2,067 results match your criteria radiotracer brain

Superiority of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Brain Tissue for Assessment of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Tau Pathology With [ F]PI-2620.

Front Neurol 2021 2;12:684523. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Munich, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Autoradiography on brain tissue is used to validate binding targets of newly discovered radiotracers. The purpose of this study was to correlate quantification of autoradiography signal using the novel next-generation tau positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer [F]PI-2620 with immunohistochemically determined tau-protein load in both formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and frozen tissue samples of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP). We applied [F]PI-2620 autoradiography to postmortem cortical brain samples of six patients with AD, five patients with PSP and five healthy controls, respectively. Read More

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A new approach to produce [F]MC225 via one-step synthesis, a PET radiotracer for measuring P-gp function.

EJNMMI Radiopharm Chem 2021 Jul 15;6(1):24. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713, GZ, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Background: [F]MC225 is a radiotracer for imaging P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function at the blood-brain barrier. The P-gp function can be altered due to different factors, for instance, decreased P-gp function has been described in patients with Alzheimer's or Parkinson's Disease. The current applied radiosynthesis of [F]MC225 involves 2 steps, including the distillation of the [F] fluoroethylbromide intermediate. Read More

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Technical Note: A preliminary study of dual-tracer PET image reconstruction guided by FDG and/or MR kernels.

Med Phys 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Lauterbur Research Center for Biomedical Imaging, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Purpose: Clinically, single radiotracer positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is a commonly used examination method; however, since each radioactive tracer reflects the information of only one kind of cell, it easily causes false negatives or false positives in disease diagnosis. Therefore, reasonably combining two or more radiotracers is recommended to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and the sensitivity and specificity of the disease when conditions permit.

Methods: This paper proposes incorporating F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) as a higher-quality PET image to guide the reconstruction of other lower-count C-methionine (MET) PET datasets to compensate for the lower image quality by using a popular kernel algorithm. Read More

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Imaging the Pathophysiology of Essential Tremor-A Systematic Review.

Front Neurol 2021 16;12:680254. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4/INM-11), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich, Germany.

The pathophysiology underlying essential tremor (ET) still is poorly understood. Recent research suggests a pivotal role of the cerebellum in tremor genesis, and an ongoing controversy remains as to whether ET constitutes a neurodegenerative disorder. In addition, mounting evidence indicates that alterations in the gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmitter system are involved in ET pathophysiology. Read More

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ABCB1 and ABCG2 Together Limit the Distribution of ABCB1/ABCG2 Substrates to the Human Retina and the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Q141K (c.421C> A) May Lead to Increased Drug Exposure.

Front Pharmacol 2021 16;12:698966. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, VIE, Austria.

The widely expressed and poly-specific ABC transporters breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) and P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) are co-localized at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and have shown to limit the brain distribution of several clinically used ABCB1/ABCG2 substrate drugs. It is currently not known to which extent these transporters, which are also expressed at the blood-retinal barrier (BRB), may limit drug distribution to the human eye and whether the reduced-function single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Q141K (c.421C > A) has an impact on retinal drug distribution. Read More

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Development of Ga-68 DOTA-CRH for PET/CT Imaging of ACTH-Dependent Cushing's Disease: Initial Study.

Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's disease accounts for 75% cases of the endogenous Cushing's syndrome. The size of lesion is usually very small, which results in false-negative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) even after biochemical confirmation of the disease. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) the key controller of hypothalamus-pituitary--adrenal axis binds to CRH receptor R1 and R2. Read More

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[C]PBR28 radiotracer kinetics are not driven by alterations in cerebral blood flow.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 Jun 23:271678X211023387. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Radiology, Athinoula A. Martinos Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA.

The positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer [C]PBR28 has been increasingly used to image the translocator protein (TSPO) as a marker of neuroinflammation in a variety of brain disorders. Interrelatedly, similar clinical populations can also exhibit altered brain perfusion, as has been shown using arterial spin labelling in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Hence, an unsolved debate has revolved around whether changes in perfusion could alter delivery, uptake, or washout of the radiotracer [C]PBR28, and thereby influence outcome measures that affect interpretation of TSPO upregulation. Read More

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Development of CD133 Targeting Multi-Drug Polymer Micellar Nanoparticles for Glioblastoma - In Vitro Evaluation in Glioblastoma Stem Cells.

