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Macrocalcifications Do Not Alter Malignancy Risk Within the American Thyroid Association Sonographic Pattern System When Present in Non-High Suspicion Thyroid Nodules.

Thyroid 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Endocrinology, 3400 Civic Center Blvd, Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine 4th floor West, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19104;

Background: The American Thyroid Association Sonographic Pattern System (ATASPS) depicts five levels of suspicion for malignancy based on the sonographic appearance of a thyroid nodule (1). However, 3-37% of nodules are non-classifiable (NC) when the combination of grayscale findings is not depicted by the ATASPS (1-5). The only calcifications included in the ATASPS are in solid hypoechoic high suspicion (HS) nodules and include both microcalcifications and peripheral interrupted calcifications (PIC) with soft tissue extrusion. Read More

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Visualization and Analysis of the Dynamic Assembly of a Heterologous Lantibiotic Biosynthesis Complex in Bacillus subtilis.

mBio 2021 Jul 20:e0121921. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningengrid.4830.f, Groningen, the Netherlands.

A membrane-associated lanthipeptide synthetase complex, consisting of the dehydratase NisB, the cyclase NisC, and the ABC transporter NisT, has been described for nisin biosynthesis in the coccoid bacterium Lactococcus lactis. Here, we used advanced fluorescence microscopy to visualize the functional nisin biosynthesis machinery in rod-shaped cells and analyzed its spatial distribution and dynamics employing a platform we developed for heterologous production of nisin in Bacillus subtilis. We observed that NisT, as well as NisB and NisC, were all distributed in a punctate pattern along the cell periphery, opposed to the situation in coccoid cells. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 Host Receptor ACE2 Protein Expression Atlas in Human Gastrointestinal Tract.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 11;9:659809. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects host cells through interactions with its receptor, Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), causing severe acute respiratory syndrome and death in a considerable proportion of people. Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 experience digestive symptoms. However, the precise protein expression atlas of ACE2 in the gastrointestinal tract remains unclear. Read More

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Correlation between sonographic features and pathological findings of cervical lymph node metastasis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

Gland Surg 2021 May;10(5):1736-1743

Department of Ultrasound, the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the sonographic features and pathological findings of cervical lymph node metastasis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).

Methods: A total of 49 patients who had thyroid surgery and lateral or central cervical lymph node dissection from October to December 2019 in our hospital were selected. All the lymph nodes included in the dissection were examined by intraoperative ultrasound and were divided into 5 groups according to the sonographic characteristics (A: overall hyperechoic group; B: hypoechoic with punctate hyperechoic group; C: mass hyperechoic group; D: cystic degeneration group; E: hypoechoic group without punctate hyperecho). Read More

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First report of Meloidogyne arenaria infecting Maidong (Ophiopogon japonicus) in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Southwest Foresttry UniversityKunming, Yunnan, China, 650224;

Maidong (Ophiopogon japonicus) is a perennial evergreen plant of the Asparagaceae, occurring mainly in China, Japan, Vietnam, and India. It grows in the damp place on the hillside below 2000 meters above sea level, under the forest or beside the stream;It has been widely cultivated in the Sichuan ofhina for medicinal uses; and it is included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. During April 2019, Maidong plants exhibiting symptoms of stunting, leaf wilting, and multiple galls in the roots associated with root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne sp. Read More

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Super resolution microscopy reveals DHA-dependent alterations in glioblastoma membrane remodelling and cell migration.

Nanoscale 2021 Jun;13(21):9706-9722

Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Department of Oncology, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Brain fatty acid binding protein (FABP7; B-FABP) promotes glioblastoma (GBM) cell migration and is associated with tumor infiltration, properties associated with a poor prognosis in GBM patients. FABP7-expressing neural stem-like cells are known to drive tumor migration/infiltration and resistance to treatment. We have previously shown that FABP7's effects on cell migration can be reversed when GBM cells are cultured in medium supplemented with the omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Read More

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Motilin Receptor Expression Found in the Human Main and Accessory Lacrimal Glands.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2021 May 11:1-6. Epub 2021 May 11.

