323,915 results match your criteria randomized trials


An online, single-session intervention for adolescent self-injurious thoughts and behaviors: Results from a randomized trial.

Behav Res Ther 2021 Oct 7;147:103983. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Psychology, University of Denver, Denver, CO, 80208, USA.

Background: Across 50 years of research, existing interventions for self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) in adolescents have remained largely ineffective and inaccessible. Single-session interventions, interventions designed to last one session, may be a low-cost and timely resource for adolescents engaging in SITBs who may not otherwise receive treatment.

Method: 565 adolescents (M = 14. Read More

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October 2021

Efficacy and safety of Zolpidem in the treatment of insomnia disorder for one month: a meta-analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

Sleep Med 2021 Sep 20;87:250-256. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Psychiatry, Sleep Medicine Centre, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510632, PR China. Electronic address:

Subject: A meta-analysis of a randomized placebo-controlled trial was used to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Zolpidem in the treatment of insomnia disorder for one month.

Method: Searched from PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and web of science from inception to May 13, 2021. In addition, we also searched ClinicalTrials. Read More

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September 2021

Anti-TNFα vs thiopurines for the prevention of postoperative recurrence in Crohn's disease: a meta-analysis of individual participant data.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The superiority of anti-TNFα agents to thiopurines for the prevention of postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease (CD) after ileocolonic resection remains controversial. In this meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD-MA), the effect of both strategies was compared and assessed after risk stratification.

Methods: After a systematic literature search, IPD were requested from randomized controlled trials investigating thiopurines and/or anti-TNFα agents after ileocolonic resection. Read More

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October 2021

Acceptance and commitment training for veterans with polytrauma: A randomized controlled trial protocol.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Oct 20:106601. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States of America; Houston VA HSR&D Center for Innovations in Quality, Effectiveness and Safety, Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, TX, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a signature wound of Veterans of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan (i.e., OIF/OEF/OND). Read More

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October 2021

Efficacy and safety of repellents marketed in Brazil against bites from Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus: A systematic review.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2021 Oct 20:102179. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

University of Sorocaba, Pharmaceutical Science Graduate Course, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rodovia Raposo Tavares, Km 92.5, 18023-000, Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya viruses represent a serious public health problem. No evidence is available on the efficacy of repellents commercially available in Brazil. This systematic review assessed the efficacy and safety of products containing repellents commercially available in Brazil for protection against bites from Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Read More

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October 2021

Use of toothbrushing in conjunction with chlorhexidine for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia: a random-effect meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Int J Dent Hyg 2021 Oct 23. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Tekirdag Namik Kemal University, Corlu, Tekirdag, Turkey, CMF Biomedical Engineering, Biomaterials Department.

Objective: The oral cavity with poor hygiene is a reservoir of a complex community of commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Improved oral hygiene (OH) may reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP); however, research on the efficacy of different OH treatments and their potential synergistic effects has remained inconclusive. The objective of this study was to examine whether in patients on mechanical ventilation, using a toothbrushing (T) in conjunction with chlorhexidine (CHX), as opposed to only CHX, reduced the incidence of VAP. Read More

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October 2021

Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on the Effect of Portion Size and Ingestive Frequency on Energy Intake and Body Weight among Adults in Randomized Controlled Feeding Trials.

Adv Nutr 2021 Oct 23. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Department of Public Health, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Energy intake is the product of portion size (PS)-the energy content of an ingestive event-and ingestive frequency (IF)-the number of ingestive events per unit time. An uncompensated alteration in either PS or IF would result in a change in energy intake and body weight if maintained over time. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the independent effects of PS and IF on energy intake and body weight among healthy adults in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Read More

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October 2021

Long-Term Safety and Tolerability of Fremanezumab for Migraine Preventive Treatment in Japanese Outpatients: A Multicenter, Randomized, Open-Label Study.

Drug Saf 2021 Oct 23. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Medical Affairs, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokushima, Japan.

