2,867 results match your criteria radial glia

BLBP Is Both a Marker for Poor Prognosis and a Potential Therapeutic Target in Paediatric Ependymoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 27;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Children's Brain Tumour Research Centre, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham Biodiscovery Institute, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK.

Paediatric ependymomas are aggressive, treatment-resistant tumours with a tendency towards relapse, consistent with a sub-population of therapy-resistant cancer stem cells. These cells are believed to derive from brain lipid binding protein (BLBP)-expressing radial glia, hence we proposed that BLBP may be a marker for ependymoma therapy resistance. BLBP protein expression correlated with reduced overall survival (OS) in patients from two trials (CNS9204, a chemotherapy-led infant trial-5 y OS 45% vs. Read More

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Inflammation Regulates the Multi-Step Process of Retinal Regeneration in Zebrafish.

Cells 2021 Apr 1;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA.

The ability to regenerate tissues varies between species and between tissues within a species. Mammals have a limited ability to regenerate tissues, whereas zebrafish possess the ability to regenerate almost all tissues and organs, including fin, heart, kidney, brain, and retina. In the zebrafish brain, injury and cell death activate complex signaling networks that stimulate radial glia to reprogram into neural stem-like cells that repair the injury. Read More

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MACF1, Involved in the 1p34.2p34.3 Microdeletion Syndrome, is Essential in Cortical Progenitor Polarity and Brain Integrity.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, OH, 44242, USA.

1p34.2p34.3 deletion syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for autism. Read More

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Hypothalamic Rax tanycytes contribute to tissue repair and tumorigenesis upon oncogene activation in mice.

Nat Commun 2021 04 16;12(1):2288. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Development Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Hypothalamic tanycytes in median eminence (ME) are emerging as a crucial cell population that regulates endocrine output, energy balance and the diffusion of blood-born molecules. Tanycytes have recently been considered as potential somatic stem cells in the adult mammalian brain, but their regenerative and tumorigenic capacities are largely unknown. Here we found that Rax+ tanycytes in ME of mice are largely quiescent but quickly enter the cell cycle upon neural injury for self-renewal and regeneration. Read More

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Irx3 and Irx5 in Ins2-Cre cells regulate hypothalamic postnatal neurogenesis and leptin response.

Nat Metab 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Program in Developmental & Stem Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Obesity is mainly due to excessive food intake. IRX3 and IRX5 have been suggested as determinants of obesity in connection with the intronic variants of FTO, but how these genes contribute to obesity via changes in food intake remains unclear. Here, we show that mice doubly heterozygous for Irx3 and Irx5 mutations exhibit lower food intake with enhanced hypothalamic leptin response. Read More

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mRNA Transport and Local Translation in Glia.

Trends Cell Biol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Though mRNA transport and local translation are extensively studied in neurons, emerging evidence supports that these cellular processes are also abundant in non-neuronal glial cells. Here, we explore mechanisms of mRNA transport and local translation in oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, microglia, radial glia, and their functions in development, structure, and intercellular interactions. Read More

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What is the physiological role of hypothalamic tanycytes in metabolism?

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Center of Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Switzerland.

In vertebrates, the energy balance process is tightly controlled by complex neural circuits that sense metabolic signals and adjust food intake and energy expenditure in line with the physiological requirements of optimal conditions. Within neural networks controlling energy balance, tanycytes are peculiar ependymoglial cells that are nowadays recognized as multifunctional players in the metabolic hypothalamus. However, the physiological function of hypothalamic tanycytes remains unclear, creating a number of ambiguities in the field. Read More

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Zbed3 Is Indispensable for Wnt Signaling Regulation of Cortical Layers Formation in Developing Brain.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

The State Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Neuroscience Center, Medical Primate Research Center and Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100005, China.

Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays multiple important roles during mammalian brain development, and it regulates the proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors in a context-dependent manner and affects neocortex layer formation. However, the specific role of Wnt/β-catenin in neuronal layer fate determination in the neocortex is still unclear. Here, we report that Zbed3, which is a positive regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, colocalizes with β-catenin at the endfeet of radial glia in the ventricular zone of embryo mouse neocortex. Read More

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Establishment of Long-Term Primary Cortical Neuronal Cultures From Neonatal Opossum .

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 18;15:661492. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Laboratory for Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Biotechnology, University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia.