Save Sight Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

: In this study, we investigated the presence of motilin receptors (MR) in adnexal tissue including the human main lacrimal gland.: 17 adnexal human specimens comprising of 11 isolated human main lacrimal gland specimens, four full-thickness human eyelid excisions and two exenterations containing full-thickness eyelid and portions of the main lacrimal gland were immunolabelled with a rabbit polyclonal human MR antibody.: Our results demonstrated that all main lacrimal gland specimens (13/13, 100%) were positive for MR expression with a predominance (10/13 (77%) of grade 1+ punctate distribution. Read More

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Adipophilin expression in skin lesions with clear cell histology.

J Clin Pathol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China

Aims: Clear cells formed due to depositions of glycogen or lipids in the cytoplasm commonly occur in various tissues. Adipophilin (ADP), a lipid regulatory protein, is closely related to lipid droplets. This study aims to examine adipophilin expression in clear cells of various skin lesions. Read More

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Increased Abundance of Nuclear HDAC4 Impairs Neuronal Development and Long-Term Memory.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 30;14:616642. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Biomedical Science Group, School of Fundamental Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Dysregulation of the histone deacetylase HDAC4 is associated with both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders, and a feature common to many of these disorders is impaired cognitive function. HDAC4 shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm in both vertebrates and invertebrates and alterations in the amounts of nuclear and/or cytoplasmic HDAC4 have been implicated in these diseases. In , HDAC4 also plays a critical role in the regulation of memory, however, the mechanisms through which it acts are unknown. Read More

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Low-Dose Interleukin-2 and Regulatory T Cell Treatments Attenuate Punctate and Dynamic Mechanical Allodynia in a Mouse Model of Sciatic Nerve Injury.

J Pain Res 2021 6;14:893-906. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Purpose: Nerve injury-induced mechanical hyper-sensitivity, in particular stroking-induced dynamic allodynia, is highly debilitating and difficult to treat. Previous studies indicate that the immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg) cells modulate the magnitude of punctate mechanical allodynia resulting from sciatic nerve injury. However, whether enhancing Treg-mediated suppression attenuates dynamic allodynia is not known. Read More

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The RAP study, report 3: Discoloration of the macular region in patients with macular neovascularization type 3.

Acta Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Vienna Reading Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background/aims: To explore whether the existence and pattern of distribution of macular haemorrhage or exudate can be valuable diagnostic markers for macular neovascularization type 3 (MNV3) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

Methods: Eighty-three eyes of 83 consecutive treatment naïve patients with stage 3 MNV3 were enrolled. The diagnosis was based on fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Read More

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Thoracic Multidetector Computed Tomography Evaluation of Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Lung in Pediatric Patients in the Era of Modern Diagnosis.

J Thorac Imaging 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Departments of Radiology Pathology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Department of Pediatric Radiology, Clinical Radiology Institute, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia Department of Radiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristic thoracic multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings of pathologically proven inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the lung in children in the era of modern understanding based on refined pathologic diagnosis.

Materials And Methods: All pediatric patients (age 18 y and above) with a known pathologic diagnosis of IMT of the lung who underwent thoracic MDCT studies from May 2008 to December 2020 were included. Two pediatric radiologists independently evaluated thoracic MDCT studies for the presence of abnormalities in the lung (nodule, mass, cyst, ground-glass opacity, consolidation), pleura (pleural effusion, pneumothorax), and mediastinum and hilum (lymphadenopathy). Read More

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Molecular and morphological comparison of larvae and juveniles of five species of callionymids, with ontogenetic evidence on the monophyly of Repomucenus (Callionymidae).

J Fish Biol 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Marine Biology, Pukyong National University, Busan, Korea.

Dragonet fishes (Callionymidae) are benthic inhabitants of shallow waters, even in tidal pools, down to depths below 900 m in all subtropical, tropical and temperate oceans. The family comprises 200 species in 20 genera worldwide, of which 18 species in 6 genera occur in Korea. Classification within the family Callionymidae has been controversial because of the differing proposals of Fricke and Nakabo (Fishes of Japan with pictorial keys to the species, 1983). Read More

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Conspicuousness, phylogenetic structure, and origins of Müllerian mimicry in 4000 lycid beetles from all zoogeographic regions.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 16;11(1):5961. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Laboratory of Diversity and Molecular Evolution, CATRIN-CRH, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 50, 771 46, Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Biologists have reported on the chemical defences and the phenetic similarity of net-winged beetles (Coleoptera: Lycidae) and their co-mimics. Nevertheless, our knowledge has remained fragmental, and the evolution of mimetic patterns has not been studied in the phylogenetic context. We illustrate the general appearance of ~ 600 lycid species and ~ 200 co-mimics and their distribution. Read More

