330 results match your criteria pwh infection

Viral hepatitis in haemophilia: historical perspective and current management.

Br J Haematol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Sheffield Haemophilia and Thrombosis Centre, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK.

The introduction of clotting factor concentrates has substantially improved the lives of people with clotting factor deficiencies. Unfortunately, the transmission of blood-borne viral infections through these plasma-derived products led to a huge epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis in people with haemophilia (PWH). In a significant proportion of PWH exposed to these viruses, the ensuing decades-long chronic infection resulted in excess morbidity and mortality. Read More

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Generally rare but occasionally severe weight gain after switching to an integrase inhibitor in virally suppressed AGEhIV cohort participants.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0251205. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute and Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: Recent studies have reported disproportionate weight gain associated with integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) initiation in antiretroviral therapy(ART)-naive people with HIV (PWH), particularly among black women. We investigated if HIV-positive AGEhIV participants with suppressed viremia switching to INSTI-containing ART experienced more weight gain compared to HIV-positive virally-suppressed non-switching and HIV-negative controls.

Methods: In the AGEhIV cohort, standardized weight measurements were performed biennially. Read More

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Higher circulating intermediate monocytes are associated with cognitive function in women with HIV.

JCI Insight 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, United States of America.

Background: Identifying a quantitative biomarker of neuropsychiatric dysfunction in people with HIV (PWH) remains a significant challenge in the neuroHIV field. The strongest evidence to date implicates the role of monocytes in central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction in HIV, yet no study has examined monocyte subsets in blood as a correlate and/or predictor of neuropsychiatric function in virally suppressed PWH.

Methods: In two independent cohorts of virologically suppressed women with HIV (vsWWH; n=25 and n=18), whole blood samples were obtained either in conjunction with neuropsychiatric assessments (neuropsychological [NP] test battery, self-report depression and stress-related symptom questionnaires) or one year prior to assessments. Read More

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Progression risk in people with HIV and COVID-19: Predictive performance of current risk scores.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, 16507, Infectious Diseases, Madrid, Madrid, Spain;

People with HIV (PWH) might have a higher risk of adverse coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. Several scores were developed to predict COVID-19 progression to critical disease and are often used among PWH. We assessed the performance of two commonly used risk equations among PWH and COVID-19. Read More

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Cannabis and the Gut-Brain Axis Communication in HIV Infection.

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res 2021 Apr 15;6(2):92-104. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Departments of Neurosciences and Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California, USA.

People living with HIV infection (PWH) disclose that cannabis is an effective strategy for alleviating symptoms associated with HIV disease. However, some medical providers feel ill-informed to engage in evidence-based conversations. HIV leads to alterations in the gut microbiome, gut-brain axis signaling, and chronic inflammation. Read More

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Hepatitis C Virus Testing Among Men With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Who Have Sex With Men: Temporal Trends and Racial/Ethnic Disparities.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Apr 17;8(4):ofaa645. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: National guidelines recommend that sexually active people with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH) who are men who have sex with men (MSM) be tested for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection at least annually. Hepatitis C virus testing rates vary by race/ethnicity in the general population, but limited data are available for PWH.

Methods: We analyzed medical records data from MSM in the HIV Outpatient Study at 9 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinics from January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2019. Read More

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Emergency Department Utilization Among People Living With HIV on Chronic Opioid Therapy.

J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care 2021 Jan-Dec;20:23259582211010952

Boston Medical Center / Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Chronic pain among people with HIV (PWH) is a driving factor of emergency department (ED) utilization, and it is often treated with chronic opioid therapy (COT). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective observational cohort of PWH on COT at 2 hospital-based clinics to determine whether COT-specific factors are associated with ED utilization among PWH. The primary outcome was an ED visit within 12 months after study enrollment. Read More

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Transcriptional and Immunologic Correlates of Response to Pandemic Influenza Vaccine in Aviremic, HIV-Infected Children.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:639358. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.

People living with HIV (PWH) often exhibit poor responses to influenza vaccination despite effective combination anti-retroviral (ART) mediated viral suppression. There exists a paucity of data in identifying immune correlates of influenza vaccine response in context of HIV infection that would be useful in improving its efficacy in PWH, especially in younger individuals. Transcriptomic data were obtained by microarray from whole blood isolated from aviremic pediatric and adolescent HIV-infected individuals (4-25 yrs) given two doses of Novartis/H1N1 09 vaccine during the pandemic H1N1 influenza outbreak. Read More

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Risk for incident diabetes is greater in pre-diabetic men with HIV than without HIV.

