838,001 results match your criteria randomized controlled

Tamoxifen in mastalgia: A meta-analysis.

J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Junior medical officer, AIIMS Bhubaneswar.

Objectives: Tamoxifen is prescribed for chronic mastalgia at a dosage of one 10- or 20-mg tablet for 3-6 months. A topical preparation of this drug has recently been approved. The aim of this study was to meta-analyze the effectiveness of tamoxifen and its different regimens for the treatment of mastalgia. Read More

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Effect of macular pigment carotenoids on cognitive functions: A systematic review.

Physiol Behav 2022 Jun 22:113891. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Vision Science Research Group (CIVIUS), Department of Physics of Condensed Matter - Optics Area, Av. de la Reina Mercedes, S/N, 41012 Sevilla, University of Seville, Spain; Faculty of Optics and Optometry, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, Edificio 35, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia, University of Murcia, Spain. Electronic address:

Lutein and zeaxanthin-xanthophyll carotenoids with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristics-are present in the retina and the brain. High concentrations of these carotenoids have been positively related to cognitive performance. Therefore, this systematic review analyses the relationship between macular pigment density and cognitive functions. Read More

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Expectant versus medical management for retained products of conception after medical termination of pregnancy: A randomized controlled study.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lis Hospital for Women's Health, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel, affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Despite the rise of medical treatments for the termination of pregnancy, to-date no prospective trial has evaluated the efficacy of misoprostol in treating retained products of conception after induced termination of pregnancy.

Objective: To compare medical management with misoprostol with expectant management for retained products of conception after first trimester medical termination of pregnancy.

Study Design: An open-label randomized controlled trial conducted at a university-affiliated tertiary medical center. Read More

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Effect of intervention delivered by lay maternal care providers to improve outcome and parenting skills among adolescents with perinatal depression in Nigeria (the RAPiD study): A cluster randomized controlled trial.

J Affect Disord 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Canada.

Background: Perinatal depression is more common and is associated with greater negative consequences among adolescents than adults. Psychosocial interventions designed for adults may be inadequate at addressing the unique features of adolescent perinatal depression.

Methods: In a two-arm parallel cluster randomized trial conducted in thirty primary maternal care clinics in Ibadan, Nigeria (15-intervention and 15-control) we compared age-appropriate intervention consisting of problem-solving therapy, behavioral activation, parenting skills training, and parenting support from a self-identified adult to care as usual. Read More

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Changes in nicotine dependence among smokers using electronic cigarettes to reduce cigarette smoking in a randomized controlled trial.

Nicotine Tob Res 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Penn State College of Medicine, Center for Research on Tobacco and Health, Hershey, PA, USA.

Background: How nicotine dependence will be affected when current smokers initiate electronic cigarette (e-cig) use to reduce cigarette smoking is unknown. This study evaluated cigarette, e-cig, and total nicotine dependence over 6 months among smokers reducing cigarette consumption by replacing with e-cigs.

Methods: Adult cigarette smokers were randomized to one of four conditions [36mg/ml e-cig, 8mg/ml e-cig, 0mg/ml e-cig, or cigarette-substitute (CS) (provided at no cost)] and instructed to reduce their cigarette smoking by 75% at 1 month. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of micronized purified flavonoid fractions for the treatment of postoperative hemorrhoid complications: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Phytomedicine 2022 Jun 17;104:154244. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010110; Inner Mongolia Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010020; Inner Mongolia Institute of Traditional Chinese and Mongolian Medicine, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010010; Baotou Medical College, Baotou, Inner Mongolia 014040. Electronic address:

Background: Hemorrhoids, a common anorectal disease, seriously affects patients' quality of life. Micronized purified flavonoid fractions (MPFF) have been shown to improve hemorrhoid symptoms.

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of MPFF in treating postoperative hemorrhoid complications. Read More

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Nursing interventions to promote patient engagement in cancer care: A systematic review.

Int J Nurs Stud 2022 May 27;133:104289. Epub 2022 May 27.

EngageMinds HUB - Consumer, Food & Health Engagement Research Center, Department of Phychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milano and Cremona, L.Go Gemelli 1, 20123 Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Patient engagement is becoming increasingly relevant in cancer care. Nurses have been recognized as crucial in promoting active engagement of people with carcer. Despite the growing interest on this topic and the relevance of patient engagement interventions to improve patient' conditions, to the best of our knowledge there is no synthesis of the literature on the characteristics and impact of nurse-led patient engagement intervention for adults with cancer. Read More

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Clinical Effects of Simultaneous Implant Placement in Hydraulic Maxillary Sinus Lift Without Bone Grafting.

