302 results match your criteria pure alexia

The inferior longitudinal fasciculus: anatomy, function and surgical considerations.

J Neurosurg Sci 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute of Functional Genomics, University of Montpellier, CNRS UMR5203, INSERM U1191, Montpellier, France.

The inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) is a large association white matter tract that interconnects, in a bidirectional manner, the occipital cortex to anterior temporal structures. In view of both its pattern of cortical projections and its recently evidenced multilayered anatomical organization, the ILF has been supposed to be vital for maintaining a wide range of cognitive and affective processes operating on the visual modality. As tumors commonly damage the temporal cortex, an updated knowledge of the functional anatomy of this ventral tract is needed to better map and monitor online its potential functions and thus to improve surgical outcomes. Read More

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Rehabilitation of visual disorders.

Handb Clin Neurol 2021 ;178:361-386

Departments of Medicine (Neurology), Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, and Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

While there is a long history of rehabilitation for motor deficits following cerebral lesions, less is known about our ability to improve visual deficits. Vision therapy, prisms, occluders, and filters have been advocated for patients with mild traumatic brain injury, on the premise that some of their symptoms may reflect abnormal visual or ocular motor function, but the evidence for their efficacy is modest. For hemianopia, attempts to restore vision have had unimpressive results, though it appears possible to generate blindsight through training. Read More

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January 2021

Reading and alexia.

Handb Clin Neurol 2021 ;178:213-232

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Alexia refers to a reading disorder caused by some form of acquired brain pathology, most commonly a stroke or tumor, in a previously literate subject. In neuropsychology, a distinction is made between central alexia (commonly seen in aphasia) and peripheral alexia (a perceptual or attentional deficit). The prototypical peripheral alexia is alexia without agraphia (pure alexia), where patients can write but are impaired in reading words and letters. Read More

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January 2021

Object recognition and visual object agnosia.

Handb Clin Neurol 2021 ;178:155-173

Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The term visual agnosia is used to refer to recognition disorders that are confined to the visual modality, that are not due to an impairment in sensory functions, and that cannot be explained by other cognitive deficits or by general reduction in intellectual ability. Here, we describe the different types of visual agnosia that have been reported (form agnosia, integrative agnosia, associative agnosia, transformational and orientation agnosia as well as category-specific impairments such as pure alexia and prosopagnosia) and how they relate to the current understanding of visual object recognition. Together with related disorders such as simultanagnosia, texture agnosia, aphantasia, and optic aphasia, these visual perceptual impairments can have severe consequences for those affected. Read More

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January 2021

Category-selective deficits are the exception and not the rule: Evidence from a case-series of 64 patients with ventral occipito-temporal cortex damage.

Cortex 2021 May 19;138:266-281. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

The organisational principles of the visual ventral stream are still highly debated, particularly the relative association/dissociation between word and face recognition and the degree of lateralisation of the underlying processes. Reports of dissociations between word and face recognition stem from single case-studies of category selective impairments, and neuroimaging investigations of healthy participants. Despite the historical reliance on single case-studies, more recent group studies have highlighted a greater commonality between word and face recognition. Read More

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Complementary deficits in perceptual classification in pure alexia and acquired prosopagnosia - New insights from two classic cases.

Neuropsychologia 2021 05 5;155:107820. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Institute of Medical Psychology, University of Munich, Germany.

Pure alexia and prosopagnosia traditionally have been seen as prime examples of dissociated, category-specific agnosias affecting reading and face recognition, respectively. More recent accounts have moved towards domain-independent explanations that postulate potential cross-links between different types of visual agnosia. According to one proposal, abnormal crowding, i. Read More

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Alexia without Agraphia as a Manifestation of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome.

Can J Neurol Sci 2020 Nov 13:1-3. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Division of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

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November 2020

Can the right hemisphere read? A behavioral and disconnectome study on implicit reading in a patient with pure alexia.