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Machine learning-based classification of mitochondrial morphology in primary neurons and brain.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 4;11(1):5133. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

The mitochondrial network continually undergoes events of fission and fusion. Under physiologic conditions, the network is in equilibrium and is characterized by the presence of both elongated and punctate mitochondria. However, this balanced, homeostatic mitochondrial profile can change morphologic distribution in response to various stressors. Read More

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AMPK-mTOR-ULK1-mediated autophagy protects carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatic failure by inhibiting p21 in rats.

J Toxicol Pathol 2021 Jan 5;34(1):73-82. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

State Key Laboratory Cell Differentiation and Regulation, Henan Normal University, #46 East of Construction Road, Xinxiang, 453007 Henan, China.

Autophagy is a lysosomal-dependent degradation pathway in eukaryotic cells. Recent studies have reported that autophagy can facilitate the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and fibrogenesis of the liver during long-term carbon tetrachloride (CCl) exposure. However, little is known about the role of autophagy in CCl-induced acute hepatic failure (AHF). Read More

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January 2021

Mediterranean spotted fever associated with leucocytoclastic vasculitis and acute pancraeatitis.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Feb 23;14(2). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Laniado Hospital, Sanz Medical Centre, Netanya, Israel.

A young healthy gardener became febrile with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea followed by palpable purpura, mostly on the legs and buttocks with associated arthralgia. Dehydration, azotemia and hyponatraemia resolved with fluid replacement. Tests demonstrated acute pancreatitis, hepatitis, thrombocytopenia, microscopic haematuria and proteinuria. Read More

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February 2021

The cytoskeleton influences the formation and distribution of eisosomes in Neurospora crassa.

Qin Yang

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 03 2;545:62-68. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Botanical Genetics and Molecular Biology Botanical Institute and Botanic Gardens Olshausenstr 40 24098 Kiel Germany; Department of Marine Ecology Ocean University of China Yushan Road 5 266000 Qingdao China. Electronic address:

Eisosomes are stable protein complexes at the plasma membrane, with punctate distributional patterns. Their formation and how their locations are determined remain unclear. The current study discovered that the formation and distribution of eisosomes are influenced by the cytoskeleton. Read More

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Susceptibility-weighted imaging reveals cerebral microvascular injury in severe COVID-19.

J Neurol Sci 2021 02 15;421:117308. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States of America; Center for Neurotechnology and Neurorecovery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States of America; Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America. Electronic address:

We evaluated the incidence, distribution, and histopathologic correlates of microvascular brain lesions in patients with severe COVID-19. Sixteen consecutive patients admitted to the intensive care unit with severe COVID-19 undergoing brain MRI for evaluation of coma or neurologic deficits were retrospectively identified. Eleven patients had punctate susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) lesions in the subcortical and deep white matter, eight patients had >10 SWI lesions, and four patients had lesions involving the corpus callosum. Read More

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February 2021

Potentiation of B2 receptor signaling by AltB2R, a newly identified alternative protein encoded in the human bradykinin B2 receptor gene.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jan-Jun;296:100329. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Pharmacology & Physiology, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada; Institute of Pharmacology, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Recent functional and proteomic studies in eukaryotes (www.openprot.org) predict the translation of alternative open reading frames (AltORFs) in mature G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) mRNAs, including that of bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R). Read More

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January 2021

Inhibition of extracellular matrix integrity attenuates the early phase of aortic medial calcification in a rodent model.

Atherosclerosis 2021 02 21;319:10-20. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Pathology, Division of Experimental Pathology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.

Background And Aims: The mechanism of vascular calcification (VC) resembles that of bone metabolism, and a correlation has frequently been reported between calcification and vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) regulating its integrity; however, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we examined how the vascular ECM, especially collagen metabolism, is involved in the process of VC.

Methods: VC was modeled using 5-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a diet containing warfarin and vitamin K1 (WVK). Read More

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February 2021

Adhesion G protein-coupled receptor, ELTD1, is a potential therapeutic target for retinoblastoma migration and invasion.

