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Temporal order of mutations influences cancer initiation dynamics.

Phys Biol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Chemistry and Rice Quantum Institute, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, USA, Houston, Texas, 77005-1892, UNITED STATES.

Cancer is a set of genetic diseases that are driven by mutations. It was recently discovered that the temporal order of genetic mutations affects the cancer evolution and even the nature of the disease itself. The mechanistic origin of these observations, however, remain not well understood. Read More

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Validity and Test-Retest Reliability of a Thai Stroke Physical Activity Questionnaire.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jun 11;30(8):105907. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Background And Objectives: This study evaluated the validity and reliability of the Stroke Physical Activity Questionnaire (SPAQ), a Thai self-report questionnaire for assessing physical activity (PA) in participants with chronic stroke.

Methods: The validity of the SPAQ was tested by correlating PA data from the SPAQ with data obtained from a waist worn accelerometer which participants wore for seven days. The participants completed the SPAQ twice, one week apart and test-retest reliability was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficient. Read More

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The local and global geometry of trabecular bone.

Acta Biomater 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Biomechanical Engineering, TU Delft, Mekelweg 2, 2628CD Delft, The Netherlands.

The organization and shape of the microstructural elements of trabecular bone govern its physical properties, are implicated in bone disease, and serve as blueprints for biomaterial design. To devise fundamental structure-property relationships and design truly bone-mimicking biomaterials, it is essential to characterize trabecular bone structure from the perspective of geometry, the mathematical study of shape. Using micro-CT images from 70 donors at five different sites, we analyze the local and global geometry of human trabecular bone in detail, respectively by quantifying surface curvatures and Minkowski functionals. Read More

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Leveraging insights from behavioral economics to improve mobility for adults with stroke: Design and rationale of the BE Mobile clinical trial.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Jun 12:106483. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Physical inactivity post-stroke can negatively impact long-term health outcomes and contribute to cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle loss, and increased risk for recurrent stroke. The limited number of interventions designed to improve daily physical activity post-stroke have lacked precision in step goals, are resource intensive, and difficult to scale. The purpose of the Leveraging Insights from Behavioral Economics to Improve Mobility for Adults with Stroke (BE Mobile) trial is to examine the preliminary effectiveness of a novel gamification with social incentives intervention for improving physical activity post-stroke. Read More

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Vascularized Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque Models for the Validation of Novel Methods of Quantifying Intra-Plaque Neovascularization.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada;; Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Imaging Network at Queen's (CINQ), Queen's University, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Intraplaque neovascularization (IPN) in advanced lesions of the carotid artery has been linked to plaque progression and risk of rupture. Quantitative measurement of IPN may provide a more powerful tool for the detection of such "vulnerable" plaque than the current visual scoring grading method. The aim of this study was to develop a phantom platform of a neovascularized atherosclerotic plaque within a carotid artery to assess new methods of quantifying IPN. Read More

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Seneca Valley virus induces immunodepressionin suckling piglets by selective apoptosis of B lymphocytes.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jun 12:105022. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Comparative Pathology Shared Resources Laboratory, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is the causative agent of an emerging infectious vesicular disease in swine that is clinically indistinguishable from other vesicular diseases of swine. This study utilized healthy suckling piglets (control) and SVV-naturally infected suckling piglets to determine the effects of SVV on lymphoid tissues and determined the SVV RNA load by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses were performed to quantify the expression of T and B cell lymphocytes, natural killer cells, cleaved caspase 3, and ki-67. Read More

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Antibody Responses After mRNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccination in Residential Older Adults: Implications for Reopening.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Clinical Laboratory, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Objective: COVID-19 disproportionately impacts residents in long-term care facilities. Our objective was to quantify the presence and magnitude of antibody response in vaccinated, older adult residents at assisted living, personal care, and independent living communities.

Design: A cross-sectional quality improvement study was conducted March 15 - April 1, 2021 in the greater Pittsburgh region. Read More

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Low-density aspen seedling establishment is widespread following recent wildfires in the western U.S.

Ecology 2021 Jun 15:e03436. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Wildland Resources and Ecology Center, Utah State University, Logan, UT, 84321, USA.