Neurocase 2020 12 7;26(6):321-327. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Psychology, University of Milan-Bicocca , Milan, Italy.

Patients with pure alexia have major difficulties in reading aloud. However, they often perform above chance level in reading tasks that do not require overt articulation of the target word - like lexical decision or semantic judgment - a phenomenon usually known as "implicit reading." There is no agreement in the literature on whether implicit reading should be attributed to relative sparing of some left hemisphere (LH) reading centers or rather to signs of compensatory endeavors by the right hemisphere (RH). Read More

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December 2020

A Rare Clinical Antity; Pure Gerstmann Syndrome.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Oct 29;29(10):105161. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Neurology and Cerebrovascular Disease, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, 26040, Turkey. Electronic address:

Gerstmann syndrome is defined as a tetrad including agraphia, acalculia, finger agnosia, and right-left disorientation. In the case studies presented in the literature, it has been reported that Gerstmann syndrome usually appears as an incomplete tetrad of symptoms or accompanied by cognitive deficits including aphasia, alexia, apraxia and some perceptual disorders. Here, we present of the patient with left angular and supramarginal gyrus infarction affecting the parietal lobe. Read More

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October 2020

Dorsal type letter-by-letter reading accompanying alexia with agraphia due to a lesion of the lateral occipital gyri.

Neurocase 2020 10 17;26(5):285-292. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Neurology, Mitsui Memorial Hospital , Tokyo, Japan.

We report a patient with alexia with agraphia accompanied by letter-by-letter reading after hemorrhage in the left middle and inferior occipital gyri that spared the angular gyrus and the fusiform gyrus. Kanji (Japanese morphograms) and kana (Japanese phonetic writing) reading and writing tests revealed that alexia with agraphia was characterized by kana-predominant alexia and kanji-predominant agraphia. This type of "dorsal" letter-by-letter reading is discernable from conventional letter-by-letter reading that is observed in pure alexia in that (1) kinesthetic reading is less effective, (2) kana or literal agraphia coexists, and (3) fundamental visual discrimination is nearly normal. Read More

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October 2020

Examining the function of the visual word form area with stereo EEG electrical stimulation: A case report of pure alexia.

Cortex 2020 08 28;129:112-118. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA; Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Functional imaging studies have implicated an area in the left lateral fusiform gyrus, known as the visual word form area (VWFA), in pre-lexical orthographic processing. There are very few studies that have examined the functional specificity of this area in patients with discrete lesions limited to this region. Here we describe a rare opportunity to examine the functional specificity of the VWFA in a patient with stereo EEG (sEEG) electrodes implanted for localization of seizures prior to epilepsy surgery. Read More

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Pure Alexia: A Combined First-Person Account and Neuropsychological Investigation.

Cogn Behav Neurol 2019 12;32(4):268-277

Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Pure alexia is an acquired reading disorder where patients' ability to read words and text is severely impaired, while their writing is left unaffected. Patients with pure alexia typically recover some reading ability over time, although most never regain their premorbid reading skills. A few studies have reported some behavioral and imaging correlates of such remission; however, little is known about the patients' experience of their reading impairment. Read More

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December 2019

Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing on positive blood cultures through an innovative light scattering technology: performances and turnaround time evaluation.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Nov 21;19(1):989. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Microbiology Laboratory, Saint-Luc University Hospital and Catholic University of Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: A bacteremia diagnosis with speeded-up identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is mandatory to adjust empirical broad-spectrum antibiotherapy and avoid the emergence of multi-resistant bacteria. Alfred 60 (Alifax, Polverara, PD, Italy) is an innovative automated system based on light scattering measurements allowing direct AST from positive blood cultures with rapid results. In this study we aimed to evaluate the system's performances and turnaround time (TAT) compared to routine AST. Read More

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November 2019

Alexia without Agraphia-report of Five Cases and Review of Literature.

