17,657 results match your criteria pyridine nucleotide


NADomics: Measuring NAD and Related Metabolites Using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry.

Life (Basel) 2021 May 31;11(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its metabolome (NADome) play important roles in preserving cellular homeostasis. Altered levels of the NADome may represent a likely indicator of poor metabolic function. Accurate measurement of the NADome is crucial for biochemical research and developing interventions for ageing and neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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Exploration of glutathione reductase for abiotic stress response in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Plant Cell Rep 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160014, India.

Key Message: A total of seven glutathione reductase (GR) genes were identified in Triticum aestivum, which were used for comparative structural characterization, phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling with the GR genes of other cereal plants. The modulated gene expression and enzyme activity revealed the role of GRs in abiotic stress response in T. aestivum. Read More

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NAD metabolism and retinal degeneration (Review).

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jul 23;22(1):670. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Faculty of Dentistry, 'Carol Davila' University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania.

The recent years has revealed an intense interest in the study of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), particularly in regards to its intermediates, such as nicotinamide and nicotinic acid known as niacin, and also nicotinamide riboside. Besides its participation as a coenzyme in the redox transformations of nutrients during catabolism, NAD is also involved in DNA repair and epigenetic modification of gene expression and also plays an essential role in calcium homeostasis. Clinical and experimental data emphasize the age-dependent decline in NAD levels and its relation with the onset and progression of various age-related diseases. Read More

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Nicotinamide riboside attenuates age-associated metabolic and functional changes in hematopoietic stem cells.

Nat Commun 2021 05 11;12(1):2665. Epub 2021 May 11.

Biomedical Manufacturing Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

With age, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) undergo changes in function, including reduced regenerative potential and loss of quiescence, which is accompanied by a significant expansion of the stem cell pool that can lead to haematological disorders. Elevated metabolic activity has been implicated in driving the HSC ageing phenotype. Here we show that nicotinamide riboside (NR), a form of vitamin B3, restores youthful metabolic capacity by modifying mitochondrial function in multiple ways including reduced expression of nuclear encoded metabolic pathway genes, damping of mitochondrial stress and a decrease in mitochondrial mass and network-size. Read More

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Leukemia stemness and co-occurring mutations drive resistance to IDH inhibitors in acute myeloid leukemia.

Nat Commun 2021 05 10;12(1):2607. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Genomic Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Allosteric inhibitors of mutant IDH1 or IDH2 induce terminal differentiation of the mutant leukemic blasts and provide durable clinical responses in approximately 40% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with the mutations. However, primary resistance and acquired resistance to the drugs are major clinical issues. To understand the molecular underpinnings of clinical resistance to IDH inhibitors (IDHi), we perform multipronged genomic analyses (DNA sequencing, RNA sequencing and cytosine methylation profiling) in longitudinally collected specimens from 60 IDH1- or IDH2-mutant AML patients treated with the inhibitors. Read More

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Five-year microevolution of a multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain within a patient with inadequate compliance to treatment.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Apr 29;21(1):394. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas-ANLIS Carlos Malbrán, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: Whole-genome sequencing has shown that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection process can be more heterogeneous than previously thought. Compartmentalized infections, exogenous reinfections, and microevolution are manifestations of this clonal complexity. The analysis of the mechanisms causing the microevolution -the genetic variability of M. Read More

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Supramolecular Zn(II)-Dipicolylamine-Azobenzene-Aminocyclodextrin-ATP Complex: Design and ATP Recognition in Water.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 28;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554, Japan.

Cyclodextrins (CyDs) are water-soluble host molecules possessing a nanosized hydrophobic cavity. In the realm of molecular recognition, this cavity is used not only as a recognition site but also as a reaction medium, where a hydrophobic sensor recognizes a guest molecule. Based on the latter concept, we have designed a novel supramolecular sensing system composed of Zn(II)-dipicolylamine metal complex-based azobenzene () and 3A-amino-3A-deoxy-(2A,3A)--cyclodextrin (3-NH--CyD) for sensing adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP). Read More

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Identification of Compounds with Potential Therapeutic Uses from Sweet Pepper ( L.) Fruits and Their Modulation by Nitric Oxide (NO).

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 25;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Group of Antioxidant, Free Radicals and Nitric Oxide in Biotechnology, Food and Agriculture, Department of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology of Plants, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, CSIC, 18008 Granada, Spain.