Sexual regeneration is increasingly recognized as an important regeneration pathway for aspen in the western U.S., a region previously thought to be too dry for seedling establishment except for during unusually wet periods. Read More

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Quantification of Motor Function Post-stroke using Novel Combination of Wearable Inertial and Mechanomyographic Sensors.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2021 Jun 15;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Subjective clinical rating scales represent the gold-standard diagnosis of motor function following stroke, however in practice they suffer from well-recognized limitations including assessor variance, low inter-rater reliability and low resolution. Automated systems have been proposed for empirical quantification but have not significantly impacted clinical practice. We address translational challenges in this arena through: (1) implementation of a novel sensor suite combining inertial measurement and mechanomyography (MMG) to quantify hand and wrist motor function; and (2) introduction of a new range of signal features extracted from the suite to supplement predicted clinical scores. Read More

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How I Do It: PureWick female external catheter: a non-invasive urine management system for incontinent women.

Can J Urol 2021 Jun;28(3):10669-10672

Department of Urology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are common hospital-acquired infections and remain a significant medical and financial challenge to the healthcare system. Despite this risk, incontinent women may require prolonged catheterization to accurately monitor urine output and prevent skin breakdown. The PureWick Female External Urinary Catheter is a promising non-invasive urine collection system for use in incontinent women that may help reduce CAUTI rates, maintain skin integrity, accurately quantify urine output, and avoid extra healthcare costs. Read More

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Respirators, face masks, and their risk reductions via multiple transmission routes for first responders within an ambulance.

J Occup Environ Hyg 2021 Jun 15:1-16. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Community, Environment, and Policy, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

First responders may have high SARS-CoV-2 infection risks due to working with potentially infected patients in enclosed spaces. The study objective was to estimate infection risks per transport for first responders and quantify how first responder use of N95 respirators and patient use of cloth masks can reduce these risks. A model was developed for two Scenarios: an ambulance transport with a patient actively emitting a virus in small aerosols that could lead to airborne transmission (Scenario 1) and a subsequent transport with the same respirator or mask use conditions, an uninfected patient; and remaining airborne SARS-CoV-2 and contaminated surfaces due to aerosol deposition from the previous transport (Scenario 2). Read More

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Altered canalicular remodeling associated with femur fracture in mice.

J Orthop Res 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

University of California Davis Health, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery.

We previously showed that femur fracture in mice caused a reduction in bone volume at distant skeletal sites within 2 weeks post-fracture. Osteocytes also have the ability to remodel their surrounding bone matrix through perilacunar/canalicular remodeling (PLR). If PLR is altered systemically following fracture, this could affect bone mechanical properties and increase fracture risk at all skeletal sites. Read More

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Children's measured exposure to food and beverage advertising on television in Toronto (Canada), May 2011-May 2019.

Can J Public Health 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Epidemiology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, 600 Peter Morand Crescent, Ottawa, Ontario, K1G 5Z3, Canada.

Objective: Exposure to unhealthy food advertising is a known determinant of children's poor dietary behaviours. The purpose of this study was to quantify and characterize Canadian children's exposure to food advertising on broadcast television and examine trends over time.

Methods: Objectively measured advertising exposure data for 19 food categories airing on 30 stations broadcast in Toronto were licenced for May 2011 and May 2019. Read More

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Internet Interest in Colon Cancer Following the Death of Chadwick Boseman: Infoveillance Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Jun 15;23(6):e27052. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Beedie School of Business, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background: Compared with White Americans, Black Americans have higher colon cancer mortality rates but lower up-to-date screening rates. Chadwick Boseman was a prominent Black American actor who died of colon cancer on August 28, 2020. As announcements of celebrity diagnoses often result in increased awareness, Boseman's death may have resulted in greater interest in colon cancer on the internet, particularly among Black Americans. Read More

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Comparison of Human Tissue Gadolinium Retention and Elimination between Gadoteridol and Gadobenate.