Altern Ther Health Med 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Context: Tooth absence is a pervasive oral condition and mostly occurs as maxillary tooth absence. The only way to treat tooth absence in adults is prosthesis implantation, and implant therapy usually requires repair of the maxillary sinus to its original state using a maxillary sinus lift (MSL). MSL has usually included bone augmentation with bone grafting simultaneously with the placement of the dental implant. Read More

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Liraglutide Plus Dapagliflozin for High Uric Acid and Microalbuminuria in Diabetes Mellitus Complicated With Metabolic Syndrome.

Altern Ther Health Med 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Context: Diabetes mellitus (DM) represents an emerging epidemic, poses serious threats to human health, and can seriously compromise patients' quality of life (QoL). Currently, no cure exists for DM. Some studies have found that both liraglutide and dapagliflozin have great therapeutic potential in preventing and treating DM and its complications. Read More

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The Efficacy of Kundur (Boswellia serrata Roxb. Ex Colebr.) in Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: A Randomized Control Trial.

Altern Ther Health Med 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Context: Kundur, Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr., is prescribed by Unani (Greco-Arab) scholars clinically under conditions similar to vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and has been supported by recent pharmacological studies, but scientific evidence is scarce. Read More

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Congenital anomalies and perinatal outcomes following blastocyst vs cleavage-stage embryo transfer: systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Assisted Reproduction Unit, Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, "Aretaieion" University Hospital, 76 Vas. Sofias Av., 11528, Athens, Greece.

Objective: To compare the reported events of congenital anomalies of newborns and perinatal outcomes of pregnancies resulting from blastocyst and cleavage-stage embryo transfers following assisted reproduction, through a pairwise meta-analysis, and the same outcomes between pregnancies resulting from fresh-blastocyst, frozen-blastocyst, fresh-cleavage and frozen-cleavage embryo transfers, through a network meta-analysis.

Methods: A search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, and CENTRAL and registers for ongoing studies, from inception to February 2022 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with any sample size and cohort studies including at least 100 live births per cohort, comparing events of congenital anomalies of the newborns and perinatal outcomes of pregnancies following fresh/frozen embryo transfer at cleavage stage (D2-3) vs. transfer at blastocyst stage (D5-7). Read More

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Hepatic Hydrothorax: A Narrative Review.

Pulm Ther 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields, Northumbria Way, Northumberland, Cramlington, NE23 6NZ, UK.

Hepatic hydrothorax (HH) represents a distinct clinical entity within the broader classification of pleural effusion that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The median survival of patients with cirrhosis who develop HH is 8-12 months. The diagnosis is typically made in the context of advanced liver disease and ascites, in the absence of underlying cardio-pulmonary pathology. Read More

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Levothyroxine-induced serum free thyroxine response following radioactive iodine administration in patients thyroidectomized for differentiated thyroid cancer: A randomized controlled trial.

Endocrine 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

SSD Medicina interna ad indirizzo onco-endocrinologico, Università di Parma - Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Parma, Italy.

Purpose: Patients undergoing thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) may require 131-radioactive iodine (RAI) administration for remnant ablation or disease treatment. After ingestion, RAI resides within the gastrointestinal tract potentially leading to mucosal damage and abnormalities in the absorption of levothyroxine (LT4). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether serum FT4 peak, induced by a LT4 challenge, changes according to the LT4 formulation (solid or liquid) in both RAI and non-RAI-treated DTC patients. Read More

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Randomized, controlled trial of two tranexamic acid dosing protocols in adult spinal deformity surgery.

Spine Deform 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Rady Children's Hospital, University of California, 3020 Children's Way, San Diego, CA, 92123, USA.

Background: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an anti-fibrinolytic effective in reducing blood loss in orthopedic surgery. The appropriate dosing protocol for adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery is not known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two TXA protocols [low dose (L): 10 mg/kg bolus, 1 mg/kg/hr infusion; high dose (H): 50 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg/hr] in complex ASD surgery. Read More

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Immune checkpoint inhibitors' combination therapy as first-line treatment in advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Oncology, Panyu Central Hospital, No. 8 Fuyu Road East, Panyu, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: The benefit of immune checkpoint inhibitors' (ICIs) combination therapy in patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remained unclear. We performed a meta-analysis to explore the efficacy and safety of ICIs' combination therapy versus chemotherapy alone as first-line treatment in advanced ESCC.