Pharm Res 2021 Jun 7;38(6):1067-1079. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Radiology and Imaging, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

Purpose: Glioblastoma (GBM) is a malignant brain tumor with a poor long-term prognosis due to recurrence from highly resistant GBM cancer stem cells (CSCs), for which the current standard of treatment with temozolomide (TMZ) alone will unlikely produce a viable cure. In addition, CSCs regenerate rapidly and overexpress methyl transferase which overrides the DNA-alkylating mechanism of TMZ, leading to resistance. The objective of this research was to apply the concepts of nanotechnology to develop a multi-drug therapy, TMZ and idasanutlin (RG7388, a potent mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) antagonist), loaded in functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) that target the GBM CSC subpopulation, reduce the cell viability and provide possibility of in vivo preclinical imaging. Read More

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Development and evaluation of [F]Flotaza for Aβ plaque imaging in postmortem human Alzheimer's disease brain.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 Aug 1;46:128164. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Preclinical Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine 92697, USA. Electronic address:

Positron emission tomographic (PET) studies of amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have shown clinical utility. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a new fluorine-18 radiotracer [F]Flotaza (2-{2-[2-[F]fluoroethoxy]ethoxy}ethoxy)-4'-N,N-dimethylaminoazobenzene), for Aβ plaque imaging. Nucleophilic [F]fluoride was used in a one-step radiosynthesis for [F]flotaza. Read More

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Synthesis of Novel Fluorinated Xanthine Derivatives with High Adenosine A Receptor Binding Affinity.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 May 19;14(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Department of Neuroradiopharmaceuticals, 04318 Leipzig, Germany.

The G protein-coupled adenosine A receptor is suggested to be involved in various pathological processes accompanied by increased levels of adenosine as found in inflammation, hypoxia, and cancer. Therefore, the adenosine A receptor is currently in focus as a novel target for cancer therapy as well as for noninvasive molecular imaging via positron emission tomography (PET). Aiming at the development of a radiotracer labeled with the PET radionuclide fluorine-18 for imaging the adenosine A receptor in brain tumors, one of the most potent and selective antagonists, the xanthine derivative PSB-603, was selected as a lead compound. Read More

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Resolving the cellular specificity of TSPO imaging in a rat model of peripherally-induced neuroinflammation.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom; GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage, London, United Kingdom; The Wellcome Trust Consortium for the Neuroimmunology of Mood Disorders and Alzheimer's Disease (NIMA), United Kingdom.

The increased expression of 18 kDa Translocator protein (TSPO) is one of the few available biomarkers of neuroinflammation that can be assessed in humans in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET). TSPO PET imaging of the central nervous system (CNS) has been widely undertaken, but to date no clear consensus has been reached about its utility in brain disorders. One reason for this could be because the interpretation of TSPO PET signal remains challenging, given the cellular heterogeneity and ubiquity of TSPO in the brain. Read More

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New types of localization methods for adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing's syndrome.

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 01 10;35(1):101513. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Cambridge Endocrine Molecular Imaging Group, Metabolic Research Laboratories, Wellcome-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, and National Institute for Health Research Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK. Electronic address:

The management of endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS) typically involves two key steps: (i) confirmation of autonomous hypercortisolism and (ii) localization of the cause to guide treatment. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent CS is most commonly due to a pituitary corticotrope tumor which may be so small as to evade detection on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although biochemical testing (e. Read More

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January 2021

Incremental Utility of Tc-99m Glucohepatonate Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography over F-Flourodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography in Diagnosis of Brain Tumor Recurrence - Old is Gold.

Indian J Nucl Med 2021 Jan-Mar;36(1):53-55. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Neuro Imaging and Interventional Radiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Detection of recurrence of a brain tumor after treatment is one of the most important and challenging diagnostic problems in neuro-oncological practice. In spite of technical advances in imaging modalities, sometimes, certain clinical presentations and manifestations can lead to a diagnostic dilemma even with the best of the technical know-how. We present a case of recurrence of anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (World Health Organization Grade III), where the patient's initial clinical presentation and the F-18 flourodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) magnetic resonance imaging findings were suggestive of stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy syndrome. Read More

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A Phase 0 Microdosing PET/CT Study Using O-[18F]Fluoromethyl-D-Tyrosine in Normal Human Brain and Brain Tumor.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju Departments of Nuclear Medicine Neurosurgery, Korea Cancer Center Hospital Division of RI Convergence, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences FutureChem Co, Ltd, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to obtain information about distribution, radiation dosimetry, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics of O-[18F]fluoromethyl-D-tyrosine (D-18F-FMT), an amino acid PET tracer, in patients with brain tumors.