AIDS 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Infectious Diseases Unit Hôtel-Dieu Hospital, APHP centre, Université de Paris, F-75004, France Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. USA Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX. USA.

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major comorbidity in people living with HIV (PWH). Hyperglycemia below diabetic range defines pre-diabetes (pre-DM). We compared the progression from pre-DM to DM in PWH and people without HIV (PWOH). Read More

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Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone Reduces Circulating Markers of Immune Activation in Parallel with Effects on Hepatic Immune Pathways in Individuals with HIV-Infection and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Metabolism Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Harvard Medical School (HMS), Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis modulates critical metabolic pathways; however, little is known regarding effects of augmenting pulsatile GH secretion on immune function in humans. This study used proteomics and gene set enrichment analysis to assess effects of a GH releasing hormone (GHRH) analog, tesamorelin, on circulating immune markers and liver tissue in people with HIV (PWH) and NAFLD.

Methods: 92 biomarkers associated with immunity, chemotaxis, and metabolism were measured in plasma samples from 61 PWH with NAFLD who participated in a double-blind, randomized trial of tesamorelin versus placebo for 12 months. Read More

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IgG intrathecal synthesis in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) according to the HIV-1 subtypes and pattern of HIV RNA in CNS and plasma compartments.

J Neuroimmunol 2021 Jun 8;355:577542. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.

We hypothesized that humoral immunity stimulation in the CNS in HIV-1C patients would be lower than that in HIV-1B due to a defective Tat chemokine dimotif (C30C31) that might influence cellular trafficking and CNS inflammation. Sixty-eight paired CSF and blood samples from people with HIV (PWH), free of CNS opportunistic infections, were included, HIV-1B (n = 27), HIV-1C (n = 26), and HIV negative (n = 25). IgG intrathecal synthesis was assayed using quantitative and qualitative methods. Read More

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COVID-19 Infection among People with HIV/AIDS in Africa: Knowledge Gaps, Public Health Preparedness and Research Priorities.

Int J MCH AIDS 2021 24;10(1):113-118. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Institute of Community Health, University of Houston College of Pharmacy, Houston, Texas, USA.

The emergence of novel virus SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19 has complicated Africa's public health challenges, especially with the pre-existing epidemics such as HIV/AIDS. We highlight the known evidence related to COVID-19 infections among people with HIV (PWH) with specific reference to Africa. The knowledge gaps, level of public health preparedness and the potential research priorities are also outlined. Read More

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Clinical consequences of asymptomatic cytomegalovirus in treated human immunodeficency virus infection.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2021 May;16(3):168-176

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART)-mediated viral suppression, people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PWH) have increased morbidity and mortality. Immune activation and inflammation persist on ART and predict these complications. Over 90% of PWH have cytomegalovirus (CMV) co-infection, and CMV is considered a plausible contributor to this persistent immune activation. Read More

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Metabolic syndrome in Zambian adults with human immunodeficiency virus on antiretroviral therapy: Prevalence and associated factors.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e25236

University of Zambia School of Public Health.

Abstract: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of factors including hypertension, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance that separately and together significantly increase risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. In sub-Saharan Africa, with a substantial burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and increasing prevalence of CVD and diabetes, there is a paucity of epidemiological data on demographic, laboratory, and clinical characteristics associated with MetS among people with HIV (people with human [PWH]). Therefore, this study aimed to determine the burden and factors influencing MetS in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced individuals in Zambia. Read More

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Common pathogen-associated molecular patterns induce the hyper-activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in circulating B lymphocytes of HIV-infected individuals.

AIDS 2021 05;35(6):899-910

Laboratório de Imunogenética, Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas da Universidade de São Paulo (ICB/USP).

Objective: Despite the antiretroviral treatment, people with HIV (PWH) still experience systemic chronic inflammation and immune-senescence, which represent risk factors for severe comorbidities and inefficient response to pathogens and vaccines. Given the dysregulation of NLRP3 inflammasome in PWH and the recently demonstrated role played by NLRP3 in B lymphocytes, we hypothesized that NLRP3 dysregulation in B cells can contribute to chronic inflammation and humoral dysfunction in PWH.

Design: NLRP3 inflammasome activation was evaluated in B lymphocytes and correlated with antibodies production and immunization response in PWH. Read More

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Experiences With Smoking Cessation Attempts and Prior Use of Cessation Aids in Smokers With HIV: Findings From a Focus Group Study Conducted in Durham, North Carolina.