Primary dissociated neuronal cultures have become a standard model for studying central nervous system (CNS) development. Such cultures are predominantly prepared from the hippocampus or cortex of rodents (mice and rats), while other mammals are less used. Here, we describe the establishment and extensive characterization of the primary dissociated neuronal cultures derived from the cortex of the gray South American short-tailed opossums, . Read More

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Chronic optogenetic stimulation of Bergman glia leads to dysfunction of EAAT1 and Purkinje cell death, mimicking the events caused by expression of pathogenic ataxin-1.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 Jul 19;154:105340. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Institute of Living Systems, Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Universitetskaya st., 2, 236041 Kaliningrad, Russia; Department of Physiology, Pharmacology, and Neuroscience, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Bergmann glia (BG) are highly specialized radial astrocytes of the cerebellar cortex, which play a key role in the uptake of synaptic glutamate via the excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT1. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that in cerebellar neurodegenerative diseases reactive BG has a negative impact on neuronal function and survival through compromised EAAT activity. A family of such diseases are those caused by expansion of CAG repeats in genes of the ataxin family, resulting in spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA). Read More

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Distinct progenitor behavior underlying neocortical gliogenesis related to tumorigenesis.

Cell Rep 2021 Mar;34(11):108853

IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, Beijing Frontier Research Center of Biological Structure, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; Neuroscience Graduate Program, Feil Family Brain & Mind Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Radial glial progenitors (RGPs) give rise to the vast majority of neurons and glia in the neocortex. Although RGP behavior and progressive generation of neocortical neurons have been delineated, the exact process of neocortical gliogenesis remains elusive. Here, we report the precise progenitor behavior and gliogenesis program at single-cell resolution in the mouse neocortex. Read More

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Radial Glial Cells: New Views on Old Questions.

Neurochem Res 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine and Kavli Institute for Neuroscience, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA.

Radial glial cells (RGC) are at the center of brain development in vertebrates, acting as progenitors for neurons and macroglia (oligodendrocytes and astrocytes) and as guides for migration of neurons from the ventricular surface to their final positions in the brain. These cells originate from neuroepithelial cells (NEC) from which they inherit their epithelial features and polarized morphology, with processes extending from the ventricular to the pial surface of the embryonic cerebrum. We have learnt a great deal since the first descriptions of these cells at the end of the nineteenth century. Read More

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Single-cell atlas of early human brain development highlights heterogeneity of human neuroepithelial cells and early radial glia.

Nat Neurosci 2021 04 15;24(4):584-594. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA, USA.

The human cortex comprises diverse cell types that emerge from an initially uniform neuroepithelium that gives rise to radial glia, the neural stem cells of the cortex. To characterize the earliest stages of human brain development, we performed single-cell RNA-sequencing across regions of the developing human brain, including the telencephalon, diencephalon, midbrain, hindbrain and cerebellum. We identify nine progenitor populations physically proximal to the telencephalon, suggesting more heterogeneity than previously described, including a highly prevalent mesenchymal-like population that disappears once neurogenesis begins. Read More

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The regulation of cortical neurogenesis.

Curr Top Dev Biol 2021 26;142:1-66. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Instituto de Neurociencias, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas & Universidad Miguel Hernández, Sant Joan d'Alacant, Spain. Electronic address:

The mammalian cerebral cortex is the pinnacle of brain evolution, reaching its maximum complexity in terms of neuron number, diversity and functional circuitry. The emergence of this outstanding complexity begins during embryonic development, when a limited number of neural stem and progenitor cells manage to generate myriads of neurons in the appropriate numbers, types and proportions, in a process called neurogenesis. Here we review the current knowledge on the regulation of cortical neurogenesis, beginning with a description of the types of progenitor cells and their lineage relationships. Read More

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December 2020

Glial insulin regulates cooperative or antagonistic Golden goal/Flamingo interactions during photoreceptor axon guidance.

Elife 2021 Mar 5;10. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Graduate School of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Japan.

Transmembrane protein Golden goal (Gogo) interacts with atypical cadherin Flamingo (Fmi) to direct R8 photoreceptor axons in the visual system. However, the precise mechanisms underlying Gogo regulation during columnar- and layer-specific R8 axon targeting are unknown. Our studies demonstrated that the insulin secreted from surface and cortex glia switches the phosphorylation status of Gogo, thereby regulating its two distinct functions. Read More

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Dynamic expression of NR2F1 and SOX2 in developing and adult human cortex: comparison with cortical malformations.

Brain Struct Funct 2021 May 4;226(4):1303-1322. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Clinical and Experimental Epileptology Unit, C/O AmadeoLab, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Amadeo 42, 20133, Milan, Italy.

