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Associations of the Neighborhood Built Environment With Physical Activity Across Pregnancy.

J Phys Act Health 2021 Apr 15:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Background: Several features of the neighborhood built environment have been shown to promote leisure-time physical activity (PA) in the general population, but few studies have examined its impact on PA during pregnancy.

Methods: Data were extracted from 8362 Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcomes Study: Monitoring Mothers-to-Be cohort participants (2010-2013). Residential address information was linked to 3 built environment characteristics: number of gyms and recreation areas within a 3-km radius of residence and census block level walkability. Read More

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Fallout of Lead Over Paris From the 2019 Notre-Dame Cathedral Fire.

Geohealth 2020 Aug 21;4(8):e2020GH000279. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Statistics Columbia University New York, NY USA.

The roof and spire of Notre-Dame cathedral in Paris that caught fire and collapsed on 15 April 2019 were covered with 460 t of lead (Pb). Government reports documented Pb deposition immediately downwind of the cathedral and a twentyfold increase in airborne Pb concentrations at a distance of 50 km in the aftermath. For this study, we collected 100 samples of surface soil from tree pits, parks, and other sites in all directions within 1 km of the cathedral. Read More

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Switching a Polar Metal via Strain Gradients.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Mar;126(12):127601

Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain.

Although rare, spontaneous breakdown of inversion symmetry sometimes occurs in a material which is metallic: these are commonly known as polar metals or ferroelectric metals. Their polarization, however, is difficult to switch via an electric field, which limits the experimental control over band topology. Here we investigate, via first-principles theory, flexoelectricity as a possible way around this obstacle with the well-known polar metal LiOsO_{3}. Read More

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All-polymer whispering gallery mode resonators for gas sensing.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(6):8685-8697

Sensitivity of polymeric microdisks is evaluated for selected compounds in their vapor phase such as humidity, isopropanol, toluene, limonene, 1-butanol, and pentanoic acid (valeric acid). Among these compounds, pentanoic acid exhibits the highest sensitivity (23 pm/ppm) with a limit of detection estimated to be around 0.6 ppm. Read More

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Circle-based model to estimate error in using the lowest points to indicate locations of contact developed by the femoral condyles on the tibial insert in total knee arthroplasty.

J Biomech 2021 Mar 9;120:110365. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817, United States.

A common method used to study tibiofemoral joint biomechanics following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the lowest point method, which finds the lowest points of each femoral condyle in relation to the plane of the resected tibia. The objectives of this paper were twofold: 1) to use a circle-based model to demonstrate the large inherent error introduced when the lowest points are used to indicate anterior-posterior (AP) positions of contact by the femur on the tibial insert, 2) to use the circle-based model to estimate the magnitude of error. A circle-based model was created to simulate articular surfaces of the tibial insert and condyles of the femoral component and to demonstrate the error. Read More

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Strong Genetic Effects on Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Locations with Two Different Techniques: Results from a Cross-Sectional Twin Study.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Mar 8;57(3). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Medical Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Semmelweis University, 1082 Budapest, Hungary.

: Previous studies have demonstrated that risk of hip fracture is at least partly heritable. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of the genetic component of bone mineral density (BMD), using both X-ray and ultrasound assessment at multiple sites. 216 adult, healthy Hungarian twins (124 monozygotic, MZ, 92 dizygotic, DZ; mean age 54. Read More

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Optimal Design Parameters for a Phased Array Based Ultrasonic Polar Scan.

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2021 Apr 2;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

In the context of designing a next-generation Ultrasonic Polar Scan (UPS) measurement system for visco-elastic material characterisation, a novel approach is proposed that draws on a set of cylindrically focused emitters in conjunction with a Circular Phased Array (C-PA) receiver in order to create a portable measurement system, while improving the data quality and ease the data interpretation. To explore the potential of the new approach and determine its optimal design parameters, a three-dimensional analytical model is presented to numerically simulate UPS experiments with the proposed system. Furthermore, a post-processing procedure is worked out to treat the acquired raw data with the aim to deal with the integrating effect of finite size transducers and to directly reconstruct the angle dependent plane wave reflection coefficients of the sample under study. Read More

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Measured Resection Techniques Do Not Align to the Cylindrical Axis in Kinematic Total Knee Arthroplasty.

