33 results match your criteria radiopacifying agents


Tooth Discoloration Using Calcium Silicate-Based Cements For Simulated Revascularization in Vitro.

Braz Dent J 2021 Jan-Feb;32(1):53-58

Postgraduate Program in Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Taubaté, Taubaté, Brazil.

The endodontic revascularization may be an alternative treatment for necrotic immature teeth, however, several treatment steps may cause tooth discoloration. This study evaluated the use of three calcium silicate-based cements with different radiopacifying agents on the color alteration (∆E) of extracted premolars after simulation of revascularization. Forty single rooted extracted premolars were shaped with #1-6 gates Glidden drills, rinsed with sodium hypochlorite, and filled with fresh human blood. Read More

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Impact of BiO and ZrO Radiopacifiers on the Early Hydration and C-S-H Gel Structure of White Portland Cement.

J Funct Biomater 2019 Oct 18;10(4). Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Faculty of Engineering and Science, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK.

Bismuth oxide (monoclinic α-BiO) and zirconium oxide (monoclinic ZrO) are the most popular radiopacifiers in commercial Portland cement-based endodontic restoratives, yet their effects on the setting and hydration reactions are not fully understood. This study compares the impact of 20 wt.% of BiO or ZrO on the early hydration reactions and C-S-H gel structure of white Portland cement (WPC). Read More

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October 2019

Comparative Evaluation of Tissue Response of MTA and Portland Cement with Three Radiopacifying Agents: An Animal Study.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2019 Jan 1;20(1):20-25. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, SRM Dental College and Hospital, SRM University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, Phone: 91-98841 94454, e-mail:

Aim: This study compared the tissue reaction of 80 wt% of White Portland cement (WPC) mixed with 20 wt% of three radiopacifying agents: Bismuth oxide/Iodoform/Zirconium oxide with MTA in rat subcutaneous connective tissue.

Materials And Methods: The study was performed in 18 albino rats by implanting the WPC mixed with radiopacifying agents loaded in a polyethylene tube. Empty tubes were used as a control. Read More

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January 2019

The effect of radiopacifiers agents on pH, calcium release, radiopacity, and antimicrobial properties of different calcium hydroxide dressings.

Microsc Res Tech 2015 Jul 19;78(7):620-5. Epub 2015 May 19.

Department of Operative Dentistry, Dental Materials and Endodontics, Dental School of Bauru, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, pH level, calcium ion release, and radiopacity of calcium hydroxide pastes associated with three radiopacifying agents (iodoform, zinc oxide, and barium sulfate). For the pH and calcium release tests, 45 acrylic teeth were utilized and immersed in ultrapure water. After 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days the solution was analyzed by using a pH meter and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Read More

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Physicochemical properties of calcium silicate cements associated with microparticulate and nanoparticulate radiopacifiers.

Clin Oral Investig 2016 Jan 8;20(1):83-90. Epub 2015 May 8.

Araraquara School of Dentistry, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objectives: The objective of this paper was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of calcium silicate cements with different chemical compositions, associated with radiopacifying agents.

Materials And Methods: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Angelus, calcium silicate cement with additives (CSC), and resinous calcium silicate cement (CSCR) were evaluated, with the addition of the following radiopacifiers: microparticles (micro) or nanoparticles (nano) of zirconium oxide (ZrO(2)), niobium oxide (Nb(2)O(5)), bismuth oxide (Bi(2)O(3)), or calcium tungstate (CaWO(4)). Setting time was evaluated using Gilmore needles. Read More

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January 2016

Clinical and radiographic evaluation of Portland cement added to radiopacifying agents in primary molar pulpotomies.

Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2015 Oct 19;16(5):377-82. Epub 2015 Mar 19.

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Orthodontics and Public Health, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Alameda Dr. Octávio Pinheiro Brisolla, 9-75, Bauru, São Paulo, 17012-901, Brazil.

Aim: This was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of Portland cement (PC) added to radiopacifying agents in primary molar pulpotomies.

Methods: Thirty primary mandibular molars of children aged between 5 and 9 years were randomly assigned to the following groups: PC; PC with iodoform (PC + CHI(3)); PC with zirconium oxide (PC + ZrO(2)) and treated by pulpotomy technique. Clinical and radiographic follow-up assessments were performed at 6, 12 and 24 months. Read More

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October 2015

Calcium silicate bioactive cements: Biological perspectives and clinical applications.

Dent Mater 2015 Apr 7;31(4):351-70. Epub 2015 Feb 7.

Laboratory of Biomaterials and Oral Pathology, Dental School, Department of Biomedical and NeuroMotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: To introduce and to examine the research progress and the investigation on hydraulic calcium silicate cements (HCSCs), well-known as MTA (mineral trioxide aggregate).

