43,338 results match your criteria randomized case-control

Four-Month Rifapentine Regimens with or without Moxifloxacin for Tuberculosis.

N Engl J Med 2021 05;384(18):1705-1718

From the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston (S.E.D.); the UCSF Center for Tuberculosis, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (P.N., P.P.J.P., R.M.S.); the Vietnam National Tuberculosis Program-University of California, San Francisco Research Collaboration Unit (P.N., P.P.J.P., H.T.T.P., N.V.N., T.H.P., R.M.S.) and the National Lung Hospital (N.V.N., T.H.P.) - both in Hanoi; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta (E.V.K., K.B., S.V.G., A.E.P., N.A.S., E.S., A.V.); the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (M.E., M.W.); the University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences, Harare (J.H., W.S.); Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland (J.L.J.); the Uganda-Case Western Reserve University Research Collaboration, Kampala (J.L.J., G.M.); TASK (M.L.), the University of Cape Town Lung Institute (K.N.), and the South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative (J.S.), Cape Town, the Perinatal HIV Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand (N.A.M., Z.W.), and the Wits Health Consortium (I.S.), Johannesburg - all in South Africa; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.E.D., N.A.M., R.E.C.), and the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (A.E.P.) - both in Maryland; the Haitian Group for the Study of Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (GHESKIO), Port-au-Prince (S.N., S.P.); and the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (S.S.).

Background: Rifapentine-based regimens have potent antimycobacterial activity that may allow for a shorter course in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis.

Methods: In an open-label, phase 3, randomized, controlled trial involving persons with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis from 13 countries, we compared two 4-month rifapentine-based regimens with a standard 6-month regimen consisting of rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol (control) using a noninferiority margin of 6.6 percentage points. Read More

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Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in Bipolar Disorder: A Systematic Review.

Bipolar Disord 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto.

Objectives: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is commonly used in unipolar depression; yet there its evidence in bipolar disorder (BD) is limited. We sought to review the evidence on the use of rTMS across the different stages of BD.

Methods: MEDLINE database was systematically searched using the PubMed interface following the PRISMA guidelines. Read More

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Continuous erector spinae plane block versus thoracic epidural analgesia in video-assisted thoracic surgery: a study protocol for a prospective randomized open label non-inferiority trial.

Trials 2021 May 4;22(1):321. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Catharina Hospital, Michelangelolaan 2, Eindhoven, 5623 EJ, The Netherlands.

Background: Thoracic epidural analgesia is considered the gold standard for pain relief in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. This neuraxial technique blocks pain sensation by injecting a local anesthetic agent in the epidural space near the spinal cord to block spinal nerve roots. Recently, the erector spinae plane block has been introduced as a practical alternative to the thoracic epidural. Read More

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Translating Research-Funded Mobile Produce Market Trials Into Sustained Public Health Programs : Food on the Move.

Public Health Rep 2021 May 3:333549211012409. Epub 2021 May 3.

Rhode Island Public Health Institute, Providence, RI, USA.

Food on the Move is an ongoing mobile produce market program in Rhode Island whose operations evolved from previous mobile market programs evaluated by 2 research studies: (1) one on Fresh to You, a prospective cohort study evaluating markets at community sites serving low-income families; and (2) one on Live Well, Viva Bien, a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating markets and complementary nutrition interventions at public housing sites. The 2 studies spanned more than a decade and demonstrated the effect of mobile produce markets on access to, affordability of, and consumption of fruit and vegetables in low-income communities in Rhode Island. When grant funding ended in 2016, academic and community partners continued the mobile market program as Food on the Move. Read More

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Treatment of Pediatric Alopecia Areata: A Systematic Review.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Dermatology, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune, non-scarring hair loss disorder with slightly greater prevalence in children than adults. Various treatment modalities exist; however, their evidence in pediatric AA patients is lacking.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review on the PubMed database in October 2019 for all published articles involving patients <18 years old. Read More

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[Consensus statement of the Hungarian Clinical Neurogenic Society about the therapy of adult SMA patients].

Ideggyogy Sz 2021 Mar;74(3-4):79-86

Semmelweis Egyetem, Genomikai Medicina és Ritka Betegségek Tanszék; European Reference Network, Neuromuscular Disorders Szakértôi Központ, Budapest.