Introduction: Early discontinuation and poor adherence are common limitations of conventional preventive migraine medications that limit their long-term efficacy. Therefore, a migraine preventive medication with favorable long-term safety is warranted.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of fremanezumab for the preventive treatment of chronic or episodic migraine in Japanese patients. Read More

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October 2021

Stroke Prevention in Cervical Artery Dissection.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2021 Oct 23;23(12):182. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Department of Neurology, Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL, 560153, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Cervical artery dissection (CAD) is rare, yet it is a common cause of stroke in young and middle-aged adults. Historically, some senior clinicians favored anticoagulation in the prevention of stroke due to CAD. Choosing the optimal antithrombotic treatment with either antiplatelet (AP) or anticoagulant (AC) medications remains a challenge. Read More

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October 2021

Progressive lateralization and constant hip geometry in children with DDH, NDH, and LCPD following hip reconstructive surgery: a cohort study of 73 patients with a mean follow-up of 4.9 years.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2021 Oct 23. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Department for Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Kepler University Hospital GmbH, Krankenhausstrasse 9, 4020, Linz, Austria.

Background: Pelvic and femoral osteotomies have been effective methods to treat developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), neurogenic dislocation of the hip (NDH), and Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the mid-term results after hip reconstruction in children with DDH, NDH, and LCPD.

Methods: In a retrospective study, X-rays of 73 children (2-19 years) with DDH, NDH, and LCPD were measured before, 3 months, and at final follow-up (FU) after hip reconstructive surgery (open reduction, and femoral and/or pelvic osteotomy ± soft-tissue procedures between 2008 and 2018). Read More

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October 2021

Intravenous bisphosphonates do not improve knee pain or bone marrow lesions in people with knee osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 Oct 23. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Tasmania, Australia.

Objective: To summarise effects of intravenous bisphosphonates (IVBP) in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) and bone marrow lesions (BMLs), using a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Methods: Literature databases were searched for placebo-controlled RCTs of IVBPs for knee OA from inception, and included validated pain and function scales, BML size, and incidence of adverse events. Efficacy was compared using standardized mean differences (SMD) and risk ratios (RR) with fixed-effect or random-effects models. Read More

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October 2021

Vitamin D biomarkers for Dietary Reference Intake development in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Oct 23. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Ireland.

Background: Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) has been the accepted vitamin D exposure/intake biomarker of choice within recent Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) exercises, but use of other vitamin D-related biomarkers as well as functional markers have been suggested. These may be of value in future vitamin D DRI exercises, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization-World Health Organisation's one for young children.

Objective: To systematically review the usefulness of circulating 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), free and bioavailable 25(OH)D, C3-epimer-25(OH)D, vitamin D3, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D) as well as bone turnover markers and calcium absorption as vitamin D biomarkers for DRI development in children. Read More

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October 2021

Melatonin and melatonin-agonists for metabolic syndrome components in patients treated with antipsychotics: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Hum Psychopharmacol 2021 Oct 22:e2821. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: Metabolic side effects are a limiting factor in the use of antipsychotics, which remain the cornerstone of long-term management of patients with severe mental illness. There is contrasting evidence on a possible role of melatonin and melatonin-agonists in attenuating antipsychotic-induced metabolic abnormalities.

Design: We conducted a systematic review (PubMed, PsycInfo, Cochrane databases, up to August 2020) and a random-effect meta-analysis of double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) involving melatonin and melatonin-agonists in the treatment of antipsychotic-induced metabolic changes. Read More

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October 2021

Efficacy and safety of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers for IgA nephropathy in children.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 Oct 22. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Medical Investigation, Unit of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Alfredo Balena Avenue, 190, 2nd Floor, Room # 281, Belo Horizonte, MG, 30130-100, Brazil.

Background: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the most prevalent primary glomerulopathies in children. There are various studies investigating the efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) in adults with IgAN. However, only few studies evaluated the efficacy of these medications in pediatric patients. Read More

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October 2021

Antidiabetic effect of gemigliptin: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials with Bayesian inference through a quality management system.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 22;11(1):20938. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sunchon National University, 255 Jungang-ro, Suncheon, Jeollanam-do, 57922, Republic of Korea.

Gemigliptin is one of the latest dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors developed by LG Life Sciences. Since the early 2000s, several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of gemigliptin have been conducted. However, no study has directly compared its antidiabetic effects through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Read More

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October 2021

Surgical Techniques and Adjuvants for the Management of Pterygium.

Eye Contact Lens 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Ophthalmology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

Objective: To provide an updated review of surgical techniques and adjuvants for the management of pterygium.

Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed for studies published since January 2011. "Pterygium surgery" and the MeSH term "Pterygium/surgery" was used. Read More

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October 2021

SWOG 1918: A phase II/III randomized study of R-miniCHOP with or without oral azacitidine (CC-486) in participants age 75 years or older with newly diagnosed aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas - Aiming to improve therapy, outcomes, and validate a prospective frailty tool.