Methods: This review paper introduces the most important investigations of the last 20 years and analyze their impact on HCSCs use in clinical application.

Results: HCSCs were developed more than 20 years ago. Read More

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Calcium Silicate-Based Cements Associated with Micro- and Nanoparticle Radiopacifiers: Physicochemical Properties and Bioactivity.

Int Sch Res Notices 2015 23;2015:874283. Epub 2015 Feb 23.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, University of Estadual Paulista (UNESP), 14801-903 Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties and bioactivity of two formulations of calcium silicate-based cements containing additives (CSCM) or resin (CSCR), associated with radiopacifying agents zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and niobium oxide (Nb2O5) as micro- and nanoparticles; calcium tungstate (CaWO4); and bismuth oxide (Bi2O3). MTA Angelus was used as control. Read More

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Evaluation of conventional and digital radiography capacities for distinguishing dental materials on radiograms depending on the present radiopacifying agent.

Vojnosanit Pregl 2014 Nov;71(11):1006-12

Background/aim: The radiopacity of an endodontic material can considerably vary as measured on film and a digital sensor. Digital radiography offers numerous advantages over conventional film-based radiography in dental clinical practice regarding both diagnostic capabilities and postintervention procedures. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of conventional and charge-conpled device (CCD) based digital radiography to detect material on radiograph depending on the radio-pacifying agent present in the mate- rial. Read More

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November 2014

Biocompatibility of Portland cement combined with different radiopacifying agents.

J Oral Sci 2014 Mar;56(1):29-34

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Orthodontics and Public Health, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of rat subcutaneous tissue to Portland cement combined with two different radiopacifying agents, iodoform (CHI3) and zirconium oxide (ZrO2). These materials were placed in polyethylene tubes and implanted into the dorsal connective tissue of Wistar rats for 7 and 15 days. The specimens were then stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and inflammatory reaction parameters were evaluated by light microscopy. Read More

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Microparticulated and nanoparticulated zirconium oxide added to calcium silicate cement: Evaluation of physicochemical and biological properties.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2014 Dec 20;102(12):4336-45. Epub 2014 Feb 20.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Dental School - Araraquara, UNESP (Univ. Estadual Paulista), Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

The physicochemical and biological properties of calcium silicate-based cement (CS) associated to microparticulated (micro) or nanoparticulated (nano) zirconium oxide (ZrO2 ) were compared with CS and bismuth oxide (BO) with CS. The pH, release of calcium ions, radiopacity, setting time, and compression strength of the materials were evaluated. The tissue reaction promoted by these materials in the subcutaneous was also investigated by morphological, immunohistochemical, and quantitative analyses. Read More

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December 2014

Solubility and disintegration of new calcium aluminate cement (EndoBinder) containing different radiopacifying agents.

J Endod 2014 Feb 31;40(2):261-5. Epub 2013 Aug 31.

Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Ribeirão Preto School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the solubility and disintegration of EndoBinder (EB) containing 3 different radiopacifying agents, bismuth oxide (Bi2O3), zinc oxide (ZnO), or zirconium oxide (ZrO2), in comparison with gray mineral trioxide aggregate (GMTA) and white MTA (WMTA).

Methods: Ten specimens of each cement were made in a stainless steel matrix (20 × 1.5 mm) according to Specification no. Read More

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February 2014

The influence of different radiopacifying agents on the radiopacity, compressive strength, setting time, and porosity of Portland cement.

Clin Oral Investig 2014 Jul;18(6):1597-604

Objectives: The aims of this study were to evaluate the radiopacity, compressive strength, setting time, and porosity of white Portland cement (PC) with the addition of bismuth oxide (Bi2O3), zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), and ytterbium trifluoride (YbF3) after immersion at 37 °C for 7 days in distilled water or phosphate buffer saline.

Materials And Methods: Specimens measuring 8 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness were fabricated from PC with the addition of 10, 20, and 30 wt% Bi2O3, ZrO2 or YbF3. ProRoot MTA (Dentsply, Tulsa, OK, USA) and pure PC were used as controls. Read More

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Physicochemical and mechanical properties of zirconium oxide and niobium oxide modified Portland cement-based experimental endodontic sealers.

Int Endod J 2014 May 28;47(5):437-48. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Aim: To evaluate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of Portland cement-based experimental sealers (ES) with different radiopacifying agents (zirconium oxide and niobium oxide micro- and nanoparticles) in comparison with the following conventional sealers: AH Plus, MTA Fillapex and Sealapex.

Methodology: The materials were tested for setting time, compressive strength, flow, film thickness, radiopacity, solubility, dimensional stability and formaldehyde release. Data were subjected to anova and Tukey tests (P < 0. Read More

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Nano-BaSO4: a novel antimicrobial additive to pellethane.

Int J Nanomedicine 2013 22;8:1197-205. Epub 2013 Mar 22.