Plant species are precursors of a wide variety of secondary metabolites that, besides being useful for themselves, can also be used by humans for their consumption and economic benefit. Pepper ( L.) fruit is not only a common food and spice source, it also stands out for containing high amounts of antioxidants (such as vitamins C and A), polyphenols and capsaicinoids. Read More

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The Role of Genetic Polymorphism and Other Factors on Clopidogrel Resistance (CR) in an Asian Population with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD).

Molecules 2021 Apr 1;26(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia.

Clopidogrel is a widely-used antiplatelet drug. It is important for the treatment and prevention of coronary heart disease. Clopidogrel can effectively reduce platelet activity and therefore reduce stent thrombosis. Read More

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Calvin-Benson cycle regulation is getting complex.

Trends Plant Sci 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, I-40126, Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

Oxygenic phototrophs use the Calvin-Benson cycle to fix CO during photosynthesis. In the dark, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and phosphoribulokinase (PRK), two enzymes of the Calvin-Benson cycle, form an inactive complex with the regulatory protein CP12, mainly under the control of thioredoxins and pyridine nucleotides. In the light, complex dissociation allows GAPDH and PRK reactivation. Read More

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[The Configuration of Tadalafil and Tadalafil Analogues Found in Dietary Supplements].

Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi 2021 ;62(2):65-72

Chiba Prefectural Institute of Public Health.

This study determined the configuration of the isomers of tadalafil, nortadalafil, and homotadalafil in dietary supplements. The products purchased over the Internet studied included a honey product and a tablet, which contained tadalafil, and a candy, which contained nortadalafil and homotadalafil. Each of the pharmaceutical ingredients isolated from the products was measured with circular dichroism (CD). Read More

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Overexpression of Multiple UDP-Glycosyltransferase Genes Involved in Sulfoxaflor Resistance in Glover.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 May 20;69(17):5198-5205. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Crops, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China.

UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are major phase II enzymes involved in the metabolic detoxification of xenobiotics. In this study, two UGT-inhibitors, 5-nitrouracil and sulfinpyrazone, significantly increased sulfoxaflor toxicity against sulfoxaflor-resistant (Sul-R) , whereas there were no synergistic effects in susceptible (Sus) . The activity of UGTs in the Sul-R strain was significantly higher (1. Read More

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Creating enzymes and self-sufficient cells for biosynthesis of the non-natural cofactor nicotinamide cytosine dinucleotide.

Nat Commun 2021 04 9;12(1):2116. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Laboratory of Biotechnology, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, Dalian, PR China.

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its reduced form are indispensable cofactors in life. Diverse NAD mimics have been developed for applications in chemical and biological sciences. Nicotinamide cytosine dinucleotide (NCD) has emerged as a non-natural cofactor to mediate redox transformations, while cells are fed with chemically synthesized NCD. Read More

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The Affinity of Carboplatin to B-Vitamins and Nucleobases.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 31;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Kurpińskiego 5, 85-096 Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Platinum compounds have found wide application in the treatment of various types of cancer and carboplatin is one of the main platinum-based drugs used as antitumor agents. The anticancer activity of carboplatin arises from interacting with DNA and inducing programmed cell death. However, such interactions may occur with other chemical compounds, such as vitamins containing aromatic rings with lone-pair orbitals, which reduces the anti-cancer effect of carboplatin. Read More

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NMRK2 Gene Is Upregulated in Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Required for Cardiac Function and NAD Levels during Aging.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 29;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Inserm Unit UMR-S 1180 CARPAT, Faculty of Pharmacy, Université Paris-Saclay, 92296 Châtenay-Malabry, France.

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of multifactorial etiologies, the risk of which is increased by male sex and age. There are few therapeutic options for patients with DCM who would benefit from identification of common targetable pathways. We used bioinformatics to identify the gene involved in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotde (NAD) coenzyme biosynthesis as activated in different mouse models and in hearts of human patients with DCM while the gene controlling a parallel pathway is repressed. Read More

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Deletion of Kvβ2 (AKR6) Attenuates Isoproterenol Induced Cardiac Injury with Links to Solute Carrier Transporter SLC41a3 and Circadian Clock Genes.

Metabolites 2021 Mar 29;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Taneja College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA.

Kvβ subunits belong to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, which plays a significant role in ion channel regulation and modulates the physiological responses. However, the role of Kvβ2 in cardiac pathophysiology was not studied, and therefore, in the present study, we hypothesized that Kvβ2 plays a significant role in cardiovascular pathophysiology by modulating the cardiac excitability and gene responses. We utilized an isoproterenol-infused mouse model to investigate the role of Kvβ2 and the cardiac function, biochemical changes, and molecular responses. Read More

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Nicotinamide Effectively Suppresses Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat Plants.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 15;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Division of Life Science, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan.