Background And Purpose: Background - Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive, progressive neuromuscular disorder resulting in a loss of lower motoneurons. Recently, new disease-modifying treatments (two drugs for splicing modification of SMN2 and one for SMN1 gene replacement) have become available. Purpose - The new drugs change the progression of SMA with neonatal and childhood onset. Read More

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Early Orthostatic Exercise by Head-Up Tilt With Stepping vs. Standard Care After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Is Feasible.

Front Neurol 2021 14;12:626014. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Intensive rehabilitation of patients after severe traumatic brain injury aims to improve functional outcome. The effect of initiating rehabilitation in the early phase, in the form of head-up mobilization, is unclear. To assess whether early mobilization is feasible and safe in patients with traumatic brain injury admitted to a neurointensive care unit. Read More

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Interference of horse purslane ( L.) and other weeds affect yield of autumn planted maize ( L.).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Apr 20;28(4):2291-2300. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

To assess comparative losses of (HP) relative to other weeds, the experiment was set during consecutive summer seasons 2018 and 2019 at the Research Farm MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan. Experiment consisted three replications which were laid out under randomized complete block design. Experiment consisted of ten treatments viz: weeds free (whole season), HP free till 20 Days after emergence (DAE), HP free till 40 DAE, HP free till 60 DAE, all weeds free 20 DAE, all weeds free 40 DAE, all weeds free 60 DAE, weedy check (all weeds), weedy check except HP and weedy check containing only HP. Read More

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Anesthetic technique and cancer surgery outcomes.

Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2021 Jun;34(3):317-325

Department of Anaesthesia, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre.

Purpose Of Review: Surgery remains integral to treating solid cancers. However, the surgical stress response, characterized by physiologic perturbation of the adrenergic, inflammatory, and immune systems, may promote procancerous pathways. Anesthetic technique per se may attenuate/enhance these pathways and thereby could be implicated in long-term cancer outcomes. Read More

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Maternal vitamin D status and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 2;40(5):2576-2586. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular -Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Food Security Research Center, Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: No earlier systematic review and meta-analysis have been done on the association between maternal serum vitamin D status and risk of GDM among prospective studies. The current study was done to systematically review prospective cohort studies (with several years of follow-up) on the association between maternal serum vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency and risk of GDM.

Methods: Relevant papers published up to January 2020 were searched through PubMed, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and Google Scholar using suitable keywords. Read More

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Evidence for Above Cuff Vocalization in Patients With a Tracheostomy: A Systematic Review.

Laryngoscope 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Objectives/hypothesis: To determine how above cuff vocalization (ACV) is implemented in clinical practice, to identify what evidence exists on the effectiveness and safety of ACV, and to evaluate the acceptability of ACV.

Study Design: Systematic review.

Methods: A literature search was conducted in eight databases (MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science) in May 2019 and updated in June 2020. Read More

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Changes in the respiratory function of COVID-19 survivors during follow-up: a novel respiratory disorder on the rise?

Int J Clin Pract 2021 May 1:e14301. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, G. Papanikolaou Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Background: The Human Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious respiratory disorder that it may result in acute respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of this review was to investigate the incidence and type of respiratory function abnormalities during follow-up of patients who recovered from COVID-19.

Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE was conducted, utilizing various term combinations. Read More

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Application of case-based learning in medical student education: a meta-analysis.

X-Y Cen Y Hua S Niu T Yu

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Apr;25(8):3173-3181

School of Anesthesiology, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, Anhui, China.

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of case-based learning (CBL) in medical students' education through meta-analysis.

Materials And Methods: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Elsevier and other databases were searched to find randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CBL teaching methods and other teaching methods published from January 1, 1995, to October 1, 2020. All included studies used the Cochrane risk bias assessment tool, and Review Manager software, version 5. Read More

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A randomized sham-controlled trial on the effect of continuous positive airway pressure treatment on gait control in severe obstructive sleep apnea patients.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 29;11(1):9329. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

HP2 Laboratory, U1300, INSERM, Grenoble Alpes University, Grenoble, France.

To determine the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), the gold standard treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), on gait control in severe OSAS patients. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, sham-controlled monocentric study in Grenoble Alpes University Hospital, France. Gait parameters were recorded under single and dual-task conditions using a visuo-verbal cognitive task (Stroop test), before and after the 8-week intervention period. Read More

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Directed Data-Processing Inequalities for Systems with Feedback.