Program in Bioengineering and Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Hospital-acquired infections remain a costly clinical problem. Barium sulfate (BaSO4, in micron particulate form) is a common radiopacifying agent that is added to catheters and endotracheal tubes. Due to the recently observed ability of nanostructured surface features to decrease functions of bacteria without the aid of antibiotics, the objective of this in vitro study was to incorporate nano-barium sulfate into pellethane and determine the antimicrobial properties of the resulting composites. Read More

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Influence of radiopacifying agents on the solubility, pH and antimicrobial activity of portland cement.

Braz Dent J 2012 ;23(5):515-20

Center of Health Sciences, Sagrado Coração University, Bauru, SP, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the interference of the radiopacifiers bismuth oxide (BO), bismuth carbonate (BC), bismuth subnitrate (BS), and zirconiun oxide (ZO) on the solubility, alkalinity and antimicrobial properties of white Portland cement (WPC). The substances were incorporated to PC, at a ratio of 1:4 (v/v) and subjected to a solubility test. To evaluate the pH, the cements were inserted into retrograde cavities prepared in simulated acrylic teeth and immediately immersed in deionized water. Read More

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December 2013

pH and Antimicrobial Activity of Portland Cement Associated with Different Radiopacifying Agents.

ISRN Dent 2012 16;2012:469019. Epub 2012 Oct 16.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, São Paulo State University (UNESP), 14801-385 Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and pH changes induced by Portland cement (PC) alone and in association with radiopacifiers. Methods. Read More

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November 2012

Compressive Strength and Setting Time of MTA and Portland Cement Associated with Different Radiopacifying Agents.

ISRN Dent 2012 23;2012:898051. Epub 2012 Aug 23.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, São Paulo State University (UNESP), 14801-385 Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the compressive strength and setting time of MTA and Portland cement (PC) associated with bismuth oxide (BO), zirconium oxide (ZO), calcium tungstate (CT), and strontium carbonate (SC). Methods. Read More

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September 2012

Micromechanical characterisation of failure in acrylic bone cement: the effect of barium sulphate agglomerates.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2012 Sep 27;13:85-92. Epub 2012 Apr 27.

Bioengineering Science Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK.

Acrylic bone cement has been established as a method of fixation of load-bearing orthopaedic implants for nearly five decades, and has produced excellent long term clinical results. However, increasing patient BMI values and longer life expectancies are placing ever greater demands on joint replacements, so there is a need to further improve the performance of cemented fixation. Damage accumulation in the in vivo cement mantle due to initiation and coalescence of fatigue micro-cracks has been implicated in the aseptic loosening and failure of implants. Read More

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September 2012

Characterization and analyses of acid-extractable and leached trace elements in dental cements.

Int Endod J 2012 Aug 6;45(8):737-43. Epub 2012 Mar 6.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Surgery, University of Malta, Msida, Malta.

Aims: Determination of the elemental constitution and investigation of the total and leachable arsenic, chromium and lead in Portland cement, pure tricalcium silicate, Biodentine, Bioaggregate and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Angelus.

Methodology: The chemical composition of Portland cement, MTA Angelus, tricalcium silicate cement, Biodentine and Bioaggregate was determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Measurements of arsenic, lead and chromium were taken with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), following acid digestion on the hydrated material and on leachates of cements soaked in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). Read More

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Effect of different radiopacifying agents on the physicochemical properties of white Portland cement and white mineral trioxide aggregate.

J Endod 2012 Mar 15;38(3):394-7. Epub 2011 Dec 15.

Department of Operative Dentistry, Dental Materials and Endodontics, Dental School of Bauru, University of São Paulo, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pH, calcium ion release, setting time, and solubility of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) and white Portland cement (WPC) combined with the following radiopacifying agents: bismuth oxide (BO), calcium tungstate (CT), and zirconium oxide (ZO).

Methods: Fifty acrylic teeth with root-end filling material were immersed in ultrapure water for measurement of pH and calcium release (atomic absorption spectrophotometry) at 3, 24, 72, and 168 hours. For evaluation of setting time, each material was analyzed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials guidelines 266/08. Read More

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Cytotoxicity of Portland cement with different radiopacifying agents: a cell death study.

J Endod 2011 Feb;37(2):203-10

Department of Restorative Dentistry, São Paulo State University, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of white Portland cement (PC) alone or associated with bismuth oxide (PCBi), zirconium oxide (PCZir), and calcium tungstate (PCCa) in 2 cell lineages.

Methods: Murine periodontal ligament cells (mPDL) and rat osteosarcoma cells (ROS 17/2.8) were exposed for 24 hours to specific concentrations of fresh PC and PC associations with radiopacifiers. Read More

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February 2011

Radiopacity evaluation of calcium aluminate cement containing different radiopacifying agents.