Pyridine nucleotides such as a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) are known as plant defense activators. We previously reported that nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) enhanced disease resistance against fungal pathogen in barley and Arabidopsis. In this study, we reveal that the pretreatment of nicotinamide (NIM), which does not contain nucleotides, effectively suppresses disease development of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in wheat plants. Read More

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Short Communication: Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors Drug Resistance Mutations in Puerto Rico HIV-Positive Individuals.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 8;18(5). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Basic Sciences Department and RCMI Center for Research Resources, Ponce Health Sciences University/Ponce Research Institute, Ponce, PR 00716-2348, USA.

The HIV-1 integrase viral protein is responsible for incorporating the viral DNA into the genomic DNA. The inhibition of viral integration into host cell DNA is part of recent therapeutic procedures. Combination therapy with protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors has demonstrated good synergistic results in reducing viral replication. Read More

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The diverse functionality of NQO1 and its roles in redox control.

Redox Biol 2021 May 20;41:101950. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

In this review, we summarize the multiple functions of NQO1, its established roles in redox processes and potential roles in redox control that are currently emerging. NQO1 has attracted interest due to its roles in cell defense and marked inducibility during cellular stress. Exogenous substrates for NQO1 include many xenobiotic quinones. Read More

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A novel derivatization strategy for profiling phosphate ester/anhydride metabolic network and application on glioma rats using HILIC-MS/MS.

Talanta 2021 Jun 20;228:122238. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Functions of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, PR China. Electronic address:

Phosphate esters and anhydrides have great significance in the field of biochemical research and medical therapy. The genetic materials (DNA or RNA), most of the coenzymes, many intermediary metabolites, such as nucleotides and glycosyl phosphates in vivo are phosphodiesters, phosphoric acid or phosphates, respectively. It is important to monitor endogenous active phosphate metabolites for investigating many biological processes or drug mechanism. Read More

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Periodontitis-compromised dental pulp stem cells secrete extracellular vesicles carrying miRNA-378a promote local angiogenesis by targeting Sufu to activate the Hedgehog/Gli1 signalling.

Cell Prolif 2021 May 23;54(5):e13026. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases and Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Dental Materials and Advanced Manufacture, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Objectives: Previously, our investigations demonstrated robust pro-angiogenic potentials of extracellular vesicles secreted by periodontitis-compromised dental pulp stem cells (P-EVs) when compared to those from healthy DPSCs (H-EVs), but the underlying mechanism remains unknown.

Materials And Methods: Here, circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) specifically found in P-EVs (compared with H-EVs) were identified by Agilent miRNA microarray analysis, and the roles of the candidate miRNA in P-EV-enhanced cell angiogenesis were confirmed by cell transfection and RNA interference methods. Next, the direct binding affinity between the candidate miRNA and its target gene was evaluated by luciferase reporter assay. Read More

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Early combination treatment with existing HIV antivirals: an effective treatment for COVID-19?

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Mar;25(5):2435-2448

Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, National Research Council, Sassari, Italy.

Objective: Since no effective therapy exists, we aimed to test existing HIV antivirals for combination treatment of Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19).

Materials And Methods: The crystal structures of SARS-CoV-2 main protein (Mpro) (PDB ID: 6Y2F) and SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) (PDB ID: 7BV2) both available from Protein Data Bank were used in the study. Automated Docking by using blind and standard method both on Mpro and RdRp bound to the modified template-primer RNA was performed with AutoDock 4. Read More

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Enzymology of extracellular NAD metabolism.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 Apr 23;78(7):3317-3331. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131, Ancona, Italy.

Extracellular NAD represents a key signaling molecule in different physiological and pathological conditions. It exerts such function both directly, through the activation of specific purinergic receptors, or indirectly, serving as substrate of ectoenzymes, such as CD73, nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1, CD38 and its paralog CD157, and ecto ADP ribosyltransferases. By hydrolyzing NAD, these enzymes dictate extracellular NAD availability, thus regulating its direct signaling role. Read More

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Pyridine Nucleotide-Linked Lactate Dehydrogenase of Tetrahymena: Evidence for D- and L-Enzymes in the Mitochondria.

J Eukaryot Microbiol 2021 May 15;68(3):e12851. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Hahnemann Medical College, 230 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 19102, USA.