AIDS Educ Prev 2021 04;33(2):158-168

Duke University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Durham, North Carolina.

Cigarette smoking remains disproportionately prevalent and is increasingly a cause of death and disability among people with HIV (PWH). Many PWH are interested in quitting, but interest in and uptake of first-line smoking cessation pharmacotherapies are varied in this population. To provide current data regarding experiences with and perceptions of smoking cessation and cessation aids among PWH living in Durham, North Carolina, the authors conducted five focus group interviews (total = 24; 96% African American) using semistructured interviews. Read More

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An Emerging Syndemic of Smoking and Cardiopulmonary Diseases in People Living with HIV in Africa.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 18;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY 10029, USA.

Background: African countries have the highest number of people living with HIV (PWH). The continent is home to 12% of the global population, but accounts for 71% of PWH globally. Antiretroviral therapy has played an important role in the reduction of the morbidity and mortality rates for HIV, which necessitates increased surveillance of the threats from pernicious risks to which PWH who live longer remain exposed. Read More

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Long-Term Follow-Up of a Portuguese Single-Centre Cohort of Persons with Haemophilia and Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

GE Port J Gastroenterol 2021 Feb 29;28(2):79-86. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Gastroenterology Department, Centro Hospitalar Universitário do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Introduction: Persons with haemophilia (PWH) used to represent a population with a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection due to the use of contaminated blood products. Although the goals of antiviral therapy are the same as the general population, long real-life follow-up data regarding their outcomes are still scarce. Our aim was to report the outcomes of HCV infection and the results of antiviral therapy in PWH. Read More

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February 2021

Epigenetic age in young African American adults with perinatally-acquired HIV.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Rutgers School of Public Health, Piscataway, NJ, USA Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Department of Pediatrics, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA ICAP at Columbia, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Prior studies have measured accelerated aging in people with HIV (PWH) using a DNA methylation (DNAm)-based biomarker of aging, "epigenetic age", but data are limited in African American (AA) young adults with perinatally-acquired HIV infection (PHIV).

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of AA young adults ages 20-35 years with PHIV (N=31) and seronegative controls (N=30) using DNAm measured in whole blood and cognitive function measured by the NIH Toolbox. Illumina EPIC Array was utilized to measure DNAm age, and accelerated aging markers including epigenetic age acceleration (EAA), as well as extrinsic (EEAA) and intrinsic (IEAA) epigenetic age acceleration. Read More

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Impact of HIV-infection on human somatosensory processing, spontaneous cortical activity, and cortical thickness: A multimodal neuroimaging approach.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Boys Town National Research Hospital, Institute for Human Neuroscience, Boys Town, Nebraska, USA.

HIV-infection has been associated with widespread alterations in brain structure and function, although few studies have examined whether such aberrations are co-localized and the degree to which clinical and cognitive metrics are related. We examine this question in the somatosensory system using high-resolution structural MRI (sMRI) and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) imaging of neural oscillatory activity. Forty-four participants with HIV (PWH) and 55 demographically-matched uninfected controls completed a paired-pulse somatosensory stimulation paradigm during MEG and underwent 3T sMRI. Read More

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Tetanus seroprotection in people living with HIV: Risk factors for seronegativity, evaluation of medical history and a rapid dipstick test.

Vaccine 2021 Apr 11;39(14):1963-1967. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint-Pierre, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium; Institute for Medical Immunology, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium; Centre for Environmental Health and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Belgium. Electronic address:

Objectives: Tetanus is a vaccine-preventable disease. Booster immunization is required in order to induce long-lived tetanus-toxoid (TT) specific antibody response. We investigated the prevalence and risk factors of TT seronegativity in a cohort of people living with HIV (PWH) in Belgium along with the respective performance of vaccine history and a rapid dipstick test (Tetanus Quick Stick ® or TQS) compared to ELISA testing. Read More

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Gut Innate Immunity and HIV Pathogenesis.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2021 Apr 9;18(2):128-138. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 12700 E. 19th Avenue, Mail Stop B168, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Purpose Of Review: In the gastro-intestinal tract, the complex network of multiple innate cell populations play critical roles not only as a first line of defense against invading pathogens and in driving adaptive immune responses but also in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Here, we describe the roles of various innate immune cell populations in gut immunity and detail studies investigating the impact of acute and chronic HIV infection on these cell populations.