J Endod 2011 Jan;37(1):67-71

Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Ribeirão Preto School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of calcium aluminate cement (EndoBinder) with 3 different radiopacifiers (bismuth oxide, zinc oxide, or zirconium oxide) in comparison with gray mineral trioxide aggregate (GMTA), white MTA, and dental structures (enamel and dentin).

Methods: Eighteen test specimens of each cement with thicknesses of 0.5, 1. Read More

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January 2011

Evaluation of the radiopacity of calcium silicate cements containing different radiopacifiers.

Int Endod J 2010 Jan;43(1):21-30

Department of Building and Civil Engineering, University of Malta, Msida, Malta.

Aim: To identify the suitable ratio of alternative radiopacifiers to impart the necessary radiopacity to calcium silicate cements (CSC) and assess the purity of the radiopacifying agents.

Methodology: Alternative radiopacifying materials for incorporation into CSC included barium sulphate, titanium oxide, zinc oxide, gold powder and silver/tin alloy. The chemical composition of the alternative radipacifying materials and bismuth oxide, which is used in mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), was determined using energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Read More

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January 2010

Evaluation of a novel radiopacifiying agent on the physical properties of surgical spineplex.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2010 Jan 18;21(1):53-8. Epub 2009 Aug 18.

Medical Engineering Design Innovation Centre (MEDIC), Cork Institute of Technology, Bishopstown, Co. Cork, Ireland.

Polymethlylmethacrylate (PMMA) is the most frequently used cement for percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. To aid visualisation during surgery cements are doped with radiopacifying agents such as Barium sulphate (Ba(2)SO(4)) or Zirconium Dioxide (ZiO(2)). Mounting research suggests that these agents may impair the biocompatibility of the cements. Read More

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January 2010

Effects of monomer ratios and highly radiopaque fillers on degree of conversion and shrinkage-strain of dental resin composites.

Dent Mater 2009 Nov 15;25(11):1411-8. Epub 2009 Aug 15.

CRAPC, BP 248, Alger RP 16004, Algiers, Algeria.

Objectives: The degree of conversion (DC) and polymerization shrinkage of resin composites are closely related manifestations of the same process. Ideal dental composite would show an optimal degree of conversion and minimal polymerization shrinkage. These seem to be antagonistic goals, as an increase in monomer conversion leads to a high polymerization shrinkage. Read More

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November 2009

Radiopacity of portland cement associated with different radiopacifying agents.

J Endod 2009 May;35(5):737-40

Department of Dentistry, Sacred Heart University, Bauru, SP, Brazil.

This study evaluated the radiopacity of Portland cement associated with the following radiopacifying agents: bismuth oxide, zinc oxide, lead oxide, bismuth subnitrate, bismuth carbonate, barium sulfate, iodoform, calcium tungstate, and zirconium oxide. A ratio of 20% radiopacifier and 80% white Portland cement by weight was used for analysis. Pure Portland cement and dentin served as controls. Read More

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Radiopacity of tantalum-loaded acrylic bone cement.

Proc Inst Mech Eng H 2006 Oct;220(7):787-91

Laboratorio di Tecnologia Medica, Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano 1/10, Bologna 40136, Italy.

Radiopacifying agents are commonly added to bone cements to enhance the visibility of the cement in radiography. The radiopacifiers usually employed may, however, have undesired effects on the mechanical properties of the cement. A potentially new radiopacifier is tantalum, which in the present work was evaluated in terms of radiopacity. Read More

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October 2006

In vitro and in vivo biological responses to a novel radiopacifying agent for bone cement.

J R Soc Interface 2005 Mar;2(2):71-8

Department of Orthopaedics, Lund University, Lund 22185, Sweden.

Iodixanol (IDX) and iohexol (IHX) have been investigated as possible radiopacification agents for polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement, to replace the currently used barium sulphate and zirconia. IDX and IHX are both water-soluble iodine-based contrast media and for the last 20 years have been used extensively in clinical diagnostic procedures such as contrast media enhanced computed tomography, angiography and urography. One of the major reasons to remove the current radiopacifying agents is their well-documented cytotoxicity and their potential to increase bone resorption. Read More

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PMMA-based composite materials with reactive ceramic fillers: part III: radiopacifying particle-reinforced bone cements.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2000 May;11(5):295-300

Institut de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Bordeaux, CNRS, avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer, F-33608 Pessac Cedex, France.

New acrylic bone cements were prepared from alumina particles previously treated by 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propylmethacrylate (gamma-MPS), able to act both as radiopacifying and reinforcing agents. The present study deals with the handling characteristics and the compressive behavior of such cements. The influence of the particles morphology, their surface-modification by gamma-MPS bonding agent, their concentration in the cement, the powder-to-liquid ratio and the benzoyl peroxide concentration are reported. Read More

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