29,784 results match your criteria pyramidal neurons


The subiculum sensitizes retrosplenial cortex layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons.

J Physiol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.

Key Points: Neurons in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), a cerebral region that connects synaptically with various brain regions, are known to increase neuronal activity in accordance with hippocampal sharp wave-ripples. Pyramidal cells in granular RSC (gRSC) layer 2/3, but not layer 5, exhibit slowly ramping depolarization and considerably delayed spikes in response to a step-pulse current injection. The latencies of delayed spikes in RSC layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons were shortened by a preceding current injection. Read More

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ECTOMYCORRHIZA FORMATION IN EUCALYPTUS: III. SUPERFICIAL ECTOMYCORRHIZAS INITIATED BY HYSTERANGIUM AND CORTINARIUS SPECIES.

New Phytol 1987 Mar;105(3):421-428

Division of Forest Research, CSIRO, Private Bag, P.O. Wembley, Western Australia 6014.

Cortinarius and Hysterangium species are a dominant component of the macrofungi in eucalypt forests of Western Australia, and their hyphae occupy 10 % of the soil surface area. Anatomical studies of jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata Donn ex Sm.) and karri (E. Read More

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Coordination compounds with heterocyclic ester derivatives. Structural characterization and anti-proliferative activity.

J Inorg Biochem 2021 Mar 23;219:111432. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, 04510 Ciudad de México, Mexico. Electronic address:

A series of new coordination compounds of cobalt(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) with heterocyclic ester derivatives (ethyl 4-methyl-5-imidazole-carboxylate (emizco), 1-(2-(phenylsulphonyl)ethyl)-4-imidazole carboxylate (semizco)) and methyl 5-(propylthio)-2-benzimidazolecarbamate (albendazole, abz) were synthesized. They were fully characterized by different techniques such as IR, UV-Vis-NIR, elemental analysis, molar conductivity and magnetic susceptibility. Additionally, X-ray crystal structures of semizco and its [Co(semizco)Cl]·2CHCN 10, [Co(smmizco)Br]·2CHCN 11 and [Cu(semizco)Br] 15 coordination compounds are analyzed. Read More

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K3.1 channels regulate the rate of critical period plasticity.

Neurosci Res 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Laboratory for Neuronal Circuit Development, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan; International Research Center for Neuorintelligence, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113, Japan; Center for Brain Science, Department of Molecular Cellular Biology, Harvard University, 52 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA. Electronic address:

Experience-dependent plasticity within visual cortex is controlled by postnatal maturation of inhibitory circuits, which are both morphologically diverse and precisely connected. Gene-targeted disruption of the voltage-dependent potassium channel K3.1 broadens action potentials and reduces net inhibitory function of parvalbumin (PV)-positive GABA subtypes within the neocortex. Read More

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Modularization of grid cells constrained by the pyramidal patch lattice.

iScience 2021 Apr 17;24(4):102301. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Department of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, P. R. China.

Grid cells provide a metric representation of self-location. They are organized into modules, showing discretized scales of grid spacing, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this modeling study, we propose that the hexagonal lattice of pyramidal cell patches may underlie the discretization of grid spacing and orientation. Read More

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Long term effects of peripubertal stress on excitatory and inhibitory circuits in the prefrontal cortex of male and female mice.

Neurobiol Stress 2021 May 1;14:100322. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Neurobiology Unit, Institute for Biotechnology and Biomedicine (BIOTECMED), Universitat de València, 46100, Spain.

The impact of stressful events is especially important during early life, because certain cortical regions, especially the prefrontal cortex (PFC), are still developing. Consequently, aversive experiences that occur during the peripubertal period can cause long-term alterations in neural connectivity, physiology and related behaviors. Although sex influences the stress response and women are more likely to develop stress-related psychiatric disorders, knowledge about the effects of stress on females is still limited. Read More

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Effects of Several Classes of Voltage-Gated Ion Channel Conductances on Gamma and Theta Oscillations in a Hippocampal Microcircuit Model.

Front Comput Neurosci 2021 1;15:630271. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Medicine, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Gamma and theta oscillations have been functionally associated with cognitive processes, such as learning and memory. Synaptic conductances play an important role in the generation of intrinsic network rhythmicity, but few studies have examined the effects of voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) on these rhythms. In this report, we have used a pyramidal-interneuron-gamma (PING) network consisting of excitatory pyramidal cells and two types of inhibitory interneurons. Read More

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Single step nanospray drying preparation technique of gabapentin-loaded nanoparticles-mediated brain delivery for effective treatment of PTZ-induced seizures.