J Geriatr Oncol 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive but potentially curable malignancy; however, cure is highly dependent on the ability to deliver intensive, anthracycline-based chemoimmunotherapy. Nearly one third of cases of DLBCL occur in patients over age 75 years, and advanced age is an important adverse feature in prognostic models. Despite this incidence in older patients, there is no clear accepted standard of care due to under-representation of this group in large randomized clinical trials. Read More

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October 2021

Eleven Years of Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: From H1N1 to SARS-CoV-2. Experience and Perspectives of a National Referral Center.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.

Objective: Despite growing expertise and wide application of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of different origin and during pandemics (H1N1 Influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2), large reports are few and pertain mostly to multicenter registries, and randomized trials are difficult to perform. The aim of this study was to report outcomes, trends, and innovations of VV ECMO treatment over the last 11 years.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Observational study on 142 patients treated at the IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital in Milan from June 2009 (year of the H1N1 pandemic) to May 2020 (SARS-CoV-2 pandemic). Read More

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September 2021

Is oxytocin receptor antagonist administration around embryo transfer associated with IVF treatment success? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Reprod Biomed Online 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Gynaecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck, Germany.

A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate whether the administration of an oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTR-a) around embryo transfer is associated with live birth and pregnancy achievement in IVF treatment. Multiple databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing the outcome of IVF treatment with administration of an OTR-a before, during or after embryo transfer versus administration of placebo/nil. The literature search identified 11 eligible RCT. Read More

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Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Uptake, Adherence, and Persistence: A Narrative Review of Interventions in the U.S.

Am J Prev Med 2021 Nov;61(5S1):S73-S86

Center for Global Health, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Since 2012, HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been available to prevent HIV transmission; yet, uptake, adherence, and persistence to PrEP have been suboptimal. This narrative review examines the latest interventions and programs to improve all 3 stages of PrEP adherence and reviews ongoing studies to promote effective PrEP use. From 2017 to 2020, a total of 20 studies analyzed different individual- and structural-level approaches to increase PrEP adherence, including behavior change interventions, technology-based interventions (e. Read More

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November 2021

Acute Aortic Syndromes.

Cardiol Clin 2021 Nov;39(4):495-503

Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado, School of Medicine, Section of Vascular Medicine, Mail Stop B132, Leprino Building, 12401 East 17th Avenue, Room 560, Aurora, CO 80045, USA; CPC Clinical Research, 2115 North Scranton Street Suite 2040, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

Acute aortic syndromes, classified into aortic dissection, intramural hematoma, and penetrating aortic ulcer, are associated with high early mortality for which early diagnosis and management are crucial to optimize outcomes. Patients often present with nonspecific clinical symptoms and signs; therefore, it is important for providers to maintain a high index of suspicion for acute aortic syndromes. Electrocardiogram-gated computed tomographic angiography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis is currently the most practical imaging modality for diagnosis and identification of complications. Read More

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November 2021

Revascularization Strategies for Acute and Chronic Limb Ischemia.

Authors:
Jocelyn M Beach

Cardiol Clin 2021 Nov;39(4):483-494

Section of Vascular Surgery, Heart and Vascular Institute, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, 1 Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA. Electronic address:

Chronic limb-threatening ischemia requires aggressive risk factor management and a thoughtful approach to the complex decision of best strategy for revascularization. Patients often have multilevel disease amenable to endovascular, open surgical, or hybrid approaches. Limited high-quality evidence is available to support a specific strategy; randomized trials are ongoing. Read More

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November 2021

Nutrients Profile of 52 Browse Species Found in Semi-Arid Areas of South Africa for Livestock Production: Effect of Harvesting Site.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Oct 7;10(10). Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Chemistry, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North West University, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa.

The use of these browse plant species as feed supplements to livestock is restricted due to a lack of knowledge about their nutritional status. This study was conducted to evaluate the nutritive value of woody browse species found in a semi-arid, as influenced by harvesting, site (Limpopo and North West Province). Limpopo had a Glenrosa, Mispah and Lithosols (GM-L) soil type and North West sites had an Aeolian Kalahari sand, Clovelly and Hutton (AKS-CH) soil type. Read More

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October 2021

Acute Inflammation in Cerebrovascular Disease: A Critical Reappraisal with Focus on Human Studies.

Life (Basel) 2021 Oct 17;11(10). Epub 2021 Oct 17.