Arthroplast Today 2021 Apr 23;8:157-162. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Orthopaedic Department, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: There has been increasing interest with improved functional results in kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty. Kinematic alignment seeks to replicate the rotational axes of the individual knee. The femoral component can either be aligned to the estimated prearthritic distal and posterior joint lines via a measured-resection technique or by aligning to the cylindrical axis (CA). Read More

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Case Report: Bayesian Statistical Inference of Experimental Parameters via Biomolecular Simulations: Atomic Force Microscopy.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 10;8:636940. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

The atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful tool for imaging structures of molecules bound on surfaces. To gain high-resolution structural information, one often superimposes structure models on the measured images. Motivated by high flexibility of biomolecules, we previously developed a flexible-fitting molecular dynamics (MD) method that allows protein structural changes upon superimposing. Read More

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The near field, Westervelt far field, and inverse-law far field of the audio sound generated by parametric array loudspeakers.

J Acoust Soc Am 2021 Mar;149(3):1524

Centre for Audio, Acoustics and Vibration, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2007, Australia.

The near and far fields of traditional loudspeakers are differentiated by whether the sound pressure amplitude is inversely proportional to the propagating distance. However, the audio sound field generated by a parametric array loudspeaker (PAL) is more complicated, and in this article it is proposed to be divided into three regions: near field, Westervelt far field, and inverse-law far field. In the near field, the audio sound experiences strong local effects and an efficient quasilinear solution is presented. Read More

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Quantifying the benefits of in-time and in-place responses to remediate acute LNAPL release incidents.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 22;287:112356. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

CSIRO Land and Water, Private Bag No. 5, Wembley, WA, 6913, Australia; School of Earth Sciences, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA, 6009, Australia.

Acute large volume spills from storage tanks of petroleum hydrocarbons as light non aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) can contaminate soil and groundwater and may have the potential to pose explosive and other risks. In consideration of an acute LNAPL release scenario, we explore the value of a rapid remediation response, and the value of installing remediation infrastructure in close proximity to the spill location, in effecting greater recovery of LNAPL mass from the subsurface. For the first time, a verified three-dimensional multi-phase numerical framework and supercomputing resources was applied to explore the significance of in-time and in-place remediation actions. Read More

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High herd-level seroprevalence and associated factors for bovine leukemia virus in the semi-arid Paraíba state, Northeast Region of Brazil.

Prev Vet Med 2021 Mar 11;190:105324. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Academic Unit of Veterinary Medicine, Center of Rural Health and Technology, Federal University of Campina Grande, 58708-110, Patos, Paraíba, Brazil. Electronic address:

Epidemiological surveys that investigate infectious diseases such as enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) are important. Furthermore, estimating the prevalence of such infectious diseases and associated factors is key to assess the disease impact and design control programs. In this study, we identified a high herd-level seroprevalence of EBL in cattle from the semi-arid Paraíba state, Northeast Region of Brazil, using a planned cross-sectional survey. Read More

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Improvements in radiographic and clinical assessment of distal radius fracture healing by FE-estimated bone stiffness.

Bone Rep 2021 Jun 21;14:100748. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Surgery, Division of Orthopaedic Trauma, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Bone strength determined from finite element (FE) modelling provides an estimate of fracture healing progression following a distal radius fracture (DRF), but how these measures relate to patient-reported outcomes and functional outcomes remains unknown. We hypothesized that changes in bone stiffness and bone mineral density measured using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) are associated with clinically available measures of functional and patient-reported outcomes. We also aimed to identify which clinical outcome measures best predict fracture stiffness and could therefore be used to inform cast removal. Read More

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Determination of texture properties of banana fruit cells with an atomic force microscope: A case study on elastic modulus and stiffness.

J Texture Stud 2021 Mar 6. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Biosystems Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

Characterization of biological materials with their elasto-mechanical properties is considered essential for understanding their nature. In addition, elasto-mechanical studies at the macroscale are frequently used to determine these characteristics by a resistance measurement such as the Magness-Taylor penetration test or compression test using an Instron Universal Mechanical Testing Machine. In this regard, the atomic force microscopy (AFM) was presented as a new method for identifying the alterations of elasto-mechanical properties at a nanoscale. Read More

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A study of Type B uncertainties associated with the photoelectric effect in low-energy Monte Carlo simulations.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Departament de Fisica atomica, molecular y nuclear, Universidad de Valencia, C/ del Dr Moliner, 50, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia), burjassot, SPAIN.

Purpose: To estimate Type B uncertainties in absorbed-dose calculations arising from the different implementations in current state-of-the-art Monte Carlo codes of low-energy photon cross-sections (< 200 keV).

Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are carried out using three codes widely used in the low-energy domain: PENELOPE-2018, EGSnrc, and MCNP. Three dosimetry-relevant quantities are considered: mass energy-absorption coefficients for water, air, graphite, and their respective ratios; absorbed dose; and photon-fluence spectra. Read More

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Morphologic Features of the Distal Femur and Proximal Tibia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Cureus 2021 Jan 25;13(1):e12907. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, IND.

Background The asymmetric medial and lateral condyles of the distal femur and proximal tibia have a direct influence on the biomechanics of knee joint and prostheses design. This study aimed to determine the morphologic data, that is., anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) widths, and the radius of curvature (ROC) of the geometric arcs of the distal femur and proximal tibia. Read More

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January 2021

Reduced serum levels of anti-Mullerian hormone is a putative biomarker of early knee osteoarthritis in middle-aged females at menopausal transition.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 2;11(1):4931. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8562, Japan.

A recent epidemiological study revealed that the highest prevalence of early knee osteoarthritis (OA) was observed in females aged ≥ 50 years. The major causal factor of early knee OA was sex. Despite the relevance of estrogen in evaluating chondral and bone metabolism in OA, it is not easily clinically monitored because irregular menstrual cycles induce unstable female hormone patterns during menopausal transitions. Read More

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A simulation study of cell size and volume fraction mapping for tissue with two underlying cell populations using diffusion-weighted MRI.

Magn Reson Med 2021 Feb 28. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Purpose: To propose a method for voxel-wise estimation of cell radii and volume fractions of two cell populations when they coexist in the same MR voxel using the combination of diffusion-weighted MRI and microstructural modeling.

Method: Microstructure models were investigated using diffusion data simulated with the matrix method for a range of microstructures mimicking tumor tissue with two cell populations, using acquisition parameters available on preclinical scanners. The effect of noise was investigated for a subset of these microstructures. Read More

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February 2021

Soil and ambient air mercury as an indicator of coal-fired power plant emissions: a case study in North China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, 550081, China.

Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) are an important anthropogenic mercury (Hg) source in China, and it is crucial to understand the environmental impacts of this detrimental element emitted from this source. In the present study, field experiments were conducted for measuring Hg in ambient atmosphere and upland agricultural soils within a radius of 10 km surrounding a large scale coal-fired power plant (1550 MW) in Tangshan, Hebei province. Short-term (20 min) average of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM or Hg) in ambient air varying from 1. Read More

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February 2021

Fibril density reduction in keratoconic corneas.

J R Soc Interface 2021 02 24;18(175):20200900. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Civil Engineering and Industrial Design, School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

This study aims to estimate the reduction in collagen fibril density within the central 6 mm radius of keratoconic corneas through the processing of microstructure and videokeratography data. Collagen fibril distribution maps and topography maps were obtained for seven keratoconic and six healthy corneas, and topographic features were assessed to detect and calculate the area of the cone in each keratoconic eye. The reduction in collagen fibril density within the cone area was estimated with reference to the same region in the characteristic collagen fibril maps of healthy corneas. Read More

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February 2021

The Ring-Pull Assay for Mechanical Properties of Fibrous Soft Tissues - An Analysis of the Uniaxial Approximation and a Correction for Nonlinear Thick-Walled Tissues.

Exp Mech 2021 Jan 21;61(1):53-66. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background: The ring-pull test, where a ring of tissue is hooked via two pins and stretched, is a popular biomechanical test, especially for small arteries. Although convenient and reliable, the ring test produces inhomogeneous strain, making determination of material parameters non-trivial.

Objective: To determine correction factors between ring-pull-estimated and true tissue properties. Read More

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January 2021

Centrifugal ultrafiltration preconcentration for studying the colloidal phase of a uranium-containing soil suspension.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Mar 31;1640:461957. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, E2S UPPA, CNRS, IPREM UMR 5254, Helioparc, 2 Avenue Angot, 64053 PAU, France. Electronic address:

The objective of this work was to explore centrifugal ultrafiltration (UF) to separate and / or preconcentrate natural colloidal particles for their characterization. A soil suspension obtained by batch leaching was used as a laboratory reference sample. It was preconcentrated with concentration factors (CF) varying from 10 to 450. Read More

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Acardiac twin pregnancies part VI: Why does acardiac twinning occur only in the first trimester?