Methods: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ICIs' combination therapy as first-line treatment in advanced ESCC was conducted via searching PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database. Read More

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Inattention symptoms in early pregnancy predict parenting skills and infant maltreatment during the first year of life.

Braz J Psychiatry 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Departamento de Psiquiatria, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Objective: : Maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder has not been investigated in relation to parenting skills in adolescent mothers. This study investigated whether maternal inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms early in pregnancy predict poorer parenting skills and infant maltreatment during the first year of life in adolescent mothers living in adverse environmental conditions.

Methods: : The participants in this study were 80 adolescent mothers aged 14-19 years and their babies who were taking part in a randomized controlled trial on the effects of a home-visiting program on infant development. Read More

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Estimands for factorial trials.

Stat Med 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, London, UK.

Factorial trials offer an efficient method to evaluate multiple interventions in a single trial, however the use of additional treatments can obscure research objectives, leading to inappropriate analytical methods and interpretation of results. We define a set of estimands for factorial trials, and describe a framework for applying these estimands, with the aim of clarifying trial objectives and ensuring appropriate primary and sensitivity analyses are chosen. This framework is intended for use in factorial trials where the intent is to conduct "two-trials-in-one" (ie, to separately evaluate the effects of treatments A and B), and is comprised of four steps: (i) specifying how additional treatment(s) (eg, treatment B) will be handled in the estimand, and how intercurrent events affecting the additional treatment(s) will be handled; (ii) designating the appropriate factorial estimator as the primary analysis strategy; (iii) evaluating the interaction to assess the plausibility of the assumptions underpinning the factorial estimator; and (iv) performing a sensitivity analysis using an appropriate multiarm estimator to evaluate to what extent departures from the underlying assumption of no interaction may affect results. Read More

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Effect of Chlorhexidine Mouthwash on Gingival Health around Orthodontic Miniscrew Implants: A Pilot Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial.

Orthod Craniofac Res 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, First affiliated hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan, China.

Objective: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) aims to investigate the short-term effects of chlorhexidine mouthwash (MW) on gingival health surrounding orthodontic miniscrew implants (OMIs) and their overall survivability.

Materials And Methods: Thirty-two participants (mean age, 22.8 years) undergoing fixed orthodontic appliance treatment after maxillary premolar extraction were randomly allocated in a parallel fashion to either receive (1) MW with an active component of chlorhexidine, or (2) a placebo. Read More

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Effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention to reduce social isolation and loneliness in community-dwelling elders: A randomized clinical trial.

Nurs Open 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Universidad de Burgos, Burgos, Spain.

Aims: To assess the effect of a multicomponent intervention on reducing social isolation and loneliness and improving the quality of life in community-dwelling older adults.

Design: A cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial.

Methods: A total of 56 older adults participated in the control group and 63 older adults in the experimental group. Read More

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Minding the Baby versus usual care: study protocol for a quasi-cluster-randomized controlled study in Denmark of an early interdisciplinary home-visiting intervention for families at increased risk for adversity.

Trials 2022 Jun 24;23(1):529. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Yale Child Study Center, 230 S Frontage Rd, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Inequality in health can have profound effects on a child's opportunities later in life. To prevent these downstream effects in families at increased risk of adversity, programs are needed to provide support and improve well-being across several domains. The present trial is aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the Minding the Baby® (MTB) home visiting intervention in improving the mother-child relationship, parental reflective functioning, well-being, and mental health, as well as child development and well-being in families at known risk of adverse health, relational, and developmental outcomes. Read More

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A prospective randomized self-controlled study of LASIK combined with accelerated cross-linking for high myopia in Chinese: 24-month follow-up.

BMC Ophthalmol 2022 Jun 24;22(1):280. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: To assess the visual and refractive outcomes of femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) concurrent with accelerated cross-linking (LASIK Xtra) compared with conventional FS-LASIK (convLASIK) for high myopia in Chinese individuals.

Methods: In this prospective, randomized, fellow-eye comparison study, 25 patients with high myopia were treated randomly with LASIK Xtra in one eye and convLASIK in the other. A 24-month follow-up was conducted, and the main outcome measures included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) and corneal tomography. Read More

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Simultaneous red and infrared light-emitting diodes reduced pain in individuals with temporomandibular disorder: a randomized, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial.