J Assoc Physicians India 2019 Jul;67(7):78-80

3 Assistant Professor of Neurology, Department of Neurology, Pushpagiri and Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Thiruvalla, Kerala.

Alexia without agraphia (also called pure alexia or word blindness) was the first of the disconnection syndromes to be described. It results from the loss of visual input to the language area without involvement of the language area. The most common cause is occlusion of the left posterior cerebral artery with involvement of left occipital cortex and the splenium of corpus callosum. Read More

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Pure alexia with intact perception of complex visual stimuli: a case study.

Neurocase 2019 10 6;25(5):159-168. Epub 2019 Jul 6.

Department of Human-Neurobiology, University of Bremen , Bremen , Germany.

After a stroke involving the left occipitotemporal cortex our patient shows a word-length effect and has problems to identify letters or numbers in strings of symbols. But he is normal in identifying isolated letters and in non-verbally categorizing even complex images such as faces or natural scenes. His cortical lesion is stretching from the visual word form area (VWFA) anteriorly causing additional problems to name visual stimuli and to match acoustic stimuli with images. Read More

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October 2019

Kanji (Morphogram) and Kana (Phonogram) Problem in Japanese Alexia and Agraphia.

Yasuhisa Sakurai

Front Neurol Neurosci 2019 30;44:53-63. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Department of Neurology, Mitsui Memorial Hospital, Tokyo, Japan,

The kanji and kana (or kanji vs. kana) problem in the Japanese language denotes the dissociation between kanji (morphograms) and kana (phonograms) in reading/comprehension and writing. Since paragraphia of kana in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was first reported in 1893, kanji-kana dissociation has been the central topic in Japanese aphasiology. Read More

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How Does iReadMore Therapy Change the Reading Network of Patients with Central Alexia?

J Neurosci 2019 07 13;39(29):5719-5727. Epub 2019 May 13.

Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neurology.

Central alexia (CA) is an acquired reading disorder co-occurring with a generalized language deficit (aphasia). The roles of perilesional and ipsilesional tissue in recovery from poststroke aphasia are unclear. We investigated the impact of reading training (using iReadMore, a therapy app) on the connections within and between the right and left hemisphere of the reading network of patients with CA. Read More

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Seeing is not believing.

Surv Ophthalmol 2020 May - Jun;65(3):386-390. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Departments of Ophthalmology, Neurology, and Neurosurgery, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

An 84-year-old woman with a history of dry age-related macular degeneration presented with an acute inability to read, but intact writing ability (pure alexia or alexia without agraphia). She denied any difficulty speaking, paresthesias, or hemiparesis. Her visual acuity was 20/20 in each eye. Read More

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Shape-similar errors in Chinese pure alexia.

Neurology 2019 02;92(8):388-389

From the Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

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February 2019

Evaluation of Auditory Functioning and Rehabilitation Using Patient-Reported Outcome Measures.

Trends Hear 2018 Jan-Dec;22:2331216518789022

1 Clinical and Experimental Audiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

There is lack of a systematic approach concerning how to select an adequate hearing aid and how to evaluate its efficacy with respect to the personal needs of rehabilitation. The goal of this study was to examine the applicability and added value of two widely used self-reporting questionnaires in relation to the evaluation of hearing aid fitting. We analyzed responses, pre- and postfitting, from 1,319 subjects who completed the Client Oriented Scale of Improvement (COSI) and a slightly adapted version of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (in Dutch: AVAB). Read More

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When mild pure alexia may not be reducible to hemianopic alexia.

Cogn Neuropsychol 2018 12 21;35(8):479-484. Epub 2018 Jul 21.

d Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience , University College London , London , UK.

Individuals with pure alexia often have visual field defects such as right homonymous hemianopia. Relatively few attempts have been made to develop criteria to differentiate pure alexia from hemianopic alexia. In this Commentary we provide concrete suggestions to distinguish the two disorders. Read More

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December 2018

Visual crowding in pure alexia and acquired prosopagnosia.