Entropy (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;23(5). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Electronic Systems, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark.

We present novel data-processing inequalities relating the mutual information and the directed information in systems with feedback. The internal deterministic blocks within such systems are restricted only to be causal mappings, but are allowed to be non-linear and time varying, and randomized by their own external random input, can yield any stochastic mapping. These randomized blocks can for example represent source encoders, decoders, or even communication channels. Read More

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Effect of a Preventive Oral Health Program Starting during Pregnancy: A Case-Control Study Comparing Immigrant and Native Women and Their Children.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 13;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Surgery and Medical-Surgical Specialities, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Spain.

The objective was to evaluate whether including pregnant women in a preventive dental program prevented the appearance of caries in their children up to the age of 6, and whether the effect was similar in children of immigrant and non-immigrant women. In phase I, 90 pregnant women, 45 immigrants and 45 natives, were taught about the development and prevention of caries. In phase II the oral health of their children at the age of 6 ( = 90) was evaluated, along with a control group of children of natives and immigrants of the same age ( = 90). Read More

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The association of soluble CD163, a novel biomarker of macrophage activation, with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its underlying physiological disorders: A systematic review.

Obes Rev 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

This systematic review investigates the association of sCD163, a novel biomarker of macrophage activation, with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), insulin resistance, and beta-cell dysfunction. Sixteen studies (seven cross-sectional, two case-control, one nested case-control, three prospective cohort, and three experimental) were identified. Most studies demonstrated that elevated sCD163 concentrations were associated with increased insulin resistance. Read More

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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Improves Physical Function and Fatigue in Mild and Moderate Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Consecutive Randomized Controlled Trial of Standard and Short Interventions.

Front Psychiatry 2021 12;12:580924. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

To study whether standard cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and a shorter, interpersonal oriented cognitive behavioral therapy (I-CBT) can improve physical function and fatigue in patients diagnosed with mild to moderate chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in a multidisciplinary fatigue clinic. Consecutively 236 participants 18-62 years old meeting the Centre of Decease Control, CDC 1994 criteria, with a subsample also fulfilling the Canadian criteria for CFS, were randomly allocated to one of three groups. Two intervention groups received either 16 weeks of standard CBT or 8 weeks of I-CBT vs. Read More

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Natural tannin extracts supplementation for COVID-19 patients (TanCOVID): a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Apr 28;22(1):310. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Sector Neurogastroenterología, Hospital de Clinicas José de San Martin Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Objectives: This research aims to study the efficacy of tannins co-supplementation on disease duration, severity and clinical symptoms, microbiota composition and inflammatory mediators in SARS-CoV2 patients.

Trial Design: This is a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial to evaluate the efficacy of the administration of the dietary supplement ARBOX, a molecular blend of quebracho and chestnut tannins extract and Vit B12, in patients affected by COVID-19.

Participants: 18 years of age or older, admitted to Hospital de Clinicas Jose de San Martin, Buenos Aires University (Argentina), meeting the definition of "COVID-19 confirmed case" ( https://www. Read More

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Arq Gastroenterol 2021 Jan-Mar;58(1):107-113

Pontíficia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUCPR), Hospital Universitário Cajuru, Ambulatório de Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais, Curitiba, PR, Brasil.

Background: The rates of postoperative endoscopic recurrence (PER) in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) are consistent. Anti-TNF therapy has been increasingly used in the postoperative setting, despite the lack of robust data in the literature on the measurement of trough levels and consequences of their use.

Objective: The aim of this review was to assess trough levels of infliximab (IFX) in CD patients after ileocolonic resections in correlation with the presence of PER. Read More

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[Effect of combination of acupuncture and psychological intervention on attention, response inhibition and cerebral blood flow in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2021 Apr;41(4):400-4

Department of Pediatrics, Qingzhou Municipal Chinese Medicine Hospital of Shandong Province.

Objective: To observe the clinical curative effect on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and explore the relevant mechanism of acupuncture in treatment.

Methods: A total of 100 ADHD children were randomized into an observation group (50 cases, 2 cases dropped off) and a control group (50 cases, 1 case dropped off). In the control group, the routine psychological intervention was used. Read More

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IMI Risk Factors for Myopia.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Apr;62(5)

School of Optometry & Vision Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.