Int J Pharm 2021 Apr 13:120604. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahram Canadian University, 6(th) of October City, Cairo, Egypt.

In the present study, gabapentin (GBP)-loaded chitosan nanosized particles were fabricated applying the nanospray drying technique. Different preparation parameters (spray mesh diameter, chitosan concentration and presence of D-α-Tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) were studied while fixing other parameters (spraying rate, inlet temperature and gas flow rate). An optimized formulation with a particle size 107±13 nm was obtained upon spraying 0. Read More

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Acute elevated platform triggers stress induced hyperalgesia and alters glutamatergic transmission in the adult mice anterior cingulate cortex.

IBRO Neurosci Rep 2021 Jun 3;10:1-7. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Neurophysiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501, Japan.

Pain is composed of both physiological and affective/emotional components which potentiate one another. In addition, exposure to stress modulates pain and affective behaviors including, anxiety-like behavior and/or depression-like behaviors. Indeed, chronic exposure to stress has been known to enhance stress-induced hyperalgesia (SIH). Read More

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Semaphorin3F Drives Dendritic Spine Pruning Through Rho-GTPase Signaling.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics and Neuroscience Research Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.

Dendritic spines of cortical pyramidal neurons are initially overproduced then remodeled substantially in the adolescent brain to achieve appropriate excitatory balance in mature circuits. Here we investigated the molecular mechanism of developmental spine pruning by Semaphorin 3F (Sema3F) and its holoreceptor complex, which consists of immunoglobulin-class adhesion molecule NrCAM, Neuropilin-2 (Npn2), and PlexinA3 (PlexA3) signaling subunits. Structure-function studies of the NrCAM-Npn2 interface showed that NrCAM stabilizes binding between Npn2 and PlexA3 necessary for Sema3F-induced spine pruning. Read More

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Attenuation of Hippocampal Evoked Potentials by Activation of GtACR2, an Optogenetic Chloride Channel.

Front Neurosci 2021 29;15:653844. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

4BRAIN Team, Department of Head and Skin, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Aim: GtACR2, a light-activated chloride channel, is an attractive tool for neural inhibition as it can shunt membrane depolarizations. In this study, we assessed the effect of activating GtACR2 on hippocampal CA1 activity evoked by Schaffer collateral (SC) stimulation.

Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were unilaterally injected with 0. Read More

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Perinatal Fentanyl Exposure Leads to Long-Lasting Impairments in Somatosensory Circuit Function and Behavior.

J Neurosci 2021 Apr;41(15):3400-3417

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Program in Neuroscience, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201

One consequence of the opioid epidemic are lasting neurodevelopmental sequelae afflicting adolescents exposed to opioids in the womb. A translationally relevant and developmentally accurate preclinical model is needed to understand the behavioral, circuit, network, and molecular abnormalities resulting from this exposure. By employing a novel preclinical model of perinatal fentanyl exposure, our data reveal that fentanyl has several dose-dependent, developmental consequences to somatosensory function and behavior. Read More

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Cellular responses and functions of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation in the brain: a narrative review.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(6):509

Department of Pharmacology, Second Military Medical University/Naval Medical University, Shanghai, China.

The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) has been studied for many years since its discovery. Although many functions and characteristics of brain α7nAChR are widely understood, much remains to be elucidated. The α7nAChR is widely expressed in the central nervous system, not only in neurons but also in astrocytes, microglia, and endothelial cells. Read More

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Attenuation of the extracellular matrix increases the number of synapses but suppresses synaptic plasticity through upregulation of SK channels.

Cell Calcium 2021 Apr 8;96:102406. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya Street 16/10, Moscow, 117997, Russia; Department of Physiology, Jiaxing University College of Medicine, Zhejiang, 314033 China; Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Bolshaya Pirogovskaya Str 19с1, Moscow, 119146, Russia. Electronic address:

The effect of brain extracellular matrix (ECM) on synaptic plasticity remains controversial. Here, we show that targeted enzymatic attenuation with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) of ECM triggers the appearance of new glutamatergic synapses on hippocampal pyramidal neurons, thereby increasing the amplitude of field EPSPs while decreasing both the mean miniature EPSC amplitude and AMPA/NMDA ratio. Although the increased proportion of 'unpotentiated' synapses caused by ECM attenuation should promote long-term potentiation (LTP), surprisingly, LTP was suppressed. Read More

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Loss of Calretinin in L5a impairs the formation of the barrel cortex leading to abnormal whisker-mediated behaviors.