Cogn Neuropsychol 2018 10 14;35(7):361-370. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

a Department of Psychology , University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen , Denmark.

Visual crowding is a phenomenon that impairs object recognition when the features of an object are positioned too closely together. Crowding limits recognition in normal peripheral vision and it has been suggested to be the core deficit in visual agnosia, leading to a domain-general deficit in object recognition. Using a recently developed tool, we test whether crowding is the underlying deficit in four patients with category specific agnosias: Two with pure alexia and two with acquired prosopagnosia. Read More

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October 2018

Do all visual deficits cause pure alexia? Dissociations between visual processing and reading suggest "no".

Brain Cogn 2018 08 11;125:69-77. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Klinik für Neurologie, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Medizinische Fakultät, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany; Zentrum für Geriatrie und Gerontologie (ZGG), Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Medizinische Fakultät, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany; Freiburg Brain Imaging, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Medizinische Fakultät, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany; "BrainLinks BrainTools" Exzellenzcluster, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany.

Pure alexia is a deficit of reading affecting the ability to process a word's letters in parallel. Instead, a slow, effortful letter-by-letter reading strategy is employed. It has been claimed that a visual impairment caused the reading impairment. Read More

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Pure alexia: two cases and a new neuroanatomical classification.

J Neurol 2018 Feb 27;265(2):436-438. Epub 2017 Nov 27.

Department of Neurology, 12 de Octubre University Hospital, Avenida de Córdoba S/N, 28041, Madrid, Spain.

Pure alexia without visual or language accompanying deficits (isolated pure alexia), represents an infrequent finding in clinical practice. It has been linked to lesions involving the splenium of the callosal corpus in classical descriptions; however, it has also been reported after occipito-temporal cortex damage in the absence of white matter implication. In this regard, a functional region called the visual word form area has been recently related to the posterior aspect of the occipitotemporal gyrus. Read More

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February 2018

Face perception in pure alexia: Complementary contributions of the left fusiform gyrus to facial identity and facial speech processing.

Cortex 2017 11 4;96:59-72. Epub 2017 Sep 4.

Human Vision and Eye Movement Laboratory, Departments of Medicine (Neurology), Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Electronic address:

Recent concepts of cerebral visual processing predict from overlapping patterns of face and word activation in cortex that left fusiform lesions will not only cause pure alexia but also lead to mild impairments of face processing. Our goal was to determine if alexic subjects had deficits in facial identity processing similar to those seen after right fusiform lesions, or complementary deficits affecting different aspects of face processing. We studied four alexic patients whose lesions involved the left fusiform gyrus and one prosopagnosic subject with a right fusiform lesion, on standard tests of face perception and recognition. Read More

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November 2017

The Visual Agnosias and Related Disorders.

J Neuroophthalmol 2018 09;38(3):379-392

Department of Neurology (SH, CJL), The Canberra Hospital, Canberra, Australia; Departments of Ophthalmology (MV), Neurology, and Neurosurgery, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama; and Australian National University Medical School (CJL), Canberra, Australia.

Background: There are many disorders of higher visual processing that result from damage to specific areas of the cerebral cortex that have a specific role in processing certain aspects (modalities) of vision. These can be grouped into those that affect the ventral, or "what?", pathway (e.g. Read More

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September 2018

Face and Word Recognition Can Be Selectively Affected by Brain Injury or Developmental Disorders.

Front Psychol 2017 6;8:1547. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Department of Psychology, University of CopenhagenCopenhagen, Denmark.

Face and word recognition have traditionally been thought to rely on highly specialised and relatively independent cognitive processes. Some of the strongest evidence for this has come from patients with seemingly category-specific visual perceptual deficits such as pure prosopagnosia, a selective face recognition deficit, and pure alexia, a selective word recognition deficit. Together, the patterns of impaired reading with preserved face recognition and impaired face recognition with preserved reading constitute a double dissociation. Read More

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September 2017