Risk factor analysis provides an important basis for developing interventions for any condition. In the case of myopia, evidence for a large number of risk factors has been presented, but they have not been systematically tested for confounding. To be useful for designing preventive interventions, risk factor analysis ideally needs to be carried through to demonstration of a causal connection, with a defined mechanism. Read More

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Photobiomodulation therapy for management of inferior alveolar nerve injury post-extraction of impacted lower third molars.

Lasers Dent Sci 2020 Mar 17;4(1):25-32. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

Purpose: Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury is one of the most serious complications after extraction of impacted lower third molars. Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy has been noted to reduce pain and inflammation while promoting tissue healing. This study examined the efficacy of PBM therapy tested in a case series of patients with postoperative IAN injury. Read More

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Comparison of Short Course Versus Long Course Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Caesarean Section: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

West Afr J Med 2021 Apr;38(4):398-404

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria.

Background: The need for restrictive use of antibiotics has become a contemporary issue, hence the drive for reduction in the duration of perioperative antibiotic use without compromising care.

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of short course versus long course antibiotic prophylaxis for caesarean section.

Methodology: This was a randomised controlled study in which I66 patients admitted for elective or emergency caesarean section at National Hospital Abuja were randomly allocated into two parallel treatment groups in 1:1 allocation ratio. Read More

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Elongation of the disc-fovea distance and retinal vessel straightening in high myopia in a 10-year follow-up of the Beijing eye study.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 26;11(1):9006. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Laboratory, Beijing, China.

To assess changes in the disc-fovea distance (DFD) in highly myopic eyes in a 10-year population-based follow-up study. The case control study included all highly myopic eyes (myopic refractive error ≥ - 6.0 diopters or axial length ≥ 26. Read More

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The role of the endogenous oxytocin system under psychosocial stress conditions in adolescents suffering from anxiety disorder: study protocol for a parallel group controlled trial.

BMC Psychol 2021 Apr 26;9(1):61. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Clinic for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstraße 84, 93053, Regensburg, Germany.

Background: In social neuroscience, the linkage between the endocrinological system and the etiology and symptomatology of mental health problems has received increasing attention. A particular focus is given to the neuropeptide oxytocin with its anxiolytic and stress-buffering effect and the resulting therapeutic potential for anxiety disorders. Even though anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental health disorders in childhood and adolescence worldwide, the reactivity of the endogenous oxytocin system to an acute stressor (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) has so far only been investigated in healthy children. Read More

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Feasibility and effect of interactive telerehabilitation on balance in individuals with chronic stroke: a pilot study.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2021 Apr 26;18(1):71. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, No. 252, Wu-Hsing St., Taipei City, 110, Taiwan.

Background: Stroke survivors need continuing exercise intervention to maintain functional status. This study assessed the feasibility and efficacy of an interactive telerehabilitation exergaming system to improve balance in individuals with chronic stroke, compared to conventional one-on-one rehabilitation.

Methods: In this prospective case-control pilot study, 30 Taiwanese individuals with chronic stroke were enrolled and randomly allocated to an experimental group and a control group. Read More

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Vitamin D status of Arab Gulf residents screened for SARS-CoV-2 and its association with COVID-19 infection: a multi-centre case-control study.

J Transl Med 2021 04 26;19(1):166. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Chair for Biomarkers of Chronic Diseases, Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box, 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: Vitamin D status in patients with COVID-19 is an on-going controversial issue. This study aims to determine differences in the serum 25(OH)D concentrations of Arab Gulf adult residents screened for SARS-CoV-2 and its association with risk of COVID-19 infection together with other comorbidities.

Methods: In this multi-center, case-control study, a total of 220 male and female adults presenting with none to mild symptoms were screened for COVID-19 (n = 138 RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive and 82 negative controls). Read More

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[The Influence of Occupational Group and Experience with Regard to the Criteria-Based Assessment of Culpability for Paraphilic Disorders - A Randomized Control Trial].

Psychiatr Prax 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Institut für Sexualforschung, Sexualmedizin und Forensische Psychiatrie, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf.

Objective: This study examines whether occupation and level of experience have an impact on criteria-based assessment of criminal responsibility in paraphilic disorders.

Methods: Two different sets of criteria were tested for predictive validity by three different professional groups (psychologists, psychiatrists and lawyers), each with different levels of prior experience. For this purpose, 349 raters evaluated the criteria of one of two criteria catalogs on the basis of one of two exemplary case vignettes. Read More

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