An NAD-linked lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in a crude mitochondrial fraction obtained from Tetrahymena homogenates was previously reported by this laboratory. This fraction contains the NADH and succinate oxidase system as well as the mitochondrial cytochromes and carries out oxidative phosphorylation. The preparation catalyzes the oxidation of D- and L-lactate linked only to certain analogs of NAD; it has not been possible to demonstrate NAD-dependent D- or L-lactate oxidation nor is there any evidence that either of these enzymes is a flavoprotein as indicated by their inability to reduce directly certain artificial electron acceptors. Read More

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Synthesis, biological evaluation, and docking studies of novel pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine derivatives as both ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase inhibitors and antiproliferative agents.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 May 10;217:113339. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Centre for Advanced Drug Research, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Abbottabad, 22060, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatases/phosphodiesterases (NPPs) together with nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases) and alkaline phosphatases (APs) are nucleotidases located at the surface of the cells. NPP1 and NPP3 are important members of NPP family that are known as druggable targets for a number of disorders such as impaired calcification, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. Sulfonylurea derivatives have been reported as antidiabetic and anticancer agents, therefore, we synthesized and investigated series of sulfonylurea derivatives 1a-m possessing pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine core as inhibitors of NPP1 and NPP3 isozymes that are over-expressed in cancer and diabetes. Read More

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Clinical and genetic characterization of PYROXD1-related myopathy patients from Turkey.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 Jun 10;185(6):1678-1690. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Cologne, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Congenital myopathies (CMs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited muscle disorders characterized by muscle weakness at birth, while limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) have a later onset and slower disease progression. Thus, detailed clinical phenotyping of genetically defined disease entities are required for the full understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations. A recently defined myopathic genetic disease entity is caused by bi-allelic variants in a gene coding for pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase domain 1 (PYROXD1) with unknown substrates. Read More

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Soluble guanylate cyclase chronic stimulation effects on cardiovascular reactivity in cafeteria diet-induced rat model of metabolic syndrome.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 7;899:173978. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

UPSP NP3 (2017.B146), Nutrition, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology, Oniris, Nantes-Atlantic College of Veterinary Medicine Food Sciences and Engineering, 44307, Nantes Cedex 03, France. Electronic address:

Metabolic syndrome is linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular complications by a mechanism involving mainly decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and impaired NO-soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)- cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signalling (NO-sGC-cGMP). To further develop this scientific point, this study aimed to investigate the effects of long-term treatment with BAY 41-2272 (a sGC stimulator) on cardiovascular reactivity of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) as a model of metabolic syndrome. SHR were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group, cafeteria diet (CD)-fed group and CD-fed group treated daily with BAY 41-2272 (5 mg/kg) by gastric gavage for 12 weeks. Read More

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Association with CYP2C19 polymorphisms and Clopidogrel in treatment of elderly stroke patients.

BMC Neurol 2021 Mar 9;21(1):104. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Clopidogrel is an antiplatelet drug used in the treatment of ischemic stroke. Safety and efficacy of clopidogrel has been confirmed in CAPRIE, PRoFESS trials. However, these studies focused on patients aged less than 75 years. Read More

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Overview of structurally homologous flavoprotein oxidoreductases containing the low M thioredoxin reductase-like fold - A functionally diverse group.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 05 5;702:108826. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, Section for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, NO-0316, Oslo, Norway; Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, Section for Chemical Life Sciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033, Blindern, NO-0315, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Structural studies show that enzymes have a limited number of unique folds, although structurally related enzymes have evolved to perform a large variety of functions. In this review, we have focused on enzymes containing the low molecular weight thioredoxin reductase (low M TrxR) fold. This fold consists of two domains, both containing a three-layer ββα sandwich Rossmann-like fold, serving as flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and, in most cases, pyridine nucleotide (NAD(P)H) binding-domains. Read More

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Comparative efficacy, safety and durability of dolutegravir relative to common core agents in treatment-naïve patients infected with HIV-1: an update on a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Feb 26;21(1):222. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

ViiV Healthcare, GSK House, 980 Great West Rd, Brentford, Middlesex, TW8 9GS, UK.

Background: The objective of this study was to assess the durability of response of dolutegravir (DTG) as an antiretroviral core agent by comparing its efficacy and safety with other recommended or commonly used core agents up to 96-weeks (W96).

Methods: A previously published systematic review was updated to identify phase 3/4 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of core agents in treatment-naïve HIV-1 patients. Efficacy [virologic suppression (VS), CD4 cell change from baseline] and safety [adverse events [AEs], discontinuations, drug-related AEs [DRAEs]] were analysed at W96 using Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) adjusting for nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors' (NRTIs') backbone. Read More

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February 2021