Radiology 2021 Jun 15:204320. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

From the Department of Radiology (M.K., D.S.H., M.H., N.M., K.M., K.R.M.), Integrated Brain Imaging Center, Department of Radiology (S.R.L.), Department of Neurologic Surgery (K.R.M.), and Magnetic Resonance Research Laboratory (K.R.M.), University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific St, Box 357115, Seattle, WA 98195; Departments of Radiology (M.K.) and Neurology (K.M.), Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Radiology, Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan (M.H., N.M.); and Department of Pathology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Wash (D.A.M., L.F.G.).

Background Linear gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are known to be retained at higher levels of gadolinium than macro-cyclic GBCAs. However, very little is known regarding their relative elimination rates and retained fraction of injected gadolinium. Purpose To quantify and compare gadolinium retention and elimination rates in human brain tissue, skin, and bone obtained from cadavers exposed to single-agent administration of either gadoteridol (macrocyclic GBCA) or gadobenate dimeglumine (linear GBCA). Read More

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Impact of Water Extraction on Malonamide Aggregation: A Molecular Dynamics and Graph Theoretic Approach.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States.

Solution structure in liquid-liquid extraction affects the efficacy of separation; however, even for simplified organic phases, structural characterization and attribution of aggregation to intermolecular interactions are fundamental challenges. We investigate water uptake into organic phases for two malonamides commonly applied to actinide and lanthanide separations. Extracted water induces reorganization of the amphiphilic extractant molecules, although we find this rearrangement is not strongly manifested in small-angle X-ray scattering making it challenging to probe without methods such as atomistic simulation. Read More

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"Giant" Nitrogen Uptake in Ionic Liquids Confined in Carbon Pores.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Colloid Chemistry, Research Campus Golm, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam, Germany.

Ionic liquids are well known for their high gas absorption capacity. It is shown that this is not a solvent constant, but can be enhanced by another factor of 10 by pore confinement, here of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimOAc) in the pores of carbon materials. A matrix of four different carbon compounds with micro- and mesopores as well as with and without nitrogen doping is utilized to investigate the influence of the carbons structure on the nitrogen uptake in the pore-confined EmimOAc. Read More

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Improved Automated Quantification Algorithm (AQuA) and Its Application to NMR-Based Metabolomics of EDTA-Containing Plasma.

Anal Chem 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.

We have recently presented an Automated Quantification Algorithm (AQuA) and demonstrated its utility for rapid and accurate absolute metabolite quantification in H NMR spectra in which positions and line widths of signals were predicted from a constant metabolite spectral library. The AQuA quantifies based on one preselected signal per metabolite and employs library spectra to model interferences from other metabolite signals. However, for some types of spectra, the interspectral deviations of signal positions and line widths can be pronounced; hence, interferences cannot be modeled using a constant spectral library. Read More

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Vapor Condensation and Coating Evaporation Are Both Responsible for Soot Aggregate Restructuring.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102, United States.

Fresh soot is made of fractal aggregates, which often appear collapsed in atmospheric samples. A body of work has concluded that the collapse is caused by liquid shells when they form by vapor condensation around soot aggregates. However, some recent studies argue that soot remains fractal even when engulfed by the shells, collapsing only when the shells evaporate. Read More

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Is multidisciplinary rehabilitation for low back pain effective in patients above 65 years? An observational cohort study with 12-month follow-up.

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Orthopaedics, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Germany -

Background: In contrast to the broad evidence for the effectiveness of multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation (MBR) in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients of working age, little is known about the benefit in patients aged ≥ 65 years.

Aim: To quantify the short-term and 12-month effects of a 3-week CLBP specific MBR program in patients ≥ 65 years of age; to compare the effects in patients ≥ 65 years of age to the effects in younger patients.

Design: Observational prospective cohort study. Read More

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Fiber orientation distribution from diffusion MRI: Effects of inaccurate response function calibration.

J Neuroimaging 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Background And Purpose: Diffusion MRI of the brain enables to quantify white matter fiber orientations noninvasively. Several approaches have been proposed to estimate such characteristics from diffusion MRI data with spherical deconvolution being one of the most widely used methods. Spherical deconvolution requires to define--or derive from the data--a response function, which is used to compute the fiber orientation distribution (FOD). Read More

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Genetic architecture of 11 organ traits derived from abdominal MRI using deep learning.

