772,373 results match your criteria randomized controlled

Does Physical Activity Improve Cognition and Academic Performance in Children? A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Neuropsychobiology 2021 Apr 22:1-29. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Laboratory of Biosciences of Human Kinetics - LABIMH, Department of Medicine, Tiradentes University (Unit), Aracaju, Brazil.

Introduction: In the last decades, different studies have investigated the effects of exercise or physical activity (PA) on cognitive functions and academic performance in children and adolescents. But given the inconsistencies regarding methodologies and the fact that many studies do not have controlled or randomized designs, a more recent review is needed in order to summarize the different outcomes and methodologies employed and correlate them from an applied perspective.

Objectives: The purpose of the present review is to systematically review and analyze the effects of acute and chronic PA interventions exclusively from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on cognitive functions and academic performance of children and adolescents. Read More

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Selection of individuals for lung cancer screening based on risk prediction model performance and economic factors - The Ontario experience.

Lung Cancer 2021 Apr 19;156:31-40. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Prevention and Cancer Control, Ontario Health (Cancer Care Ontario), Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Randomized controlled trials have shown that screening with computed tomography reduces lung cancer mortality but is most effective when applied to high-risk individuals. Accurate lung cancer risk prediction models effectively select individuals for screening. Few pilots or programs have implemented risk models for enrolling individuals for screening in real-world, population-based settings. Read More

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The Effect of Sham Controlled Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation and Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Upper Extremity Spasticity and Functional Recovery in Chronic Ischemic Stroke Patients.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Apr 19;30(7):105795. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

University of Health Sciences, Gulhane Medical School, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Gaziler Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: This randomized controlled study examined the effect of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) and low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on upper extremity spasticity and functional recovery in chronic ischemic stroke patients.

Materials And Methods: Twenty chronic ischemic stroke patients were randomized into three groups as real rTMS group (n = 7), real cTBS group (n = 7) and sham cTBS group (n = 6), in which real rTMS with physical therapy (PT), real cTBS with PT and sham cTBS with PT were applied in 10 sessions, respectively. The evaluation parameters were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment and follow up at 4 weeks. Read More

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A narrative review of exercise and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2021 Apr 2;71:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Canada.

Objective: Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) suffer significant distress due to their condition; however, there can be multiple barriers to treatment. Even following OCD-tailored treatment, symptoms often remain. Exercise may be an effective and available approach to managing OCD, and yet, there are no specifically dedicated reviews, limiting integration into clinical practice. Read More

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Role for Fibrin Glue (Sealant) in Seroma Reduction After Inguinal Lymphadenectomy; A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Int J Surg 2021 Apr 19:105950. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Egypt.

Background: Seroma is one of the most commonly encountered morbidities after inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND). It causes much nuisance to both patients and doctors and its presence can lead to many complications. This study aimed to evaluate the role and impact of using fibrin glue to decrease seroma formation in patients undergoing ILND. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of abatacept in interstitial lung disease of rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic literature review.

Autoimmun Rev 2021 Apr 19:102830. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Rheumatology Division, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Av. de Valdecilla 25, 39008 Santander, Cantabria, Spain; University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain; University of Witwatersrand, Cardiovascular Pathophysiology and Genomics Research Unit, School of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, South Africa.

Background: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a serious complication that represents the second leading cause of death in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Treatment of RA-ILD remains controversial. The absence of randomized clinical trials and specific ACR or EULAR therapeutic guidelines makes it difficult to establish solid therapeutic recommendations on this issue. Read More

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Women as Authors of Randomized Controlled Trials of Minimally Invasive Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 3 Decades of Trials.

J Am Coll Surg 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Urology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN. Electronic address:

Background: Female authorship opportunities have lagged behind those of their male counterparts, with gender disparities most prominent in surgical specialties. Our objective was to determine trends of female first, last, and first or last authorships across time and surgical specialties and whether female first or last authorship was associated with journal impact factor.