Birth Defects Res 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Pathology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Clinical observation suggests that acardiac twinning occurs only in the first trimester. In part, this contradicts our previous analysis (part IV) of Benirschke's concept that unequal embryonic splitting causes unequal embryo/fetal blood volumes and pressures. Our aim is to explain why acardiac onset is restricted to the first trimester. Read More

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February 2021

Improvements on spatial coverage and focality of deep brain stimulation in pre-surgical epilepsy mapping.

J Neural Eng 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

1Research Institute of Electronics, Control and Signal Processing (LEICI), National University of La Plata-CONICET, Calchaqui 5401, La Plata, Buenos Aires, B1900, ARGENTINA.

Electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) of the brain using stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) intracranial electrodes, also know as depth-ESM (DESM), is being used as part of the pre-surgical planning for brain surgery in drug-resistant epilepsy patients. Typically, DESM consists in applying the electrical stimulation using adjacent contacts of the SEEG electrodes and in recording the EEG responses to those stimuli, giving valuable information of critical brain regions to better delimit the region to resect. However, the spatial extension or coverage of the stimulated area is not well defined even though the precise electrode locations can be determined from computed tomography images. Read More

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February 2021

Complexation of Cyclic Glutarimidedioxime with Cerium: Surrogating for Redox Behavior of Plutonium.

Inorg Chem 2021 Mar 12;60(5):3139-3148. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621999, China.

The complexation of cerium with glutarimidedioxime (HL) was studied by potentiometry, ESI-mass spectrometry, and cyclic voltammetry. Crystallization of [Ce(HL)] from Ce starting reactant indicated spontaneous complexation-driven oxidation. In aqueous solution, Ce ions form three successive complexes, Ce(HL), Ce(HL), and Ce(HL) (where HL stands for the singly deprotonated ligand). Read More

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Formability and Failure Evaluation of AA3003-H18 Sheets in Single-Point Incremental Forming Process through the Design of Experiments.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Feb 8;14(4). Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju-Do 63243, Korea.

The single-point incremental forming process (SPIF) is one of the emerging manufacturing methods because of its flexibility in producing the desired complex shapes with higher formability at low-cost compared to traditional sheet forming methods. In this research work, we experimentally investigate the forming process to determine the influence of process parameters and their contribution to enhancing the formability without causing a fracture by combining the design of experiments (DOE), grey relational analysis (GRA), and statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA). The surface morphology and the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) method are used to perform elemental analysis and examine the formed parts during three forming stages. Read More

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February 2021

Effective Diffusion in Fibrous Porous Media: A Comparison Study between Lattice Boltzmann and Pore Network Modeling Methods.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Feb 5;14(4). Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Harbin Institute of Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Shenzhen 518055, China.

The understanding of the correlation between a pore-scale structure and its coupled diffusion transport property is crucial in the virtual design and performance optimization of porous fibrous material for various energy applications. Two most common and widely employed pore-scale modeling techniques are the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and the pore network modeling (PNM). However, little attention has been paid to the direct comparison between these two methods. Read More

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February 2021

A retrospective study of CT-guided percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE) ablation: clinical efficacy and safety.

BMC Cancer 2021 Feb 5;21(1):124. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 197#, Rui Jin Er Road, Shanghai, 200025, People's Republic of China.

Background: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of ablating renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by irreversible electroporation (IRE).

Methods: Fifteen patients (19 lesions) with RCC who underwent IRE were retrospectively reviewed. Seven patients had solitary kidneys. Read More

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February 2021

Analysis of vehicle skidding potential on horizontal curves.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Mar 2;152:105960. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

School of Highway, Chang'an University, China; National University of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

High crash rates on horizontal curves during wet weather are a major road safety concern. Among the various causes of crashes on horizontal curves, wet-weather skidding is a major contributing factor. This study analyzed the mechanisms of three possible modes of vehicle skidding on horizontal curves based on theories of mechanics. Read More

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Emission and Mass Load of Artificial Sweeteners from a Pig Farm to Its Surrounding Environment: Contribution of Airborne Pathway and Biomonitoring Potential.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Feb 4;55(4):2307-2315. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, China.

An investigation was conducted by determining artificial sweeteners (ASs) in 80 samples from various environmental matrices, including dry deposition, rainfall, soil, leaf, and bark samples around a pig farm in Tianjin, China. Saccharin, cyclamate, and acesulfame were predominant in dry deposition and rainfall samples. Spatially, the distribution of ASs showed a consistent trend of farm center > downwind sites > upwind sites > reference site. Read More

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February 2021