Recent Findings: Alterations in frequencies, phenotype and/or function of innate lymphoid cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and innate-like T cells have been reported in people with HIV (PWH), with many of these features persisting despite anti-retroviral therapy and virological suppression. Read More

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Alcohol consumption and neurocognitive deficits in people with well-treated HIV in Switzerland.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(3):e0246579. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Infectious Diseases Service, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Hazardous alcohol consumption and HIV infection increase the risk of neurocognitive impairment (NCI). We examined the association between alcohol consumption and specific neurocognitive domain function in people with HIV (PWH) taking modern antiretroviral therapy.

Methods: The Neurocognitive Assessment in the Metabolic and Aging Cohort (NAMACO) study is a prospective, longitudinal, multicentre and multilingual (French, German and Italian) study of patients aged ≥45 years old enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS). Read More

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Markers of inflammation and immune activation are associated with lung function in a multi-center cohort of persons with HIV.

AIDS 2021 Jun;35(7):1031-1040

Division of HIV, Infectious Diseases and Global Medicine.

Objectives: Studies have shown that people with HIV (PWH) may be at increased risk for chronic lung diseases and lung function abnormalities, which may be associated with immune activation. We tested the association of a panel of 12 immune activation and inflammation biomarkers with spirometry and single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco).

Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Read More

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Dolutegravir is not associated with weight gain in antiretroviral therapy experienced geriatric patients living with HIV.

AIDS 2021 05;35(6):939-945

Unit of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin.

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore weight gain in people with HIV (PWH) at least 65 years of age who switch to a DTG based regimen (DTG-s) vs. remaining INSTI-naive (INSTI-n) on stable ART.

Methods: This was a longitudinal prospective study of PWH from the GEPPO cohort. Read More

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The association between depressive symptoms and neurocognitive impairment in people with well-treated HIV in Switzerland.

Int J STD AIDS 2021 Feb 25:956462420987434. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Infectious Diseases Service, 30635Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Depression may contribute to neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in people with HIV (PWH). Attributing NCI to depression rather than to HIV is complicated as depression may be both a causal factor and an effect of NCI. This study aimed to determine the association between depressive symptoms and NCI among PWH with well-controlled infection. Read More

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February 2021

Highly dampened blood transcriptome response in HIV patients after influenza infection.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 24;11(1):4465. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Infection Genetics, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Brunswick, Germany.

Respiratory viral (RV) infections represent a major threat for human health worldwide. Persons with HIV (PWH) have a compromised immune response and are thought to be at higher risk for severe RV disease. However, very little is known about the host immune response to RV infection in PWH. Read More

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February 2021

Long-term trabecular bone score and bone mineral density changes in Chinese antiretroviral-treated HIV-infected individuals.

Arch Osteoporos 2021 02 24;16(1):41. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 1 Shuaifuyuan Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730, China.

This is the first 5-year analysis among persons with HIV (PWH) that reports both trabecular bone score (TBS), which is a novel index that estimates bone microarchitecture, and bone mineral density (BMD) over time to evaluate the long-term impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on bone health.

Purpose: HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD). This study aims to evaluate long-term changes in trabecular bone score (TBS), a novel index that estimates bone microarchitecture, and BMD among Chinese persons with HIV (PWH) treated with ART. Read More

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February 2021

The Impact of COVID-19 on HIV Care Provided via Telemedicine-Past, Present, and Future.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2021 04 22;18(2):98-104. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, MS 359930, 325 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA, 98104, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review summarizes HIV care delivered via telemedicine before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and highlights areas of study to inform optimal usage of telemedicine in HIV clinical practice in the future.

Recent Findings: To address barriers to care created by the COVID-19 pandemic, regulatory agencies and payors waived longstanding restrictions, which enabled rapid expansion of telemedicine across the country. Preliminary data show that providers and persons with HIV (PWH) view telemedicine favorably. Read More

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Undernutrition and HIV Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa: Health Outcomes and Therapeutic Interventions.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2021 Apr 19;18(2):87-97. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Divison of Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, 37232-2582, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is disproportionately burdened by the twin epidemics of food insecurity and HIV infection, and protein-calorie undernutrition is common among persons with HIV (PWH) initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the region. In this review, we discuss the intersection of HIV infection and undernutrition, health outcomes among undernourished PWH starting ART, and the demonstrated and potential benefits of therapeutic interventions such as micro/macronutrient supplementation and pharmacological agents.

Recent Findings: A low body mass index (BMI), used as a general indicator of poor nutrition in most studies, is associated with impaired immune recovery and increased mortality in the early ART period. Read More

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