Study Design: A systematic review of EMBASE (OvidSP®), MEDLINE (OvidSP®), and Cochrane (Wiley®) from inception till December 22,2017 was performed to identify all RCTs evaluating MIS versus classical surgical techniques. Read More

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Budesonide Oral Suspension Improves Outcomes in Patients With Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Results from a Phase 3 Trial.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Center for Esophageal Diseases and Swallowing, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Background & Aims: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune-mediated disease for which there is currently no pharmacologic therapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

Methods: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, patients aged 11-55 years with EoE and dysphagia were randomized 2:1 to receive budesonide oral suspension (BOS) 2.0 mg b. Read More

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Cardiac output and cerebral blood flow during carotid surgery in regional versus general anesthesia: a prospective randomized controlled study.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics. Electronic address:

Objectives: Endarterectomy of the carotid artery (CEA) is a preventive procedure aimed at decreasing the subsequent risk of fatal or disabling stroke in patients with significant carotid stenosis. It is well known that carotid surgery under ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia (US-RA) causes a significant increase in blood pressure, heart rate and stress hormone levels due to increased sympathetic activity. However, little is known about the effects on cardiac output (CO), cardiac index (CI) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) under US-RA as compared to general anesthesia (GA). Read More

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Inferring molecular mechanisms of dexamethasone therapy in severe COVID-19 from existing transcriptomic data.

Abhay Sharma

Gene 2021 Apr 19:145665. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Sukhdev Vihar, Mathura Road, New Delhi 110025, India. Electronic address:

Dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, has previously shown mortality benefit in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a randomized controlled trial. As the illness is considered to reflect a hyperinflammatory state, this therapeutic effectiveness is presumably ascribed to broad anti-inflammatory activities of glucocorticoids. Here, an unbiased analysis of available transcriptomic data on lung and blood immune cells from severe COVID-19 patients, and matching cellular models of dexamethasone treatment is presented that supports this presumption. Read More

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Metformin extended-release versus metformin immediate-release for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 Apr 19:108824. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Office of the Chair, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of the Philippines Manila; Office of the Vice Chair for Research and Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Philippine General Hospital, University of the Philippines Manila.

Aim: To compare the efficacy and tolerability metformin extended-release (MXR) and the conventional metformin immediate-release (MIR) in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) METHODS: PubMed, the Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov and other sources were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared equal daily doses of MXR and MIR in adults with T2DM from platform inception to 19 March 2021. Random-effects model meta-analysis was performed to obtain, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), pooled mean difference (MD) of change from baseline for continuous outcomes and risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes. Read More

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MeDiGes Study. Metformin versus insulin in gestational diabetes: Glycemic control, and obstetrical and perinatal outcomes. Randomized prospective trial.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Regional Universitario de Málaga. IBIMA; CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas (CIBERDEM).

Background: Gestational diabetes not properly controlled with diet has been commonly treated with insulin. In recent years several studies have published that metformin can lead to, at least, similar obstetrical and perinatal outcomes as insulin. Nevertheless, not all clinical guidelines endorse its use, and clinical practice is heterogeneous. Read More

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Rationale and design of the AMULET study: A new Model of telemedical care in patients with heart failure.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Cardiology and Internal Diseases, Military Institute of Medicine, Szaserów Street 128, Warsaw, 04-141, Poland.

Aims: Heart failure (HF) is characterized by high mortality and hospital readmission rates. Limited access to cardiologists restricts the application of guideline-directed, patient-tailored medical therapy. Some telemedicine solutions and novel non-invasive diagnostic tools may facilitate real-time detection of early HF decompensation symptoms, prompt initiation of appropriate treatment, and optimal management of medical resources. Read More

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Impact of matrix support on older adults in primary care: randomized community trial.

Rev Saude Publica 2021 14;55:10. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros. Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde. Departamento de Saúde da Mulher e da Criança. Montes Claros, MG, Brasil.

Objective: To analyze the effect of matrix support on health for older adults in primary care according to the dimensions of frailty measured with the Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 (IVCF-20).

Methods: This is a randomized controlled community trial, developed in the Northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil, in 2018. Initially, the stratification of clinical and functional vulnerability of older adults supported by six Family Health Strategy teams occurred with the IVCF-20. Read More

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Impact of telephone monitoring on cancer patients undergoing esophagectomy and gastrectomy.

Rev Esc Enferm USP 2021 16;55:e03679. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate telephone monitoring for symptoms, quality of life, distress, admissions to the emergency center and the satisfaction of cancer patients undergoing esophagectomy and gastrectomy.