Patients And Methods: A total of 6 healthy controls (age = 19-25 years, 3 males and 3 females) with brain PET images and radiation dosimetry and 12 patients (median age = 60 years, 6 males and 6 females) with primary (n = 5) or metastatic brain tumor (n = 7) were enrolled. We acquired 60-minute dynamic brain PET images after injecting 370 MBq of D-18F-FMT. Read More

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[C]K-2 image with positron emission tomography represents cell surface AMPA receptors.

Neurosci Res 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Physiology, Yokohama, 236-0004, Japan. Electronic address:

The glutamate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPARs) is an important molecule in neurotransmission. We have recently developed the first positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [C]K-2 to visualize and quantify AMPARs in the living human brain. After injection, [C]K-2 is hydrolyzed at the terminal amide (and is thus metabolized to a major metabolite, [C]K-2) within 10 min, representing the PET image in rodents and humans. Read More

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Brain imaging of cannabinoid type I (CB ) receptors in women with cannabis use disorder and male and female healthy controls.

Addict Biol 2021 May 24:e13061. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Cannabis effects are predominantly mediated by pharmacological actions on cannabinoid type 1 (CB ) receptors. Prior positron emission tomography (PET) studies in individuals who use cannabis included almost exclusively males. PET studies in females are needed because there are sex differences in cannabis effects, progression to cannabis use disorder (CUD), and withdrawal symptom severity. Read More

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PET Neuroimaging of Alzheimer's Disease: Radiotracers and Their Utility in Clinical Research.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 6;13:624330. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, PET Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States.

Alzheimer's Disease (AD), the leading cause of senile dementia, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions of people worldwide and exerting tremendous socioeconomic burden on all societies. Although definitive diagnosis of AD is often made in the presence of clinical manifestations in late stages, it is now universally believed that AD is a continuum of disease commencing from the preclinical stage with typical neuropathological alterations appearing decades prior to its first symptom, to the prodromal stage with slight symptoms of amnesia (amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI), and then to the terminal stage with extensive loss of basic cognitive functions, i.e. Read More

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Feasibility of short imaging protocols for [F]PI-2620 tau-PET in progressive supranuclear palsy.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Purpose: Dynamic 60-min positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with the novel tau radiotracer [F]PI-2620 facilitated accurate discrimination between patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and healthy controls (HCs). This study investigated if truncated acquisition and static time windows can be used for [F]PI-2620 tau-PET imaging of PSP.

Methods: Thirty-seven patients with PSP Richardson syndrome (PSP-RS) were evaluated together with ten HCs. Read More

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Unravelling neuroinflammation in abusive head trauma with radiotracer imaging.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 May 17;51(6):966-970. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Radiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS), Little Rock, AR, USA.

Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in child abuse, with a mortality rate of approximately 25%. In survivors, the prognosis remains dismal, with high prevalence of cerebral palsy, epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders. Early and accurate diagnosis of AHT is challenging, both clinically and radiologically, with up to one-third of cases missed on initial examination. Read More

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Targeting glioblastoma using a novel peptide specific to a deglycosylated isoform of brevican.

Adv Ther (Weinh) 2021 Apr 20;4(4). Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Harvey Cushing Neuro-Oncology Laboratories, Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, United States.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and deadliest form of brain tumor and remains amongst the most difficult cancers to treat. Brevican (Bcan), a central nervous system (CNS)-specific extracellular matrix protein, is upregulated in high-grade glioma cells, including GBM. A Bcan isoform lacking most glycosylation, dg-Bcan, is found only in GBM tissues. Read More

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Longitudinal evaluation of a novel BChE PET tracer as an early biomarker in the brain of a mouse model for Alzheimer disease.

Theranostics 2021 26;11(13):6542-6559. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

CIC biomaGUNE, Basque Research and Technology Alliance (BRTA), Paseo Miramon 182, 20014, San Sebastian, Spain.

The increase in butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity in the brain of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and animal models of AD position this enzyme as a potential biomarker of the disease. However, the information on the ability of BChE to serve as AD biomarker is contradicting, also due to scarce longitudinal studies of BChE activity abundance. Here, we report C-labeling, stability, biodistribution, and longitudinal study on BChE abundance in the brains of control and 5xFAD (AD model) animals, using a potent BChE selective inhibitor, [C], and positron emission tomography (PET) in combination with computerised tomography (CT). Read More

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Effect of illumination level [18F]FDG-PET brain uptake in free moving mice.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251454. Epub 2021 May 13.

Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain.

In both clinical and preclinical scenarios, 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) is the radiotracer most widely used to study brain glucose metabolism with positron emission tomography (PET). In clinical practice, there is a worldwide standardized protocol for preparing patients for [18F]FDG-PET studies, which specifies the room lighting. However, this standard is typically not observed in the preclinical field, although it is well known that animal handling affects the biodistribution of [18F]FDG. Read More

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Prospect of positron emission tomography for abdominal aortic aneurysm risk stratification.