Mol Brain 2021 Apr 12;14(1):67. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Diseases, Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210009, China.

The rodent whisker-barrel cortex system has been established as an ideal model for studying sensory information integration. The barrel cortex consists of barrel and septa columns that receive information input from the lemniscal and paralemniscal pathways, respectively. Layer 5a is involved in both barrel and septa circuits and play a key role in information integration. Read More

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Defective Reelin/Dab1 signaling pathways associated with disturbed hippocampus development of homozygous yotari mice.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2021 Apr 9;112:103614. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Immunology and Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Sugao 2-16-1, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki 216-8511, Japan. Electronic address:

Homozygous Dab1 yotari mutant mice, Dab1 (yot/yot) mice, have an autosomal recessive mutation of Dab1 and show reeler-like phenotype including histological abnormality of the cerebellum, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex. We here show abnormal hippocampal development of yot/yot mice where granule cells and pyramidal cells fail to form orderly rows but are dispersed diffusely in vague multiplicative layers. Possibly due to the positioning failure of granule cells and pyramidal cells and insufficient synaptogenesis, axons of the granule cells did not extend purposefully to connect with neighboring regions in yot/yot mice. Read More

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The Role of Parvalbumin Interneuron GIRK Signaling in the Regulation of Affect and Cognition in Male and Female Mice.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 26;15:621751. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, United States.

Pathological impairments in the regulation of affect (i.e., emotion) and flexible decision-making are commonly observed across numerous neuropsychiatric disorders and are thought to reflect dysfunction of cortical and subcortical circuits that arise in part from imbalances in excitation and inhibition within these structures. Read More

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Deletion of BDNF in Pax2 Lineage-Derived Interneuron Precursors in the Hindbrain Hampers the Proportion of Excitation/Inhibition, Learning, and Behavior.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 26;14:642679. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Tübingen Hearing Research Centre, Molecular Physiology of Hearing, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Numerous studies indicate that deficits in the proper integration or migration of specific GABAergic precursor cells from the subpallium to the cortex can lead to severe cognitive dysfunctions and neurodevelopmental pathogenesis linked to intellectual disabilities. A different set of GABAergic precursors cells that express Pax2 migrate to hindbrain regions, targeting, for example auditory or somatosensory brainstem regions. We demonstrate that the absence of BDNF in Pax2-lineage descendants of KOs causes severe cognitive disabilities. Read More

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Dyrk1a Mutations Cause Undergrowth of Cortical Pyramidal Neurons via Dysregulated Growth Factor Signaling.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, Florida; Doctoral Program in Chemical and Biological Sciences, The Skaggs Graduate School of Chemical and Biological Sciences at Scripps Research, Jupiter, Florida. Electronic address:

Background: Mutations in DYRK1A are a cause of microcephaly, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability; however, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood.

Methods: We generated a conditional mouse model using Emx1-cre, including conditional heterozygous and homozygous knockouts, to investigate the necessity of Dyrk1a in the cortex during development. We used unbiased, high-throughput phosphoproteomics to identify dysregulated signaling mechanisms in the developing Dyrk1a mutant cortex as well as classic genetic modifier approaches and pharmacological therapeutic intervention to rescue microcephaly and neuronal undergrowth caused by Dyrk1a mutations. Read More

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Immunohistochemical evidence of P2X7R, P2X4R and CaMKK2 in pyramidal neurons of frontal cortex does not align with Alzheimer's disease.

Exp Mol Pathol 2021 Apr 7;120:104636. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Science, Curtin University, Australia; Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Australia. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable neurodegenerative condition resulting in progressive cognitive decline. Pathological features include Aβ plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, neuroinflammation and neuronal death. Purinergic receptors 7 and 4 (P2X7R and P2X4R) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) are implicated in neuronal death. Read More

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Elevated expression of complement C4 in the mouse prefrontal cortex causes schizophrenia-associated phenotypes.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

INSERM UMR-S 1270, Paris, France.