BMC Cancer 2021 Jan 11;21(1):53. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Institute of Neurobiology, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Background: Prognosis for pediatric metastatic Retinoblastoma (Rb) is poor and current therapies are limited by high systemic toxicity rates and insufficient therapeutic efficacy for metastatic Rb. Tumor dissemination to the brain is promoted by the heterogeneous adhesive and invasive properties of Rb cells within the tumor. In this study we evaluate, for the first time, the expression, and roles of the ELTD1 and GPR125 adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in Rb cell migration, viability and invasion. Read More

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January 2021

Intellectual disability-associated gain-of-function mutations in CERT1 that encodes the ceramide transport protein CERT.

PLoS One 2020 21;15(12):e0243980. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.

Intellectual disability (ID) is a developmental disorder that includes both intellectual and adaptive functioning deficits in conceptual, social, and practical domains. Although evidence-based interventions for patients have long been desired, their progress has been hindered due to various determinants. One of these determinants is the complexity of the origins of ID. Read More

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February 2021

Actin filaments mediated root growth inhibition by changing their distribution under UV-B and hydrogen peroxide exposure in Arabidopsis.

Biol Res 2020 Nov 23;53(1):54. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Higher Education Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular and Environmental Stress Response, Shanxi Normal University in Shanxi Province, Linfen, 041000, Shanxi, China.

Background: UV-B signaling in plants is mediated by UVR8, which interacts with transcriptional factors to induce root morphogenesis. However, research on the downstream molecules of UVR8 signaling in roots is still scarce. As a wide range of functional cytoskeletons, how actin filaments respond to UV-B-induced root morphogenesis has not been reported. Read More

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November 2020

Differential expression of system L amino acid transporter subtypes in rat placenta and yolk sac.

Placenta 2021 01 29;103:188-198. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Division of Evolution and Genomic Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK. Electronic address:

Introduction: Amino acid transport across the placenta is crucial for fetal growth. In rodent models, the visceral yolk sac (referred to as yolk sac hereafter) is also likely to contribute to fetal amino acid provision. System L amino acid transporters mediate the transport of essential amino acids. Read More

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January 2021

Maize metacaspases modulate the defense response mediated by the NLR protein Rp1-D21 likely by affecting its subcellular localization.

Plant J 2021 01 20;105(1):151-166. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

The Key Laboratory of Plant Development and Environmental Adaptation Biology, Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong, 266237, PR China.

Plants usually employ resistance (R) genes to defend against the infection of pathogens, and most R genes encode intracellular nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins. The recognition between R proteins and their cognate pathogens often triggers a rapid localized cell death at the pathogen infection sites, termed the hypersensitive response (HR). Metacaspases (MCs) belong to a cysteine protease family, structurally related to metazoan caspases. Read More

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January 2021

What and why: the current situation and future prospects of "ivy sign" in moyamoya disease.

Ther Adv Chronic Dis 2020 10;11:2040622320960004. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Donghu Road 169, Wuhan, 430071, China.

"Ivy sign" is a special imaging manifestation of moyamoya disease (MMD), which shows continuous linear or punctate high intensity along the cortical sulci and subarachnoid space on magnetic resonance images. Ivy sign was reported to reflect the development of compensatory collaterals, and to be closely related to hemodynamic changes and clinical symptoms, and to indicate the postoperative prognosis, in MMD patients. It is a unique and critical marker for MMD. Read More

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October 2020

Phylogenomics of the Epigenetic Toolkit Reveals Punctate Retention of Genes across Eukaryotes.

Genome Biol Evol 2020 12;12(12):2196-2210

Department of Biological Sciences, Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts.

Epigenetic processes in eukaryotes play important roles through regulation of gene expression, chromatin structure, and genome rearrangements. The roles of chromatin modification (e.g. Read More

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December 2020

Vascular α1A Adrenergic Receptors as a Potential Therapeutic Target for IPAD in Alzheimer's Disease.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2020 Sep 22;13(9). Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK.

Drainage of interstitial fluid from the brain occurs via the intramural periarterial drainage (IPAD) pathways along the basement membranes of cerebral capillaries and arteries against the direction of blood flow into the brain. The cerebrovascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) provide the motive force for driving IPAD, and their decrease in function may explain the deposition of amyloid-beta as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), a key feature of Alzheimer's disease. The α-adrenoceptor subtype α is abundant in the brain, but its distribution in the cerebral vessels is unclear. Read More

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September 2020