J Nucl Cardiol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Leeds, 8.49 Worsley Building, Clarendon Way, Leeds, LS2 9NL, United Kingdom.

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease is characterized by an asymptomatic, permanent, focal dilatation of the abdominal aorta progressing towards rupture, which confers significant mortality. Patient management and surgical decisions rely on aortic diameter measurements via abdominal ultrasound surveillance. However, AAA rupture can occur at small diameters or may never occur at large diameters, implying that anatomical size is not necessarily a sufficient indicator. Read More

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Validation of amyloid PET positivity thresholds in centiloids: a multisite PET study approach.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 05 10;13(1):99. Epub 2021 May 10.

Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Background: Inconsistent positivity thresholds, image analysis pipelines, and quantitative outcomes are key challenges of multisite studies using more than one β-amyloid (Aβ) radiotracer in positron emission tomography (PET). Variability related to these factors contributes to disagreement and lack of replicability in research and clinical trials. To address these problems and promote Aβ PET harmonization, we used [F]florbetaben (FBB) and [F]florbetapir (FBP) data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) to derive (1) standardized Centiloid (CL) transformations and (2) internally consistent positivity thresholds based on separate young control samples. Read More

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PET Imaging of Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptor Standard Uptake Value Increases After Controlled Cortical Impact, a Rodent Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.

ASN Neuro 2021 Jan-Dec;13:17590914211014135

Department of Pediatric Surgery, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Texas, United States.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a chronic, life threatening injury for which few effective interventions are available. Evidence in animal models suggests un-checked immune activation may contribute to the pathophysiology. Changes in regional density of active brain microglia can be quantified in vivo with positron emission topography (PET) with the relatively selective radiotracer, peripheral benzodiazepine receptor 28 (11 C-PBR28). Read More

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Longitudinal predictive modeling of tau progression along the structural connectome.

Neuroimage 2021 08 4;237:118126. Epub 2021 May 4.

University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, United States; Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address:

Tau neurofibrillary tangles, a pathophysiological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), exhibit a stereotypical spatiotemporal trajectory that is strongly correlated with disease progression and cognitive decline. Personalized prediction of tau progression is, therefore, vital for the early diagnosis and prognosis of AD. Evidence from both animal and human studies is suggestive of tau transmission along the brains preexisting neural connectivity conduits. Read More

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Four distinct trajectories of tau deposition identified in Alzheimer's disease.

Nat Med 2021 05 29;27(5):871-881. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Clinical Memory Research Unit, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the spread of tau pathology throughout the cerebral cortex. This spreading pattern was thought to be fairly consistent across individuals, although recent work has demonstrated substantial variability in the population with AD. Using tau-positron emission tomography scans from 1,612 individuals, we identified 4 distinct spatiotemporal trajectories of tau pathology, ranging in prevalence from 18 to 33%. Read More

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Metallobiochemistry of ultratrace levels of bismuth in the rat II. Interaction of Bi with tissue, intracellular and molecular components.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Apr 20:126752. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Physics, Università Degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, Milano, I-20133, Italy; LASA, Department of Physics, Università Degli Studi di Milano and INFN-Milano, Via F.lli Cervi 201, Segrate, MI, I-20090, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Knowledge on Bi metabolism in laboratory animals refers to studies at "extreme" exposures, i.e. pharmacologically relevant high-doses (mg kg b. Read More

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Repeatability of Quantitative 18F-FET PET in Glioblastoma.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Apr 30;7(3). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States of America.

: O-(2-[F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET), a PET radiotracer of amino acid uptake, has shown potential for diagnosis and treatment planning in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). To improve quantitative assessment of FET PET imaging, we evaluated the repeatability of uptake of this tracer in patients with GBM.: Test-retest FET PET imaging was performed on 8 patients with histologically confirmed GBM, who previously underwent surgical resection of the tumour. Read More

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[11C]PK11195-PET Brain Imaging of the Mitochondrial Translocator Protein in Mitochondrial Disease.

Neurology 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK

Objective: To explore the possibilities of radioligands against the mitochondrial outer membrane protein TSPO as biomarkers for mitochondrial disease, we performed PET (PET)-MR brain imaging with [C]PK11195 in 14 patients with genetically confirmed mitochondrial disease and 33 matched controls.

Methods: A case-control study of PET-MR imaging with the TSPO radioligand [C]PK11195.

Results: Forty-six percent of symptomatic patients had volumes of abnormal radiotracer binding greater than the 95th percentile in controls. Read More

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