Lasers Med Sci 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), 235/249 Vergueiro Street, São Paulo, SP, 01525-000, Brazil.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of photobiomodulation (PBM) with the simultaneous use of red and infrared LEDs on pain and mandibular range of motion in individuals with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Eighteen participants were randomly allocated to an LED group or control group. The device had 18 red LEDs (660 nm) and 18 infrared LEDs (850 nm), with a total power irradiated of 126 mW and 75. Read More

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Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of adolescent depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of aggregated and individual-patient data from uncontrolled studies.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive treatment for adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD). Existing evidence on the efficacy of TMS in adolescent MDD awaits quantitative synthesis. A systematic literature search was conducted, and data from eligible studies were synthesized using random-effects models. Read More

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Are zirconia crowns the superior choice when restoring primary posterior molars?

Evid Based Dent 2022 Jun 24;23(2):72-73. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Restorative Department, Dundee Dental Hospital and School, Dundee, Scotland, UK.

Data sources Electronic database searches were carried out using predefined search terms using Embase, Google Scholar, Medline, The Cochrane Library, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature. The Trip medical database was also used to identify randomised control trials investigating stainless steel and zirconia crowns. Studies published from 1 January 2000 until 6 June 2021 were included, and reference lists of included studies analysed to ensure data saturation along with grey literature searches. Read More

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Examining patterns of traditional Chinese medicine use in pediatric oncology: A systematic review, meta-analysis and data-mining study.

J Integr Med 2022 Jun 10. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Background: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is becoming a popular complementary approach in pediatric oncology. However, few or no meta-analyses have focused on clinical studies of the use of TCM in pediatric oncology.

Objective: We explored the patterns of TCM use and its efficacy in children with cancer, using a systematic review, meta-analysis and data mining study. Read More

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The Effect of Xylitol Gum Chewing After Cesarean on Bowel Functions: A Randomized Controlled Study.

J Perianesth Nurs 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Trakya University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Women Health and Disease Nursing, Edirne, Merkez, Turkey. Electronic address:

Purpose: Postoperative ileus after cesarean is a common complication. The delay of bowel functions after cesarean influences early parenthood experience, increases the need for analgesic use, extends the duration of hospital stay, and causes cost increase. This study aimed to explore the effect of xylitol gum chewing after cesarean on bowel functions. Read More

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Combined anterior and posterior ring fixation versus posterior ring fixation alone in the management of unstable Tile B and C pelvic ring injuries: A randomized controlled trial.

Chin J Traumatol 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, 11522, Egypt.

Purpose: Combined anterior and posterior ring (APR) fixation is classically performed in Tile B2 and C1 injuries to achieve superior biomechanical stability. However, the posterior ring (PR) is the main weight bearing portion that is responsible for weight transmission from the upper parts of the body to the lower limbs through the sacrum and the linea terminalis. It is hypothesized that isolated PR fixation can achieve comparable radiological and clinical outcomes to APR fixation. Read More

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Impact of empathic physician contact on patient anxiety and distress during the waiting period after embryo transfer: a randomized controlled trial.

Reprod Biomed Online 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston MA, USA; Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston MA, USA; Boston IVF/Eugin Group, Waltham MA, USA; Domar Center for Mind/Body Health, Boston IVF, Waltham MA, USA.

Research Question: Can an empathic physician phone call in the interval between embryo transfer and first serum human chorionic gonadotrophin measurement decrease anxiety and distress amongst patients undergoing IVF?

Design: This was a randomized controlled trial at a single academically-affiliated fertility centre including patients aged 18-43 undergoing their first embryo transfer with autologous fresh or euploid cryopreserved embryos following preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (frozen embryo transfer, FET/PGT-A). After embryo transfer, participants were randomized to a 5-minute scripted phone call (intervention) from a single physician 3-4 days after embryo transfer or to routine care. The primary and secondary outcomes included were change in State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores from the start of IVF stimulation to 8-9 days after embryo transfer, respectively. Read More

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Accounting for concurrent antihyperglycemic medication changes in dietary and physical activity interventions: A focused literature review.

Diab Vasc Dis Res 2022 May-Jun;19(3):14791641221111252

Department of Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, 70401University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Aims: To summarize methods used to account for antihyperglycemic medication changes in randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of dietary and physical activity interventions on glycemia among adults with diabetes.

Methods: Using studies included in two recently published systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials examining the glycemic effects of dietary and physical activity interventions, we evaluated how each study accounted for antihyperglycemic medication changes. Data were analyzed using summary statistics, stratified by the type of intervention studied, and each was assigned a score from 0 to 6 reflecting the strength of medication controls employed. Read More

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Need for better reporting of trials with surrogate endpoints: SPIRIT|CONSORT-SURROGATE extensions.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit & Robertson Centre for Biostatistics, Institute of Health and Well Being, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

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