Accumulating evidence supports immune involvement in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, a severe psychiatric disorder. In particular, high expression variants of C4, a gene of the innate immune complement system, were shown to confer susceptibility to schizophrenia. However, how elevated C4 expression may impact brain circuits remains largely unknown. Read More

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Increased MMP-9 levels with strain-dependent stress resilience and tunnel handling in mice.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Apr 6;408:113288. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Georgetown University Medical Center, Department of Neuroscience, Washington D.C., United States. Electronic address:

Increased perineuronal net (PNN) deposition has been observed in association with corticosteroid administration and stress in rodent models of depression. PNNs are a specialized form of extracellular matrix (ECM) that may enhance GABA-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission to potentially restrict the excitation and plasticity of pyramidal glutamatergic neurons. In contrast, antidepressant administration increases levels of the PNN-degrading enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which enhances glutamatergic plasticity and neurotransmission. Read More

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Cell-type specific dynamics of calcium activity in cortical circuits over the course of slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep.

J Neurosci 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

Sleep shapes cortical network activity, fostering global homeostatic down-regulation of excitability while maintaining or even up-regulating excitability in selected networks in a manner that supports memory consolidation. Here we used two-photon calcium imaging of cortical layer 2/3 neurons in sleeping male mice to examine how these seemingly opposing dynamics are balanced in cortical networks. During slow-wave sleep (SWS) episodes, mean calcium activity of excitatory pyramidal (Pyr) cells decreased. Read More

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Age-related calcium dysregulation linked with tau pathology and impaired cognition in non-human primates.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Departments of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Yale University, Connecticut, USA.

Introduction: The etiology of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires non-genetically modified animal models.

Methods: The relationship of tau phosphorylation to calcium-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) dysregulation was analyzed in aging rhesus macaque dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and rat primary cortical neurons using biochemistry and immuno-electron microscopy. The influence of calcium leak from ryanodine receptors (RyRs) on neuronal firing and cognitive performance was examined in aged macaques. Read More

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A new reduced-morphology model for CA1 pyramidal cells and its validation and comparison with other models using HippoUnit.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 7;11(1):7615. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

ICAR3R-Interdisciplinary Centre for 3Rs in Animal Research, Faculty of Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University, Rudolf-Buchheim-Str. 6, 35392, Giessen, Germany.

Modeling long-term neuronal dynamics may require running long-lasting simulations. Such simulations are computationally expensive, and therefore it is advantageous to use simplified models that sufficiently reproduce the real neuronal properties. Reducing the complexity of the neuronal dendritic tree is one option. Read More

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Increased excitatory synaptic transmission associated with adult seizure vulnerability induced by early life inflammation in mice.

J Neurosci 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Hotchkiss Brain Institute

Early life inflammatory-stress increases seizure susceptibility later in life. However, possible sex- and age-specific differences and the associated mechanisms are largely unknown. C57/BL6 mice were bred in house, and female and male pups were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg/kg ) or vehicle control (saline solution) at postnatal day 14 (p14). Read More

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Early NMDA Receptor Ablation in Interneurons Causes an Activity-Dependent E/I Imbalance in vivo in Prefrontal Cortex Pyramidal Neurons of a Mouse Model Useful for the Study of Schizophrenia.

Schizophr Bull 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Grupo de Neurociencia de Sistemas, Instituto de Fisiología y Biofísica "Bernardo Houssay" (IFIBIO-Houssay), Universidad de Buenos Aires y Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Altered Excitatory/Inhibitory (E/I) balance of cortical synaptic inputs has been proposed as a central pathophysiological factor for psychiatric neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia (SZ). However, direct measurement of E/I synaptic balance have not been assessed in vivo for any validated SZ animal model. Using a mouse model useful for the study of SZ we show that a selective ablation of NMDA receptors (NMDAr) in cortical and hippocampal interneurons during early postnatal development results in an E/I imbalance in vivo, with synaptic inputs to pyramidal neurons shifted towards excitation in the adult mutant medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Read More

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Cation leak underlies neuronal excitability in an HCN1 developmental and epileptic encephalopathy.

Brain 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Pathogenic variants in HCN1 are associated with developmental and epileptic encephalopathies. The recurrent de novo HCN1 M305L pathogenic variant is associated with severe developmental impairment and drug-resistant epilepsy. We engineered the homologue Hcn1 M294L heterozygous knock-in (Hcn1M294L) mouse to explore the disease mechanism underlying an HCN1 developmental and epileptic encephalopathy. Read More

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The TAAR1 inhibitor EPPTB suppresses neuronal excitability and seizure activity in mice.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Mar 31;171:142-149. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining, Shandong, PR China; Central Laboratory, Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining, Shandong, PR China. Electronic address:

Epilepsy is a common neurological disease. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are extensively distributed and play an important role in human health by serving as therapeutic targets for various diseases. As one of the GPCRs, trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) has recently aroused increasing interest as a potential therapeutic target for psychiatric disorders. Read More

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