Department of Neurology, Centro Hospitalar Universitário São João, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal.

Recent attention has been focused on the field of inflammatory biomarkers associated with vascular disorders, regarding diagnosis, prognosis, and possible therapeutical targets. In this study, we aimed to perform a comprehensive review of the literature regarding the use of inflammatory biomarkers in stroke patients. We searched studies that evaluated inflammation biomarkers associated with Cerebrovascular Disease (CVD), namely, ischemic Stroke (IS), Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH) and Cerebral Venous Thrombosis (CVT). Read More

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October 2021

Does Acute Caffeine Supplementation Improve Physical Performance in Female Team-Sport Athletes? Evidence from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Nutrients 2021 Oct 19;13(10). Epub 2021 Oct 19.

GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, FIMS Collaborating Center of Sports Medicine, 50012 Zaragoza, Spain.

Introduction: Recent original research and meta-analyses suggest that acute caffeine supplementation improves exercise performance in team-sport athletes (TSA). Nonetheless, most of the studies testing the effects of caffeine on TSA included samples of male athletes, and there is no meta-analysis of the performance-enhancing effects of caffeine on female TSA. The aim of the present study was to synthesize the existing literature regarding the effect of caffeine supplementation on physical performance in adult female TSA. Read More

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October 2021

Vitamin D Supplementation and Mental Health in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients: A Systematic Review.

Nutrients 2021 Oct 19;13(10). Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Food Market and Consumer Research, Institute of Human Nutrition Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS-SGGW), 159C Nowoursynowska Street, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland.

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are associated with decreased quality of life and mental health problems. Among various approaches to supportive therapy that aims to improve mental health in affected individuals, vitamin D supplementation is considered to be an effective method which may also be beneficial in alleviating the symptoms during the course of IBDs and IBS. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature presenting the data regarding the influence of vitamin D supplementation on mental health in adults with inflammatory and functional bowel diseases, including IBDs and IBS. Read More

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October 2021

Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics on Weight Loss in Subjects with Overweight or Obesity: A Systematic Review.

Nutrients 2021 Oct 17;13(10). Epub 2021 Oct 17.

Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain.

Intestinal microbiota has been shown to be a potential determining factor in the development of obesity. The objective of this systematic review is to collect and learn, based on the latest available evidence, the effect of the use of probiotics and synbiotics in randomized clinical trials on weight loss in people with overweight and obesity. A search for articles was carried out in PubMed, Web of science and Scopus until September 2021, using search strategies that included the terms "obesity", "overweight", "probiotic", "synbiotic", "", "" and "weight loss". Read More

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October 2021

The Optimal Strategy of Vitamin D for Sarcopenia: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Nutrients 2021 Oct 14;13(10). Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Cochrane Taiwan, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan.

Sarcopenia is a disease of gradual loss of muscle mass in elderly people, and the most common treatment options include nutritional supplementation and exercise. Vitamin D has potential beneficial effects for skeletal muscle tissue and has often been included in nutritional therapy formulations. However, the therapeutic effect of vitamin D for the treatment of sarcopenia has not yet been determine and there is a lack of high-quality supporting evidence. Read More

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October 2021

Vitamin C in Critically Ill Patients: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Nutrients 2021 Oct 12;13(10). Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Disease and Critical Care, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA 23298, USA.

Background: Vitamin C is a water-soluble antioxidant vitamin. Oxidative stress and its markers, along with inflammatory markers, are high during critical illness. Due to conflicting results of the published literature regarding the efficacy of vitamin C in critically ill patients, and especially the concerns for nephrotoxicity raised by some case reports, this meta-analysis was carried out to appraise the evidence and affirmation regarding the role of vitamin C in critically ill patients. Read More

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October 2021

Augmented Renal Clearance, Muscle Catabolism and Urinary Nitrogen Loss: Implications for Nutritional Support in Critically Ill Trauma Patients.

Nutrients 2021 Oct 11;13(10). Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Anesthesiology and Critical Care Department, CHU Pellegrin, 33000 Bordeaux, France.

The main objective of this pilot study was to determine the association between augmented renal clearance (ARC), urinary nitrogen loss and muscle wasting in critically ill trauma patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a local database in 162 critically ill trauma patients without chronic renal dysfunction. Nutritional-related parameters and 24 h urinary biochemical analyses were prospectively collected and averaged over the first ten days after admission. Read More

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October 2021