of lung cancer screening benefits and harms and which benefits and harms are most valued.

Design: Pre-post study.

Setting: Online. Read More

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Reducing ileus after colorectal surgery: A network meta-analysis of therapeutic interventions.

Clin Nutr 2021 07 5;40(7):4772-4782. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Surgery, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Several treatment strategies for avoiding post-operative ileus have been evaluated in randomised controlled trials. This network meta-analysis aimed to explore the relative effectiveness of these different therapeutic interventions on ileus outcome measures.

Methods: A systematic literature review was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing treatments for post-operative ileus following colorectal surgery. Read More

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A clinical research priority setting study for issues related to the use of methamphetamine and emerging drugs of concern in Australia.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

School of Medicine, Adelaide University, Adelaide, Australia.

Introduction: This study aimed to gather a range of opinions, including those of affected people (consumers, concerned others) to identify clinical research priorities for methamphetamine and emerging drugs of concern in Australia, to guide the work of the National Centre for Clinical Research on Emerging Drugs (NCCRED).

Methods: A priority setting study was conducted (February-March 2019) in four phases: online stakeholder survey, thematic analysis of responses, rapid literature review, expert panel ranking of priorities against predetermined criteria.

Results: Forty-seven respondents completed the survey, including people identifying as one or more of: researcher (53%, n = 25), clinician (45%; n = 21), family/friend/caregiver of someone who uses methamphetamine/emerging drugs (15%, n = 7) and consumer of methamphetamine/emerging drugs (13%, n = 6). Read More

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Development of Multi-Criteria Decision Making Methods for Reduction of Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers Using SEAWAT Code.

J Contam Hydrol 2021 Jun 22;242:103848. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Faculty of Civil Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran. Electronic address:

Unplanned pumping of groundwater in the past two decades has caused many regional problems and tensions, leading to seawater intrusion into coastal aquifers. The main objective of this paper is the use of a Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) approach combining with numerical simulation for reducing seawater intrusion in the Tajan coastal aquifer located on the southern seashores of the Caspian Sea, Iran, taking into account economic, social, and environmental issues. The MODFLOW code was used to simulate the groundwater flow. Read More

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Computer-Aided Detection False Positives in Colonoscopy.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Jun 18;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Sepulveda Ambulatory Care Center, Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, North Hills, CA 91343, USA.

Randomized control trials and meta-analyses comparing colonoscopies with and without computer-aided detection (CADe) assistance showed significant increases in adenoma detection rates (ADRs) with CADe. A major limitation of CADe is its false positives (FPs), ranked 3rd in importance among 59 research questions in a modified Delphi consensus review. The definition of FPs varies. Read More

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COVID-19 Lockdowns May Reduce Resistance Genes Diversity in the Human Microbiome and the Need for Antibiotics.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 26;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 26.

cE3c-Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisbon, Portugal.

Recently, much attention has been paid to the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet bacterial resistance to antibiotics remains a serious and unresolved public health problem that kills hundreds of thousands of people annually, being an insidious and silent pandemic. To contain the spreading of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, populations confined and tightened hygiene measures. Read More

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Telemedicine for patients undergoing arthroplasty : access, ability, and preference.

Bone Joint J 2021 Jul;103-B(7 Supple B):98-102

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the access to and ability to use telemedicine technology in adult patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and to determine associations with the socioeconomic characteristics of the patients, including age, sex, race, and education. We also sought to understand the patients' perceived benefits, risks, and preferences when dealing with telemedicine.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional survey involving patients awaiting primary THA and TKA by one of six surgeons at a single academic institution. Read More

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Investigation on the Efficiency of Chinese Herbal Injections combined with Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Treating Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma based on Multidimensional Bayesian Network Meta-analysis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 11;12:656724. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Clinical Chinese Pharmacy, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Given the wide utilization of Chinese herbal injections in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), this network meta-analysis (NMA) was devised to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of different Chinese herbal injections combined with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) against NPC. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were retrieved from seven electronic databases from the date of database establishment to October 5, 2020. Study selection and data extraction conformed to a priori criteria. Read More

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