The neocortex, the most recently evolved brain region in mammals, is characterized by its unique areal and laminar organization. Distinct cortical layers and areas can be identified by the presence of graded expression of transcription factors and molecular determinants defining neuronal identity. However, little is known about the expression of key master genes orchestrating human cortical development. Read More

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Integrated RNA Sequencing Reveals Epigenetic Impacts of Diesel Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Cerebral Organoids.

Dev Neurosci 2020 3;42(5-6):195-207. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Pediatrics & Human Development, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA,

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) manifests early in childhood. While genetic variants increase risk for ASD, a growing body of literature has established that in utero chemical exposures also contribute to ASD risk. These chemicals include air-based pollutants like diesel particulate matter (DPM). Read More

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From stem and progenitor cells to neurons in the developing neocortex: key differences among hominids.

FEBS J 2021 Feb 27. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden, Germany.

Comparing the biology of humans to that of other primates, and notably other hominids, is a useful path to learn more about what makes us human. Some of the most interesting differences among hominids are closely related to brain development and function, for example behaviour and cognition. This makes it particularly interesting to compare the hominid neural cells of the neocortex, a part of the brain that plays central roles in those processes. Read More

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February 2021

Amphioxus neuroglia: Molecular characterization and evidence for early compartmentalization of the developing nerve cord.

Glia 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Earth, Environment and Life Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Glial cells play important roles in the development and homeostasis of metazoan nervous systems. However, while their involvement in the development and function in the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates is increasingly well understood, much less is known about invertebrate glia and the evolutionary history of glial cells more generally. An investigation into amphioxus glia is therefore timely, as this organism is the best living proxy for the last common ancestor of all chordates, and hence provides a window into the role of glial cell development and function at the transition of invertebrates and vertebrates. Read More

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February 2021

Injury-induced Cavl-expressing cells at lesion rostral side play major roles in spinal cord regeneration.

Open Biol 2021 Feb 24;11(2):200304. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Mackay Medical College, New Taipei City 25245, Taiwan.

The extent of cellular heterogeneity involved in neuronal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) remains unclear. Therefore, we established stress-responsive transgenic zebrafish embryos with SCI. As a result, we found an SCI-induced cell population, termed SCI stress-responsive regenerating cells (SrRCs), essential for neuronal regeneration post-SCI. Read More

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February 2021

STRADA-mutant human cortical organoids model megalencephaly and exhibit delayed neuronal differentiation.

Dev Neurobiol 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Neurology, Michigan Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Genetic diseases involving overactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, so-called "mTORopathies," often manifest with malformations of cortical development (MCDs), epilepsy, and cognitive impairment. How mTOR pathway hyperactivation results in abnormal human cortical development is poorly understood. To study the effect of mTOR hyperactivity on early stages of cortical development, we focused on Pretzel Syndrome (polyhydramnios, megalencephaly, symptomatic epilepsy; PMSE syndrome), a rare mTORopathy caused by homozygous germline mutations in the STRADA gene. Read More

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February 2021

Neuronal Delamination and Outer Radial Glia Generation in Neocortical Development.

Ayano Kawaguchi

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 5;8:623573. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

During neocortical development, many neuronally differentiating cells (neurons and intermediate progenitor cells) are generated at the apical/ventricular surface by the division of neural progenitor cells (apical radial glial cells, aRGs). Neurogenic cell delamination, in which these neuronally differentiating cells retract their apical processes and depart from the apical surface, is the first step of their migration. Since the microenvironment established by the apical endfeet is crucial for maintaining neuroepithelial (NE)/aRGs, proper timing of the detachment of the apical endfeet is critical for the quantitative control of neurogenesis in cerebral development. Read More

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February 2021

Decoding neuronal composition and ontogeny of individual hypothalamic nuclei.

Neuron 2021 04 17;109(7):1150-1167.e6. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Neuroscience and Mahoney Institute for Neurosciences, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; The Epigenetic Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

The hypothalamus plays crucial roles in regulating endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral functions via its diverse nuclei and neuronal subtypes. The developmental mechanisms underlying ontogenetic establishment of different hypothalamic nuclei and generation of neuronal diversity remain largely unknown. Here, we show that combinatorial T-box 3 (TBX3), orthopedia homeobox (OTP), and distal-less homeobox (DLX) expression delineates all arcuate nucleus (Arc) neurons and defines four distinct subpopulations, whereas combinatorial NKX2. Read More

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PRDM16 regulates a temporal transcriptional program to promote progression of cortical neural progenitors.