Elife 2021 Jun 15;10. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Calico Life Sciences LLC, South San Francisco, United States.

Cardiometabolic diseases are an increasing global health burden. While socioeconomic, environmental, behavioural, and genetic risk factors have been identified, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms is required to develop more effective interventions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to assess organ health, but biobank-scale studies are still in their infancy. Read More

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Identification of a prognostic metabolic gene signature in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a clinically diverse disease. Given the numerous genetic mutations and variations associated with it, a prognostic gene signature that can be related to the overall survival (OS) is a clinical implication. We used the mRNA expression profiles and clinicopathological data of patients with DLBCL from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to identify a metabolism-related gene signature. Read More

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Advancing estuarine ecological forecasts: seasonal hypoxia in Chesapeake Bay.

Ecol Appl 2021 Jun 14:e2384. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

U.S. Geological Survey Chesapeake Bay Program Office, Annapolis, MD, USA, 21403.

Ecological forecasts are quantitative tools that can guide ecosystem management. The co-emergence of extensive environmental monitoring and quantitative frameworks allows for widespread development and continued improvement of ecological forecasting systems. We use a relatively simple estuarine hypoxia model to demonstrate advances in addressing some of the most critical challenges and opportunities of contemporary ecological forecasting, including predictive accuracy, uncertainty characterization, and management relevance. Read More

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Overcoming stochastic variations in culture variables to quantify and compare growth curve data.

Bioessays 2021 Jun 14:e2100108. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Molecular & Cellular Biochemistry Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.

The comparison of growth, whether it is between different strains or under different growth conditions, is a classic microbiological technique that can provide genetic, epigenetic, cell biological, and chemical biological information depending on how the assay is used. When employing solid growth media, this technique is limited by being largely qualitative and low throughput. Collecting data in the form of growth curves, especially automated data collection in multi-well plates, circumvents these issues. Read More

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Quantitative Evaluation of Cerebellar Function in Multiple System Atrophy with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

Cerebellum 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Human Neurophysiology, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan.

Objective evaluation of cerebellar dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders is often difficult because of other overlapping symptoms. Cerebellar inhibition (CBI) tested by dual-coil transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is anticipated as a promising measure to estimate cerebellar function. Cerebellar TMS inhibits the primary motor cortex (M1), which can be measured as the decrease of motor evoked potential (MEP) elicited by a single-pulse TMS over the M1. Read More

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Simulation of Fluid-Structure Interaction in Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Circulatory Support Systems.

J Cardiovasc Transl Res 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a vital mechanical circulatory support modality capable of restoring perfusion for the patient in circulatory failure. Despite increasing adoption of ECMO, there is incomplete understanding of its effects on systemic hemodynamics and how the vasculature responds to varying levels of continuous retrograde perfusion. To gain further insight into the complex ECMO:failing heart circulation, computational fluid dynamics simulations focused on perfusion distribution and hemodynamic flow patterns were conducted using a patient-derived aorta geometry. Read More

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HPTLC Method for the Ultrasensitive Detection of Triamterene in Plasma.

J Chromatogr Sci 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sohag University, Sohag 82524, Egypt.

A high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has developed for the selective detection of a diuretic drug, triamterene (TRIAM), in pure form, tablets and human plasma. The method was based on chromatographic separation of TRIAM using HPTLC plates, precoated with silica gel, and a mobile phase consisted of ethyl acetate: dimethylformamide: ammonia (7.0: 2. Read More

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Ventilation procedures to minimize the airborne transmission of viruses in classrooms.

Build Environ 2021 Sep 10;202:108042. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino, FR, Italy.

Reducing the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through indoor air is the key challenge of the COVID-19 pandemic. Crowded indoor environments, such as schools, represent possible hotspots for virus transmission since the basic non-pharmaceutical mitigation measures applied so far (e.g. Read More

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September 2021

Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and prognosis in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Hypertens Res 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Special Care Center, Fuwai Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Arterial stiffness has been suggested as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to quantify the association between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and prognosis in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) patients. The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for cohort studies examining the association of high baPWV with prognosis in ASCVD patients. Read More

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