Method: Randomized controlled study in two groups, carried out at the Cancer Institute of the State of Sao Paulo; the intervention group received telephone monitoring for four moments after the surgery, while the control group received only institutional care.

Results: Of the 81 patients evaluated, the domain most affected by quality of life was social relationships domain. Read More

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The effect of educational technology use to guide parturient women's companions: a randomized controlled study.

Rev Esc Enferm USP 2021 16;55:e03666. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Universidade Federal do Ceará, Faculdade de Farmácia, Odontologia e Enfermagem, Departamento de Enfermagem, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate the companion's role during the labor and delivery processes, comparing the influence of the use of an educational technology.

Method: A single-blind randomized controlled study, in which 73 participants were divided into two groups, 35 in the intervention group and 38 in the comparison group. To analyze the groups the chi-square and the Fisher's exact tests were used in categorical variables and the Student's t-test or the Mann-Whitney test in continuous variables. Read More

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Dietary supplementation with whey protein improves systemic microvascular function in heart failure patients: a pilot study.

Braz J Med Biol Res 2021 19;54(6):e10577. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

Endothelial dysfunction is a well-known component of the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF), with proven prognostic value. Dietary supplementation with whey protein (WP) has been widely used to increase skeletal muscle mass, but it also has vascular effects, which are less understood. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of WP supplementation on the systemic microvascular function of HF patients. Read More

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Examining elevated blood pressure and the effects of diabetes self-management education on blood pressure among a sample of Marshallese with type 2 diabetes in Arkansas.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(4):e0250489. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Northwest, Fayetteville, Arkansas, United States of America.

Introduction: Hypertension is a leading risk factor for heart attack and stroke. Undiagnosed hypertension increases the risk of heart attack and stroke. The risk of hypertension is increased for those with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Read More

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Strategies to prevent hospital readmission and death in patients with chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic kidney disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(4):e0249542. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Max Rady College of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Background: Readmission following hospital discharge is common and is a major financial burden on healthcare systems.

Objectives: Our objectives were to 1) identify studies describing post-discharge interventions and their efficacy with respect to reducing risk of mortality and rate of hospital readmission; and 2) identify intervention characteristics associated with efficacy.

Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed. Read More

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Comparative Efficacy of 6 Topical Pharmacological Agents for Preventive Interventions of Postoperative Sore Throat After Tracheal Intubation: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis.

Anesth Analg 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

From the Cancer Hospital of China Medical University, Liaoning Cancer Hospital & Institute, Shenyang, China.

Background: Topical pharmacological agents typically used to treat postoperative sore throat (POST) after tracheal intubation include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, lidocaine, Glycyrrhiza (licorice), and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists (including ketamine and magnesium). However, the optimal prophylactic drug remains elusive.

Methods: The literature published before September 8, 2019 was searched on the PubMed, the Embase, the Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Read More

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Efficacy of an Online Curriculum for Perioperative Goals of Care and Code Status Discussions: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Anesth Analg 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Preoperative goals of care (GOC) and code status (CS) discussions are important in achieving an in-depth understanding of the patient's care goals in the setting of a serious illness, enabling the clinician to ensure patient autonomy and shared decision making. Past studies have shown that anesthesiologists are not formally trained in leading these discussions and may lack the necessary skill set. We created an innovative online video curriculum designed to teach these skills. Read More

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Effects of endogenous GIP in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

F Knop, Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte University Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark.

Objective: The insulinotropic effect of exogenous, intravenously infused glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is impaired in patients with type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the effects of endogenous GIP in relation to glucose and bone metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes using a selective GIP receptor antagonist and hypothesized that the effects of endogenous GIP were preserved.

Design: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Read More

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Alone Versus With Lateral Extra-articular Tenodesis With Minimum 2-Year Follow-up: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Am J Sports Med 2021 Apr 22:3635465211004946. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Box Hill Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Lateral extra-articular tenodesis (LEAT) aims to improve anterolateral stability of the injured knee during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) surgery. Inconclusive evidence surrounding the efficacy and safety of LEAT has propelled clinical interest and ongoing discussions.