Development 2021 Mar 17;148(6). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Molecular Bioscience, the Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden

Radial glia (RG) in the neocortex sequentially generate distinct subtypes of projection neurons, accounting for the diversity and complex assembly of cortical neural circuits. Mechanisms that drive the rapid and precise temporal progression of RG are beginning to be elucidated. Here, we reveal that the RG-specific transcriptional regulator PRDM16 promotes the transition of early to late phase of neurogenesis in the mouse neocortex. Read More

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Organization of radial glia reveals growth pattern in the telencephalon of a percomorph fish Astatotilapia burtoni.

J Comp Neurol 2021 Feb 13. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Institute of Clinical Anatomy and Cell Analysis, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

In the brain of teleost fish, radial glial cells are the main astroglial cell type. To understand how radial glia structures are adapting to continuous growth of the brain, we studied the astroglial cells in the telencephalon of the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni in small fry to large specimens. These animals grow to a standard length of 10-12 cm in this fish species, corresponding to a more than 100-fold increase in brain volume. Read More

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February 2021

RGC-32 Regulates Generation of Reactive Astrocytes in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

Front Immunol 2020 25;11:608294. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Neurology, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Astrocytes are increasingly recognized as critical contributors to multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. We have previously shown that lack of Response Gene to Complement 32 (RGC-32) alters astrocyte morphology in the spinal cord at the peak of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), suggesting a role for RGC-32 in astrocyte differentiation. In this study, we analyzed the expression and distribution of astrocytes and astrocyte progenitors by immunohistochemistry in spinal cords of wild-type (WT) and RGC-32-knockout (KO) mice with EAE and of normal adult mice. Read More

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January 2021

Spinal cord precursors utilize neural crest cell mechanisms to generate hybrid peripheral myelinating glia.

Elife 2021 Feb 8;10. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, United States.

During development, oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells myelinate central and peripheral nervous system axons, respectively, while motor exit point (MEP) glia are neural tube-derived, peripheral glia that myelinate axonal territory between these populations at MEP transition zones. From which specific neural tube precursors MEP glia are specified, and how they exit the neural tube to migrate onto peripheral motor axons, remain largely unknown. Here, using zebrafish, we found that MEP glia arise from lateral floor plate precursors and require to delaminate and exit the spinal cord. Read More

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February 2021

Mitochondria of teleost radial glia: A novel target of neuroendocrine disruption by environmental chemicals?

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 May 2;243:108995. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida Genetics Institute, Interdisciplinary Program in Biomedical Sciences Neuroscience, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Electronic address:

In teleost fish, radial glial cells (RGCs) are progenitor cells for neurons and the major cell type synthesizing neuroestrogens. We hypothesized that chemical exposure impairs mitochondrial bioenergetics of RGCs, which then may lead to downstream consequences for neuroestrogen production. Here we provide proof of concept that mitochondria of RGCs can be perturbed by fungicides. Read More

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Hes1 overexpression leads to expansion of embryonic neural stem cell pool and stem cell reservoir in the postnatal brain.

Development 2021 Feb 17;148(4). Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Institute for Frontier Life and Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan.

Neural stem cells (NSCs) gradually alter their characteristics during mammalian neocortical development, resulting in the production of various neurons and glial cells, and remain in the postnatal brain as a source of adult neurogenesis. Notch-Hes signaling is a key regulator of stem cell properties in the developing and postnatal brain, and Hes1 is a major effector that strongly inhibits neuronal differentiation and maintains NSCs. To manipulate Hes1 expression levels in NSCs, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice using the Tet-On system. Read More

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February 2021

Mechanical Brain Injury Increases Cells' Production of Cystathionine β-Synthase and Glutamine Synthetase, but Reduces Pax2 Expression in the Telencephalon of Juvenile Chum Salmon, .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 28;22(3). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

A.V. Zhirmunsky National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 690041 Vladivostok, Russia.

The considerable post-traumatic brain recovery in fishes makes them a useful model for studying the mechanisms that provide reparative neurogenesis, which is poorly represented in mammals. After a mechanical injury to the telencephalon in adult fish, lost neurons are actively replaced due to the proliferative activity of neuroepithelial cells and radial glia in the neurogenic periventricular zone. However, it is not enough clear which signaling mechanisms are involved in the activation of adult neural stem cells (aNSC) after the injury (reactive proliferation) and in the production of new neurons (regenerative neurogenesis) from progenitor cells (NPC). Read More

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January 2021