Purpose: To establish level 1 evidence by assessing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with minimum 2-year follow-up that directly compared ACLR with LEAT (LEAT group) and ACLR alone (non-LEAT group) in terms of clinical outcomes and complications. Read More

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Effects of Triphala on Lipid and Glucose Profiles and Anthropometric Parameters: A Systematic Review.

J Evid Based Integr Med 2021 Jan-Dec;26:2515690X211011038

Division of Biological Chemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Showa University School of Pharmacy, Tokyo, Japan.

Aim.: The efficacy of triphala on lipid profile, blood glucose and anthropometric parameters and its safety were assessed.

Methods. Read More

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Combination of Dydrogesterone and Antibiotic Versus Antibiotic Alone for Chronic Endometritis: a Randomized Controlled Trial Study.

Reprod Sci 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, No 63, Wenhua Road, Nanchong, Sichuan province, China.

To evaluate the impact of dydrogesterone in the treatment of chronic endometritis with antibiotic treatment in premenopausal women. A total of 188 chronic endometritis patients diagnosed by syndecan-1 (CD138) expression were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial study. Dydrogesterone and doxycycline were given in the treatment group, while single antibiotic was given in the control group. Read More

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Effects of Variations in Resistance Training Frequency on Strength Development in Well-Trained Populations and Implications for In-Season Athlete Training: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Sports Med 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Human Performance Laboratory, Directorate of Sport, Exercise, and Physiotherapy, University of Salford, Greater Manchester, UK.

Background: In-season competition and tournaments for team sports can be both long and congested, with some sports competing up to three times per week. During these periods of time, athletes need to prepare technically, tactically and physically for the next fixture and the short duration between fixtures means that, in some cases, physical preparation ceases, or training focus moves to recovery as opposed to progressing adaptations.

Objective: The aim of this review was to investigate the effect of training frequency on muscular strength to determine if a potential method to accommodate in-season resistance training, during busy training schedules, could be achieved by utilizing shorter more frequent training sessions across a training week. Read More

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Effect of n-3 PUFA on extracellular matrix protein turnover in patients with psoriatic arthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Rheumatol Int 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Rheumatology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by involvement of skin, axial and peripheral skeleton. An altered balance between extracellular matrix (ECM) formation and breakdown is a key event in PsA, and changes in ECM protein metabolites may provide insight to tissue changes. Dietary fish oils (n-3 PUFA) might affect the inflammation driven tissue turnover. Read More

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Recurrence rates of surgically resected solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

The Department of Cardiothoracic surgery, Longgang Central Hospital of Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China.

Objectives: Recurrence rates of solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura (SFTP) after surgical resection vary widely in the published literature. Our objective was to systematically review the existing literature to determine an accurate estimate of SFTP recurrence rates after surgical resection and to determine risk factors associated with recurrence.

Methods: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials and observational studies (prospective or retrospective) through 20 June 2020 that reported the recurrence rates after surgical resection. Read More

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An assessment of the efficacy of clinical skills simulation using standardized patient in teaching behavior management and modification skills in Pediatric Dentistry to dental undergraduate students: A double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial.

J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2021 Jan-Mar;39(1):90-94

Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Government Dental College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India.

Background: Clinical skills simulation (CSS) is an important tool in teaching and learning. The literature review showed a scarcity of research data regarding the use of CSS,in teaching, especially in dentistry. The use of CSS in dental teaching was found restricted to the use of low fidelity typhodonts fitted to phantom heads used in teaching cavity preparation and crown cutting. Read More

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Digital Health Intervention to Increase Health Knowledge Related to Diseases of High Public Health Concern in Iringa, Tanzania: Protocol for a Mixed Methods Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Apr 22;10(4):e25128. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Centre for Global Health, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Traditionally, health promotion and health education have been provided to communities in the global south in the form of leaflets or orally by health care workers. Digital health interventions (DHIs) such as digital health messages accessed by smartphones have the potential to reach more people at a lower cost and to contribute to strengthening of health care systems. The DHI in this study focuses on disseminating digital health education regarding 3 disease complexes of high public health concern: HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and Taenia solium (neuro)cysticercosis or taeniasis, a parasitic zoonotic disease that requires a One Health approach. Read More

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